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1.
J Sch Psychol ; 93: 138-153, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934448

RESUMO

Developmental theorists emphasize the existence of reciprocal influences between children's peer experiences and their early classroom behavioral engagement. For school practitioners who must identify relevant intervention targets to design educational activities, estimating precisely how aspects of peer experiences and behavioral engagement jointly unfold over time is of key interest. In addition, it is important to differentiate between intraindividual and interindividual effects. Nevertheless, evidence of these reciprocal links or intra- and interindividual effects during the early stages of schooling is scarce. This study (N = 638 children) used a Latent Curve Model with Structured Residuals (LCM-SR) to disentangle interindividual differences (stable trait-like) from intraindividual changes (dynamic state-like) in the associations between peer experiences (social acceptance and friendship involvement) and children's classroom behavioral engagement from the beginning of kindergarten through Grade 2. Results indicated that the links between children's peer experiences and their behavioral engagement reflect their steady tendency to be well adjusted in the classroom as well as with peers, rather than highlighting reciprocal associations between these factors over time. However, results also underscored that children who showed high engagement tended to be concurrently more accepted by peers in the same school year in Grade 1 or Grade 2, beyond stable aspects of engagement and social acceptance. These findings support the need to develop educational practices to improve social acceptance as a way to foster behavioral engagement. They also indicate that behavioral engagement should be considered a concrete intervention target for school practitioners seeking to improve children's social acceptance during the school year.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Amigos , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 7115412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936832

