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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 298-310, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202553

RESUMO

En el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, el profesorado ha de contar con capacidades profesionales para impulsar en el alumnado la competencia aprender a aprender, que hace referencia a la capacidad de autorregulación del propio proceso de aprendizaje. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en diseñar y validar un cuestionario para medir los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje que el profesorado universitario activa para el desarrollo de la competencia aprender a aprender, el CAA. En primer lugar, en base a la revisión teórica y empírica, se definieron 86 ítems. A continuación, se examinaron la validez de contenido (n = 20 expertos), la validez basada en los procesos de respuesta (n = 10 docentes), la validez basada en la estructura interna (n = 415 docentes), la validez concurrente y la validez externa. Los resultados mostraron una adecuada calidad psicométrica, consistencia interna, fiabilidad y bondad de ajuste. La versión final del CAA comprendió 4 dimensiones y 39 ítems. Este instrumento puede ser una herramienta de rápida aplicación, válida y fiable, para conocer el desarrollo de los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje de la competencia aprender a aprender. Asimismo, puede servir para detectar necesidades de formación profesional en el desarrollo de dicha competencia


Within the European Higher Education Area framework, educators must have acquired professional skills in order to promote the learning to learn competence, which refers to the ability to self-regulate the learning process itself, in their students. The objective of this work was to design and validate a questionnaire, the learning to learn questionnaire (LLQ), to measure the facilitative learning contexts implemented by university educators to develop the learning to learn competence. First, based on a theoretical and empirical review, 86 items belonging to 7 dimensions were de-fined. Next, content validity (n = 20 experts), validity based on response processes (n = 10 teachers), validity based on internal structure (n = 415 teachers), and concurrent validity were examined. Our results showed sufficient psychometric quality, reliability of scores and goodness of fit. The final version of the LLQ consisted of 4 dimensions and 39 items. This instrument can be considered a valid and reliable tool that can be quickly ap-plied in order to identify the development of facilitative learning contexts in the evolution of the learning to learn competence. Likewise, it can also serve to detect training needs in the development of this competence in university educators


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Docentes/psicologia , Competência Profissional , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Escolaridade , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 690-696, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226457

RESUMO

This paper intends to identify the correlates of Bangladeshi children's nutritional status. The primary focus of the paper rests on mothers' education, especially to understand whether different level of mothers' education has varying extent of effect on child nutrition. Data for the empirical analysis of this paper are obtained from a relatively recent national survey: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2012-13. Based on a sample of 14,482 children of the age of below 5 years and by using the multiple linear regression analysis, this paper finds evidence to suggest that mothers' education matters for children's both long-term and overall nutritional status in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, education at the lower end has imperceptible effect; while the incremental benefit of below primary education on child nutrition is subtle. Importantly education at the higher end i.e., secondary or more has pronounced effect on children's nutritional status. This finding is worthy of policy attention because girls' dropout at the secondary education in Bangladesh is still very high, which may hinder realising the benefit of the costly public policy of educating girls for the sake of combating widespread child under-nutrition in the country.


Assuntos
Mães , Estado Nutricional , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14026, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234188

RESUMO

Lateral flow immunoassays are low cost, rapid and highly efficacious point-of-care devices, which have been used for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing by professionals. However, there is a lack of understanding about how self-administered tests are used by the general public for mass testing in different environmental settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the user experience (UX) (including usability) of a self-testing kit to identify COVID-19 antibodies used by a representative sample of the public in their cars, which included 1544 participants in Northern Ireland. The results based on 5-point Likert ratings from a post-test questionnaire achieved an average UX score of 96.03% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.05-97.01%], suggesting a good degree of user experience. The results of the Wilcoxon rank sum tests suggest that UX scores were independent of the user's age and education level although the confidence in this conclusion could be strengthened by including more participants aged younger than 18 and those with only primary or secondary education. The agreement between the test result as interpreted by the participant and the researcher was 95.85% [95% CI 94.85-96.85%], Kappa score 0.75 [95% CI 0.69-0.81] (indicating substantial agreement). Text analysis via the latent Dirichlet allocation model for the free text responses in the survey suggest that the user experience could be improved for blood-sample collection, by modifying the method of sample transfer to the test device and giving clearer instructions on how to interpret the test results. The overall findings provide an insight into the opportunities for improving the design of SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing kits to be used by the general public and therefore inform protocols for future user experience studies of point-of-care tests.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoensaio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Autoadministração , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
JAMA ; 326(2): 145-153, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255007