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the actual functions of the labor education and occupational therapy phase through an in-depth study of labor education and occupational therapy for college students and explores the strategies of organic integration of labor education and occupational therapy for college students. This paper carries out a holistic theoretical construction of labor education in schools and systematically analyzes the components of labor education objectives in colleges and universities, labor education contents in schools, labor education implementation in schools, and labor education evaluation in schools. The main goal of labor education in colleges and universities is to guide students in establishing a scientific concept of labor and constructing a labor education resource system. It focuses on strengthening the construction and improvement of the labor education theoretical system, promoting the construction of labor education disciplines and professional courses, and attaching importance to the training of labor education teachers in the new era to contribute to the perfection of labor education. The system of labor education practice should be innovated. Of course, the labor practice activities based on institutionalization should be implemented. The cycle of labor activities based on the principle of continuity should be strengthened, and the effectiveness of labor education should be improved totally from explicit and implicit instructions. The core of occupational therapy is to help college students adapt to social work, give full play to their self-worth, obtain economic resources, and improve self-confidence. The organic integration of labor education and occupational therapy shows that it can help students ease their social adaptability and adapt to social functions, improve the reemployment rate, and improve students' overall health. Therefore, the practical research on labor education and occupational therapy should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Escolaridade , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Universidades
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1497, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of unsafe abortions significantly varies with geography; therefore, more research is needed to understand the rural-urban differences in unsafe abortion practices in India. The present study aims to explore the rural-urban differences in predisposing, enabling, and need factors of unsafe abortion in India. METHODS: The present study used the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (2015-16) and included the women aged 15-49 who terminated pregnancies by induced abortion during the 5 years prior to the survey (N = 9113) as the study sample. Descriptive statistics, bivariate chi-square significance test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to accomplish the study objectives. RESULTS: The findings revealed that almost one-third of pregnancies were terminated through unsafe measures with sharp rural-urban contrast. The likelihood of unsafe abortions increases with decreasing women's age and spousal level of education. Younger women in urban settings were more vulnerable to unsafe abortion practices. In rural settings, women with an uneducated spouse are more likely to have unsafe abortions (OR: 1.92). Poor households were more likely to undergo unsafe abortions, which were more common in rural settings (OR: 1.26). The unmet need for family planning was revealed to be a significant need factor for unsafe abortion, particularly in rural settings. CONCLUSION: Although abortion is legal, India's high estimated frequency of unsafe abortions reveals a serious public health issue. Due to socio-economic vulnerability, unmet family planning needs, and a lack of awareness, significant numbers of women still practice unsafe abortions in India.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Escolaridade , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , População Rural
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1496, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) was significantly associated with cognition and mental health in children and adolescent. However, there were few studies examining the associations of PA with academic achievement (AA) and academic burden (AB) by gender and school grade. Hence, this study aimed to 1) investigate the associations of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) with AA and AB in Chinese children and adolescents, and 2) assess whether these associations vary by gender and school grade. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design (at four different regions in Southern east China), 2653 children and adolescents (8-19 years old, 51.2% girls) were included. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on study participants' gender, school grade, family social economic status (SES), parental education level, MVPA, AA and AB. Binary logistic regression was applied to examine the associations of MVPA with AA (groups: above-average AA, average and below-average AA) and AB (groups: reporting AB, reporting no AB) with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After testing gender*grade interaction, those associations were explored by gender and school grade separately. RESULTS: In the overall sample, compared with children and adolescents who did not meet the PA guidelines (at least 60 min MVPA daily), children and adolescents who met the PA guidelines were more likely to have above-average (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21-2.11) AA, and report no AB (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13-2.30). In both genders, meeting the PA guidelines was positively associated with above-average AA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.03 for boys; OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.43-3.44 for girls). However, the significant relationship between meeting the PA guidelines and AB was observed only in girls (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17-3.39). Meeting the PA guidelines was positively associated with above-average AA (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.18-2.40), and reporting no AB (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08-2.91) only in middle school students. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that sufficient PA may be a contributary factor of improved AA and lower level of AB in Chinese children and adolescents. However, associations of PA with AA and AB may be different across gender or school grade. Promoting PA among girls or middle school students may be a good approach to improve AA and reduce AB.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 172, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developing countries, including Ethiopia the risk of neonatal death can be easily prevented and avoided by implementing essential newborn care with simple, low cost, and a short period time immediately after delivery. However, the problem is still persisting due to lack of adequate maternal and newborn care practice. Hence, this review aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of women's knowledge and practice of essential newborn care and its associated factors in Ethiopia using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: An intensive literature search was performed from PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, HINARI, Scopus, and Web of Sciences from April 1-30, 2021. Data were extracted by using a pre-tested and standardized data extraction format. The data were analyzed by using STATA 14 statistical software. I2 tests assessed heterogeneity across the included studies. A random-effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of knowledge and practice of essential newborn care. RESULTS: From 1275 identified studies, 25 articles were included. The national pooled prevalence of essential newborn care knowledge and practice among women was 55.05% and 41.49% respectively. Secondary education (AOR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.62, 4.66), multiparity (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.41, 3.26), antenatal care (AOR = 2.94; 95% CI 2.03, 4.26), and postnatal follow-up (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.20, 2.23) were significantly associated with knowledge level whereas; primary education (AOR = 7.08, 95% CI 4.79, 10.47), urban residency (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.65, 3.00), attending monthly meetings (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.64, 2.62), antenatal care (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.97, 4.26), advised during delivery (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.80, 3.59), postnatal follow-up (AOR = 7.08, 95% CI 4.79, 10.47) and knowledge (AOR = 2.93; 95% CI 1.81, 4.75) were statistically significant with essential newborn practice. CONCLUSIONS: The current systematic review and meta-analysis findings reported that the level of knowledge and practice of essential newborn care among Ethiopian women was low. Therefore, improvement of essential newborn through the provision of community-based awareness creation forum, improving antenatal and postnatal care follow up, education on essential newborn care to all pregnant and postnatal women are very important. Trial registration Prospero registration: CRD 42021251521.


Essential newborn care (ENC) is a single most cost-effective intervention to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity both in developed and developing countries. An intensive electronic search from PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, HINAR, Scopus, and Web of Sciences were performed to identify the primary studies. In this meta-analysis a total of 25 articles were included to estimate the polled prevalence of ENC knowledge and practice among Ethiopian women. Accordingly, the national pooled prevalence of ENC knowledge and practice among women was 55.05% and 41.49% respectively. In the current systematic review and meta-analysis, Secondary education, multiparity, antenatal care, and postnatal follow-up were significantly associated with knowledge level whereas; primary education, urban residency, attending monthly meetings, antenatal care, advised during delivery, postnatal follow-up and knowledge on ENC were found to be statistically significant with essential newborn practice. As per finding the knowledge and practice regarding essential newborn care among women in Ethiopian was significantly low. Hence, improvement of essential newborn through the provision of community-based awareness creation forum, improving antenatal and postnatal care follow up, education on essential newborn care to all pregnant and postnatal women are very important.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271647, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Smoking is one of the most important causes of socioeconomic disparities in morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine if beliefs about harms of smoking differed across gender, smoking status and education among Norwegian adults born between 1899 and 1969. METHODS: Using data from a nationally representative survey of smoking habits and a multinomial logit/negative binomial two-stage hurdle model design, we examined (first hurdle) the associations between birth cohort, gender, education and smoking status and four beliefs about cigarette smoking: i) smoking is not harmful, ii) do not know if smoking is harmful, iii) any number of cigarettes per day (CPD) is harmful and iv) smoking more than a given nonzero number of CPD is harmful, and (second hurdle) the predicted number of CPD that could be smoked without causing harm (from outcome iv). RESULTS: The probability of believing that smoking was not harmful was close to zero, regardless of birth cohort, sex, education and smoking status. The probability of not knowing if smoking was harmful decreased from around 0.7 to almost zero across cohorts. The probability of believing that smoking more than zero CPD was harmful increased from less than 0.1 to around 0.7, while the probability of believing that there is some safe level of smoking increased with cohorts born from 1900 to 1930 before declining. Respondents with primary/secondary education consistently believed smoking to be less harmful compared to respondents with tertiary education, but cohort trajectories were similar. DISCUSSION: The similar birth cohort trajectories in beliefs about the harms of smoking do not support the idea that Norwegian adults with lower education has had qualitatively different beliefs about the harmfulness of smoking compared to those with higher education. The persistent and large socioeconomic gradient is likely a result of other factors.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Escolaridade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 919335, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910885

RESUMO

Introduction: Italy has one of the lowest homicide rates in Europe. However, while it is decreasing overall, the proportion of murdered women is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with homicide mortality in Italy, focusing specifically on male and female differences. Methods: Using a longitudinal design, the Italian 2011 General Census population was followed up to 2018. Deaths from homicide were retrieved by a record linkage with the Causes of Death Register. Age-standardized mortality rates, stratified by sex, citizenship, education, and geographic area of residence were calculated. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and homicide mortality was evaluated using quasi-Poisson regression models. Results: Between 2012 and 2018, 1,940 homicides were recorded in Italy: 53% were females over age 55, 10% were immigrant females, 34% were males aged 40-54 years, 76% had a medium-low education level, and 57% lived in the South and Islands. Foreign citizenship increased a female's risk of dying from homicide (adjusted rate ratio (RRadj): 1.85; 95% CI: 1.54-2.23), while no differences between Italian and immigrant males were found. An inverse association between education and mortality was observed for both sexes, stronger for males (RRadj: 3.68; 95% CI: 3.10-4.36, low vs. high) than for females (RRadj: 1.38; 95%CI: 1.17-1.62, low vs. high). Moreover, a male residing in the South or the Islands had almost 2.5 times the risk of dying from homicide than a resident in the North-West. Finally, old age (over 75) increased a female's risk of being murdered, whereas the highest risk for males was observed for those aged 25-54 years. Conclusions: Male and female differences in homicide mortality profiles by age were expected, but the results by residence, citizenship, and education highlight that living in disadvantaged socioeconomic contexts increases the risk of dying from homicide, suggesting the need to implement specific prevention and intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
8.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(spe1): e2021382, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare health care indicators for adults with medical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Brazil, in 2013 and 2019, and analyze the indicators for 2019 according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2013 and 2019 National Health Survey. Care indicators were evaluated in people with medical diagnosis of DM. RESULTS: DM prevalence increased from 6.2% (2013) to 7.7% (2019). Between 2013 and 2019, there was an increase in the use of medications (from 80.2% to 88.8%) and of medical care (from 73.2% to 79.1%), a reduction in the use of Popular Pharmacy Program medications (from 57.4% to 51.5%) and in follow-up with the same physician (from 65.2% to 59.4%). In 2019, poorer indicators were observed for individuals who were male, younger, Black and Brown, and with lower education and income. CONCLUSION: Most indicators remained similar in the last five years, with differences according to sociodemographic characteristics in 2019.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Braz Oral Res ; 36: e111, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946739