RESUMO

Importance: Timely delivery of infants suspected of having fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a balance between preventing stillbirth and minimizing prematurity, particularly because many infants with suspected FGR have normal growth. Objective: To explore the association between iatrogenic delivery for suspected FGR and childhood school outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective whole-population cohort study linking perinatal data from births 32 weeks' or more gestation between January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, to developmental and educational test scores at preparatory school, and at school grades 3, 5, and 7 in Victoria, Australia. Follow-up was concluded in 2019. Exposures: Suspicion or nonsuspicion of FGR, presence or absence of iatrogenic delivery (defined as early induction of labor or cesarean delivery prior to labor) for suspected FGR, and presence or absence of small for gestational age (SGA). Main Outcomes and Measures: The coprimary outcomes were being in the bottom 10th percentile on 2 or more of 5 developmental domains at school entry and being below the national minimum standard on 2 or more of 5 educational domains in grades 3, 5, or 7. Results: In the birth population of 705 937 infants, the mean gestation at birth was 39.1 (SD, 1.5) weeks and the mean birth weight was 3426 (SD, 517) grams. The birth population linked to 181 902 children with developmental results and 425 717 children with educational results. Compared with infants with severe SGA (birth weight <3rd percentile) not suspected of having FGR, infants with severe SGA delivered for suspected FGR were born earlier (mean gestation, 37.9 weeks vs 39.4 weeks). They also had a significantly increased risk of poor developmental outcome at school entry (16.2% vs 12.7%; absolute difference, 3.5% [95% CI, 0.5%-6.5%]); adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.07-1.74]) and poor educational outcomes in grades 3, 5, and 7 (for example, in grade 7: 13.4% vs 10.5%; absolute difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%]); aOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.04-1.70]). There was no significant difference between infants with normal growth (birth weight ≥10th percentile) delivered for suspected FGR and those not suspected of having FGR in developmental outcome (8.6% vs 8.1%; absolute difference, 0.5% [95% CI, -1.1% to 2.0%]); aOR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]) or educational outcome in grade 3, 5 or 7, despite being born earlier (mean gestation, 38.0 weeks vs 39.1 weeks). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory study conducted in Victoria, Australia, iatrogenic delivery of infants with severe SGA due to suspected FGR was associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with severe SGA not suspected of having FGR. Iatrogenic delivery of infants with normal growth due to suspected FGR was not associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with normal growth not suspected of having FGR.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Escolaridade , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Adulto , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117115, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259846