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify dental caries-protective factors among 5-year-old children using the salutogenic theory. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a small-sized municipality in the Southeast region of Brazil, with a representative sample of 247 children registered in preschool and their respective mothers. The data were collected through questionnaires administered to the mothers about the socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological aspects of the mother and children. Additionally, the collections included validated instruments concerning psychosocial aspects, such as a sense of coherence, resilience, family cohesion and religiosity, and intraoral examinations of the children through the decayed-missing-filled primary teeth (dmft) index. All examinations were performed by a trained and calibrated examiner. The non-adjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their respective confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multiple logistic regression with a hierarchical model. Among the examined children, 41.7% were caries-free. In the final model, the chances of the absence of dental caries experience (dmft = 0) were greater in children with mothers who had higher education levels (> 8 years of study) (OR = 2.55 [95%CIi:1.42-4.59]) and those who lived in an environment of high family cohesion (OR = 3.66 [95%CI: 1.19-11.29]). The results indicated that mothers' level of education and family relationships are protective factors against dental caries in 5-year-old children, which overlapped with behavioral and biological factors.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Senso de Coerência , Perda de Dente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Mães
10.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 20(1): 1-11, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence is a key global concern due to the high prevalence and increased socio-economic burden for survivors. However, estimation of the prevalence of gender-based violence is difficult due to differences in study design and underreporting of abuse, especially in developing nations. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of Gender-based violence among women living in the SAARC region. METHODS: The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020219577). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed throughout the review. A thorough database search was conducted to identify studies done in the SAARC region. Title and abstract screening were done in Covidence, followed by a full-text review. Data were extracted and pooled for analysis using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subgroup analysis was done where possible. RESULTS: A total of 76 studies were included in the systematic review and metaanalysis. The community prevalence of domestic violence (DV) was 43.8% (95% CI, 35.1% - 52.9%), GBV prevalence was 34.9% (95% CI, 30.2% - 39.9%) and IPV prevalence was 39.8% (95% CI, 30.7% - 49.6%). GBV prevalence was highest in illiterate women [54.2% (95% CI, 46.8% - 61.5%)] and lowest among women with higher than secondary level education [23.1% (95% CI, 16.2% - 32.0%)]. The prevalence of GBV among women in pregnancy or postpartum period was 32.3% (95% CI, 25.1% - 40.4%, I2: 98.64), while among female sexual workers, the prevalence of Gender-based violence was 42.1% (95% CI, 28.1% - 57.5%, I2: 99.25). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of Gender-based violence in the SAARC region. Higher socioeconomic status and educational status are protective factors for Gender-based violence. However, more studies using validated tools are needed to understand the true extent of the problem.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Violência de Gênero , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal , Gravidez , Prevalência
11.
J Sch Psychol ; 93: 28-40, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934449

RESUMO

Children with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are at an increased risk for neurocognitive and behavioral disorders that may interfere with academic success, including early developmental delays, learning disabilities, executive function problems, and social communication deficits. The present national survey aimed to update and extend our understanding of school supports and educational outcomes for students with these increasingly common genetic diagnoses. Parents of children with a diagnosed SCA, birth to 21 years, living in the United States (N = 248), responded to an electronic survey with questions focused on school support plans, academic accommodations, educational therapies, school completion, and perceptions of educator awareness of SCAs. Results revealed high rates of delayed kindergarten, grade retention in primary years, and educational support plans (IEPs = 71%; Section 504 Plans = 26%). A majority (73%) of respondents with children over age 18 years (N = 41) reported their children successfully completed high school, and nearly half (46%) pursued post-secondary education opportunities. Many parents reported their children's educators had little to no knowledge of SCA conditions, justifying a need to train teachers and policy makers in the unique educational needs of children and adolescents with SCAs. School psychologists should be aware of the frequent need for accommodations and individualized support plans in this population so they can support children and families by advocating for early and comprehensive evaluations and intervention plans.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Sexuais , Estudantes , Adolescente , Aneuploidia , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
Laeknabladid ; 108(7-08): 346-355, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Educational attainment is related to improved health and longevity. We investigated the relationship between educational attainment and cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and incidence of coronary artery disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Reykjavik REFINE study is a population-based study recruiting 6616 subjects, 25-69 years of age from the greater Reykjavik area in 2005-2011. Baseline measurements of cardiovascular risk factors were performed, and all participants had a carotid ultrasound examination to detect subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. Clinical follow-up of cardiovascular disease during a ten-year period was performed. Educational attainment was related to clinical outcome measures. RESULTS: The study population comprised of 3251 men and 3365 women. The proportion of the study population with primary school education only was 20.1%, 31.2% had vocational training, 12.3% had high school education and 36.4% were university graduates. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were generally higher among subjects with primary school education only. Compared to subjects with university education, the odds ratio of having severe atherosclerotic plaque was 1.84 (95% CI 1.40-2.43) among those with primary school education only and 1.49 (95% CI 1.16-1.91) among subjects with vocational training. The subjects with high school or university education were less likely to develop significant cardiovascular disease during the 10-year follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Primary school and vocational training compared to university education are associated with risk factors of atherosclerotic disease, subclinical carotid plaque, and incidence of cardiovascular disease. The reason for this disparity remains to be clarified but socioeconomic inequality related to less educational attainment might be involved.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Placa Aterosclerótica , Pneumotórax , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Indian J Dent Res ; 33(1): 105-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946255