RESUMO

Importance: Social distancing is critical to the control of COVID-19, which has disproportionately affected the Black community. Physician-delivered messages may increase adherence to these behaviors. Objectives: To determine whether messages delivered by physicians improve COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors and to assess the differential effectiveness of messages tailored to the Black community. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial of self-identified White and Black adults with less than a college education was conducted from August 7 to September 6, 2020. Of 44 743 volunteers screened, 30 174 were eligible, 5534 did not consent or failed attention checks, and 4163 left the survey before randomization. The final sample had 20 460 individuals (participation rate, 68%). Participants were randomly assigned to receive video messages on COVID-19 or other health topics. Interventions: Participants saw video messages delivered either by a Black or a White study physician. In the control groups, participants saw 3 placebo videos with generic health topics. In the treatment group, they saw 3 videos on COVID-19, recorded by several physicians of varied age, gender, and race. Video 1 discussed common symptoms. Video 2 highlighted case numbers; in one group, the unequal burden of the disease by race was discussed. Video 3 described US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention social distancing guidelines. Participants in both the control and intervention groups were also randomly assigned to see 1 of 2 American Medical Association statements, one on structural racism and the other on drug price transparency. Main Outcomes and Measures: Knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to COVID-19, demand for information, willingness to pay for masks, and self-reported behavior. Results: Overall, 18 223 participants (9168 Black; 9055 White) completed the survey (9980 [55.9%] women, mean [SD] age, 40.2 [17.8] years). Overall, 6303 Black participants (34.6%) and 7842 White participants (43.0%) were assigned to the intervention group, and 1576 Black participants (8.6%) and 1968 White participants (10.8%) were assigned to the control group. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had smaller gaps in COVID-19 knowledge (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.87-0.91]) and greater demand for COVID-19 information (IRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.01-1.11]), willingness to pay for a mask (difference, $0.50 [95% CI, $0.15-$0.85]). Self-reported safety behavior improved, although the difference was not statistically significant (IRR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.01]; P = .08). Effects did not differ by race (F = 0.0112; P > .99) or in different intervention groups (F = 0.324; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a physician messaging campaign was effective in increasing COVID-19 knowledge, information-seeking, and self-reported protective behaviors among diverse groups. Studies implemented at scale are needed to confirm clinical importance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04502056.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Médicos , Racismo , Adulto , Comunicação , Competência Cultural , Escolaridade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Marketing Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117060, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259847

RESUMO

Importance: Socioeconomic factors in the disparities in COVID-19 outcomes have been reported in studies from the US and other Western countries. However, no studies have documented national- or subnational-level outcome disparities in Asian countries. Objective: To assess the association between regional COVID-19 outcome disparities and socioeconomic characteristics in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study collected and analyzed confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths (through February 13, 2021) as well as population and socioeconomic data in all 47 prefectures in Japan. The data sources were government surveys for which prefecture-level data were available. Exposures: Prefectural socioeconomic characteristics included mean annual household income, Gini coefficient, proportion of the population receiving public assistance, educational attainment, unemployment rate, employment in industries with frequent close contacts with the public, household crowding, smoking rate, and obesity rate. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rate ratios (RRs) of COVID-19 incidence and mortality by prefecture-level socioeconomic characteristics. Results: All 47 prefectures in Japan (with a total population of 126.2 million) were included in this analysis. A total of 412 126 confirmed COVID-19 cases (326.7 per 100 000 people) and 6910 deaths (5.5 per 100 000 people) were reported as of February 13, 2021. Elevated adjusted incidence and mortality RRs of COVID-19 were observed in prefectures with the lowest household income (incidence RR: 1.45 [95% CI, 1.43-1.48] and mortality RR: 1.81 [95% CI, 1.59-2.07]); highest proportion of the population receiving public assistance (1.55 [95% CI, 1.52-1.58] and 1.51 [95% CI, 1.35-1.69]); highest unemployment rate (1.56 [95% CI, 1.53-1.59] and 1.85 [95% CI, 1.65-2.09]); highest percentage of workers in retail industry (1.36 [95% CI, 1.34-1.38] and 1.45 [95% CI, 1.31-1.61]), transportation and postal industries (1.61 [95% CI, 1.57-1.64] and 2.55 [95% CI, 2.21-2.94]), and restaurant industry (2.61 [95% CI, 2.54-2.68] and 4.17 [95% CI, 3.48-5.03]); most household crowding (1.35 [95% CI, 1.31-1.38] and 1.04 [95% CI, 0.87-1.24]); highest smoking rate (1.63 [95% CI, 1.60-1.66] and 1.54 [95% CI, 1.33-1.78]); and highest obesity rate (0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95] and 1.17 [95% CI, 1.01-1.34]) compared with prefectures with the most social advantages. Among potential mediating variables, higher smoking rate (RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.33-1.78) and obesity rate (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were associated with higher mortality RRs, even after adjusting for prefecture-level covariates and other socioeconomic variables. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a pattern of socioeconomic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in Japan that was similar to that observed in the US and Europe. National policy in Japan could consider prioritizing populations in socially disadvantaged regions in the COVID-19 response, such as vaccination planning, to address this pattern.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Aglomeração , Escolaridade , Emprego , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Ocupações , Pandemias , Assistência Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206418