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of life course factors on dental fear among adult dental patients attending out-reach clinics in a rural area of South India. The objectives were to measure dental fear and changes in socio-economic status during the life course among the study population and to know whether social mobility reduced/increased dental fear. Methods: Dental fear scale and life course data were collected from 403 respondents. The improvement status of individual life course criteria was categorised into "less/minimal", "stable", or "upwardly mobile". Results: The odds of dental fear in the group showing less or minimal upward social mobility was two times that of the stable group [p = 0.022; 95% confidence interval (C.I): 1.104-3.598], whereas the odds of dental fear in the group showing more or good upward social mobility were 4.5 times that of the stable group [p = 0.001; 95% C.I: 1.928-10.515] when adjusted for covariates, that is, participant age, gender, and education and past history of dental avoidance. Conclusion: Social mobility was found to be a risk indicator for dental fear. Dental services may have been affected even with increased standards of living because of psychological factors such as dental fear.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Índia , Classe Social
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(8): e00266221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946616

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the non-additivity effects of gender, race, and schooling on ideal cardiovascular health among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil, conducted from 2008 to 2010. The American Heart Association defined a score of ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) as the sum of indicators for the presence of seven favorable health factors and behaviors: non-smoking, ideal body mass index, physical activity and healthy diet, adequate levels of total cholesterol, normal blood pressure, and absence of diabetes mellitus. Multiplicative and additive interactions between gender, race, and schooling were assessed using the Poisson regression model to discuss intersectionality. The mean cardiovascular health score was 2.49 (SD = 1.31). This study showed a positive interaction between gender and schooling (women with high school and higher education) in both additive and multiplicative scales for the score of ideal cardiovascular health. We observed a trend towards higher mean values of cardiovascular health for increased schooling, with a marked difference among women. The lowest cardiovascular health scores observed reinforce the importance of understanding the psychosocial experiences that influence health attitudes, access to health care, and healthy lifestyle choices, which affect ICH, to reduce inequities in health and propose more adequate public policies that assist and prevent cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270990, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917333

RESUMO

Different methodologies rely on names, by assuming that people clearly and solely perceive signals of ethnic-national origin from names. This study examines the perception of names from an intersectional perspective in a West-European context. Firstly, we analyze whether people perceive signals of ethnic-national origin in names. Secondly, we test the excludability assumption by analyzing whether names signal also other factors. Thirdly, we distinguish between homogenous and mixed names. For these purposes, we collected data on the perception of 180 names in Belgium of Belgian, Moroccan, Turkish, Polish and Congolese origin. It appears that respondents distinguish Belgian from non-Belgian names rather than perceiving a specific ethnic-national origin. Besides, people perceive signals about a person's gender, religiosity, social class and educational level. This implies that scholars should be precautious with comparing discrimination against ethnic groups, if ethnic-national origin is only signaled through names. Moreover, the question arises as to what we are measuring exactly, since names contain complex signals.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Nomes , Escolaridade , Humanos , Percepção , Classe Social
16.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 13(3): 352-379, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920642

RESUMO

We use longitudinal register data from Sweden to study patterns and dynamics in lifetime income trajectories. We examine divergences in these income trajectories by local economic conditions at labour market entry, in combination with other factors such as gender, education level and socio-economic background. We cannot assume that these relationships are constant over the course of individuals' working lives. Therefore, we use methods from functional data analysis, allowing for a time-varying relationship between income and the explanatory variables. Our results show a large degree of heterogeneity in how lifetime income trajectories develop for different subgroups. We find that, for men, entering the labour market in an urban area is associated with higher cumulative lifetime income, especially later in life. The exception is men with only primary education, for whom those starting their working lives in a large city have lower incomes on average. This divergence increases in size over time. Women who enter into a large urban labour market receive higher lifetime income at all education levels. This relationship is strongest for women with primary education but decreases in strength over time for these women.