RESUMO

This article presents the results of research the objective of which was to know the opinion of directors of different educational centers about the management carried out in their centers and the possible difficulties encountered during the suspension of face-to-face classes caused by the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research method is qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, and inductive. The study sample is made up of 43 managers of educational centers, who were selected by applying an intentional sampling based on criteria of age, experience, ownership of the center, teachings that are taught, and the socioeconomic context where it is located. A questionnaire was used to collect the information, previously designed and validated through the judgment of experts, to inquire about the organization and management from the management team, the development of the academic task with the students, and the relationship with the families during the course period of cessation of classroom activities. To make an adequate approximation to the reality studied, an exhaustive content analysis of the speeches issued by the participants was carried out. Among the main conclusions of the research are the difficulties they have experienced during the closure of schools in relation to the lack of strategic planning to reconvert face-to-face education to the online format, scarcity of technological resources in centers and homes, training deficit in digital skills, increasing the digital divide, attention to students with special educational needs or communication problems with students and their families.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Second-hand smoke is associated with more than 1.2 million deaths per year among non-smokers. Smoking in public places is prohibited in The Gambia but there is no information on the level of exposure to second-hand smoke among adolescents and adults 15-64 years. The aim of this study was to assess the level and predictors of exposure to second-hand smoke in public places and compliance with smoke-free regulations in The Gambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in an established Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). A total of 4547 participants (15-64 years) from households within the Farafenni HDSS were interviewed at their homes but only 3343 were included in our analysis. Factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke in public places were assessed by three different multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to tobacco smoke in public places was high (66.1%), and higher in men (79.9%) than women (58.7%). Besides being male, less education, lower household income, urban residence and not aware of smoke-free regulations were strongly associated with exposure to second-hand smoke. CONCLUSION: Despite existing smoke-free regulations, reported exposure to second-hand smoke remains high in public places in The Gambia. The Ministry of Health should continue to strengthen their advocacy and sensitization programs to ensure smoke-free regulations are fully implemented. Some population subgroups are at a higher risk of exposure and could be targeted by interventions; and settings where these subgroups are exposed should be targeted by enforcement efforts.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208085

RESUMO

The validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in migrants is questionable, as sociodemographic factors and the migration process may influence performance. Our aim was to evaluate possible predictors (age, education, sex, depression, and migration) of MoCA results in Turkish migrants and Germans living in Germany. Linear regression models were conducted with a German (n = 419), a Turkish (n = 133), and an overall sample. All predictor analyses reached statistical significance. For the German sample, age, sex, education, and depression were significant predictors, whereas education was the only predictor for Turkish migrants. For the overall sample, having no migration background and higher education were significant predictors. Migration background and education had an impact on MoCA performance in a sample of German and Turkish individuals living in Germany. Thus, culture-specific normative data for the MoCA are needed, and the development of culture-sensitive cognitive screening tools is encouraged.


Assuntos
Depressão , Depressão/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 953-958, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197363