Assuntos
Renda , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7134981, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910750

RESUMO

Good health and quality education are two important goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). More and more people pay attention to physical and mental health in a pandemic age. Previous studies have paid more attention to the relationship between socioeconomic status and health, and also scholars at home and abroad have not reached a consistent conclusion on how education affects health. In this study, we try to explore the relationship between education and health from the sustainable development perspective and its internal influence mechanism through the data of China General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2015 and 2017, according to Grossman's health demand model. The results indicated that from the junior high school education, physical health improved with the increase of the education level, but this effect was gradually weakened. The relationship between education and mental health is not a simple linear relationship but an inverted U-shaped change. After 16 years of education, mental health gradually decreases. Compared with women and rural population, men and urban population have better health. Education leads to labor market segmentation, which makes people with different education levels in different social structure positions, resulting in differentiation of lifestyles, psychology, and social interaction, and this ultimately leads to health inequality. Education indirectly improves people's health by changing healthy behaviors, cultivating healthy psychology, and strengthening social interactions.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , População Urbana
18.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2949297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910760

RESUMO

Based on the theme of sports risk prevention and control in colleges and universities, the connotation and classification of sports risk in colleges and universities are recognized and screened, the theoretical basis of sports risk prevention and control in colleges and universities is interpreted, and the needs of sports risk prevention and control in colleges and universities are analyzed. On the basis of questionnaire and expert interview, the analytic method is used to construct the evaluation index system of sports risk prevention and control in colleges and universities, including 5 first-level indexes, 9 second-level indexes, and 27 third-level indexes in colleges and universities, teachers, students, parents, and communities, in order to find out the characteristics and occurrence rules of sports risk in colleges and universities in Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, Hunan Province. We find out the loopholes and shortcomings in the risk management of sports in colleges and universities and provide theoretical reference for reducing the risk of sports in colleges and universities in the region and improving students' physical quality.


Assuntos
Esportes , Estudantes , Escolaridade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
19.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 7(1): 1725, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909577

RESUMO

Introduction: As people with cystic fibrosis (CF) lead longer, healthier lives, educational qualifications and employment prospects are increasingly important. However, little is known about the social consequences of CF, in particular, any impact on educational achievements and the support children with CF receive in schools. Objectives: To assess the educational achievements of children with CF in Wales compared to the general Welsh population, and the additional learning support children with CF receive in schools. Methods: We conducted a population-scale data linkage study of all children born in Wales using the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. We used anonymised individual-level population-scale health and administrative data sources to identify children with CF born between 2000 - 2015, linked to educational attainment records. We calculated the percentage of children that reached expected levels in statutory assessment at age 10-11, Key Stage 2 (KS2), and compared this to educational outcomes in the general population. We also assessed the percentage of children with CF that received extra learning support. Results: Out of 150 eligible children, 119 had KS2 results. 77% (95% CI: 69%-84%) of children achieved expected levels in English, 81% (95% CI: 73% -87%) in Mathematics and 82% (95% CI: 75% - 88%) in Science. In the comparable general Welsh population, 83.4% to 91.1% achieved the expected level in English, 84.9% to 91.6% in Maths, and 87.1% to 92.2% in Science across the years of the study. 70% of children with CF received extra learning support. Conclusions: Children with CF in Wales may have worse educational achievements than the general population. More research is needed to inform policies and interventions to better support children with CF to reach their full educational potential and employment opportunities.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Criança , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , País de Gales/epidemiologia
20.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 223-230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909641

RESUMO

Objective: To examine if reduced financial strain and higher educational attainment would confer less advantage for successful cessation among African Americans than for White individuals. Design: A secondary data analysis of the Quit2Live study, a smoking cessation intervention for individuals who smoke. Setting: Recruited participants from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Participants: The sample included 224 African American and 225 White individuals who smoke. Main Outcome Measures: Our outcome variable was cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at the end-of-treatment (week 12). Our explanatory variables were a combination of financial strain (high, low) and educational attainment (high, low). Methods: We implemented a logistic regression analysis and a two-way interaction of the combined financial strain and educational attainment variable and race on smoking abstinence. Results: About 25% of the study participants were low financial strain and high education, 41% high financial strain and high education, 23% high financial strain and low education, and 11% low financial strain and low education. A greater proportion of African Americans vs Whites were in the high financial strain/low educational attainment category (28% vs 18%, P = .01). Participants with high financial strain and low educational attainment had substantially lower odds of abstinence (OR = .29 [95% CI: .12, .68]) compared to participants with low financial strain and high educational attainment. Contrary to our hypothesis, race did not moderate this association. Conclusion: Findings highlight the constraining role of high financial strain and low educational attainment, irrespective of race, on smoking abstinence among smokers actively engaged in a quit attempt.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fumar , Brancos
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