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, schools across the United States began transitioning to virtual learning during spring 2020. However, schools' learning modes varied during the 2020-21 school year across states as schools transitioned at differing times back to in-person learning, in part reflecting updated CDC guidance. Reduced access to in-person learning is associated with poorer learning outcomes and adverse mental health and behavioral effects in children (1-3). Data on the learning modes available in 1,200 U.S. public school districts (representing 46% of kindergarten through grade 12 [K-12] public school enrollment) from all 50 states and the District of Columbia during September 2020-April 2021 were matched with National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) demographic data. Learning mode access was assessed for K-12 students during the COVID-19 pandemic, over time and by student race/ethnicity, geography, and grade level group. Across all assessed racial/ethnic groups, prevalence of virtual-only learning showed more variability during September-December 2020 but declined steadily from January to April 2021. During January-April 2021, access to full-time in-person learning for non-Hispanic White students increased by 36.6 percentage points (from 38.0% to 74.6%), compared with 31.1 percentage points for non-Hispanic Black students (from 32.3% to 63.4%), 23.0 percentage points for Hispanic students (from 35.9% to 58.9%) and 30.6 percentage points for students of other races/ethnicities (from 26.3% to 56.9%). In January 2021, 39% of students in grades K-5 had access to full-time in-person learning compared with 33% of students in grades 6-8 and 30% of students in grades 9-12. Disparities in full-time in-person learning by race/ethnicity existed across school levels and by geographic region and state. These disparities underscore the importance of prioritizing equitable access to this learning mode for the 2021-22 school year. To increase equitable access to full-time in-person learning for the 2021-22 school year, school leaders should focus on providing safety-optimized in-person learning options across grade levels. CDC's K-12 operational strategy presents a pathway for schools to safely provide in-person learning through implementing recommended prevention strategies, increasing vaccination rates for teachers and older students with a focus on vaccine equity, and reducing community transmission (4).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação/métodos , Educação/organização & administração , Aprendizagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 371, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The undergraduate five-year MBChB programme at the University of Glasgow has a high volume of pathology teaching integrated into the course. The ability to better understand what pathology is taught and when, so as to build a picture of the types and depth of pathology topics covered across the programme stages is crucial, especially in a spiral curriculum. A novel method of curriculum mapping, known as curriculum heat mapping, was developed as a way to visualise where and when topics are taught, in an easier to understand format. METHODS: This method involved comparing the Glasgow curriculum to a pre-determined standard of what should be taught. In this case, The Royal College of Pathologists' 'Pathology Undergraduate Curriculum' was used as a comparison of what a graduating doctor should know about pathology. RESULTS: Following the developed template, heat maps showcasing the range of pathology topics covered, and where they are covered, were developed for local use. These heat maps provided a clear visual representation of where and when topics are taught, and how they cluster. CONCLUSIONS: Heat mapping is a novel low-cost, high-input method of curriculum mapping. It requires a person to input the data which can take a long time for large curricula. There are no other upfront financial costs. It can be used in any area with a curriculum and an external or internal comparator. Examples of gold standard external comparators include validated national or international curricula. Heat mapping can help integrated, spiral curriculum programmes to identify where core topics are taught throughout their course. The heat maps themselves successfully demonstrate the required information and are easy to interpret. The process of mapping, as well as the final heat map, can yield important information. This includes information about trends within the curriculum, areas for potential improvement in sessional design and a clearer understanding of the depth to which each topic is covered in each lecture. Overall, it is a viable novel method, which has been successful locally and is easily transferable to other areas such as pharmacology.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Currículo , Escolaridade , Temperatura Alta , Ensino , Universidades
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200277

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the association between time spent on waking activities and nonaligned sleep duration in a representative sample of the US population. We analysed time use data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 2015-2017 (N = 31,621). National Sleep Foundation (NSF) age-specific sleep recommendations were used to define recommended (aligned) sleep duration. The balanced, repeated, replicate variance estimation method was applied to the ATUS data to calculate weighted estimates. Less than half of the US population had a sleep duration that mapped onto the NSF recommendations, and alignment was higher on weekdays (45%) than at weekends (33%). The proportion sleeping longer than the recommended duration was higher than those sleeping shorter on both weekdays and weekends (p < 0.001). Time spent on work, personal care, socialising, travel, TV watching, education, and total screen time was associated with nonalignment to the sleep recommendations. In comparison to the appropriate recommended sleep group, those with a too-short sleep duration spent more time on work, travel, socialising, relaxing, and leisure. By contrast, those who slept too long spent relatively less time on each of these activities. The findings indicate that sleep duration among the US population does not map onto the NSF sleep recommendations, mostly because of a higher proportion of long sleepers compared to short sleepers. More time spent on work, travel, and socialising and relaxing activities is strongly associated with an increased risk of nonalignment to NSF sleep duration recommendations.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Sono , Escolaridade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
13.
F1000Res ; 102021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249332

RESUMO

Background: This research deals with science teachers' worldviews in the educational-technological context. Obtaining a deeper insight into teachers' discourse regarding school digitalization and understanding teachers' worldviews in the educational-technological context may be viewed as crucially important since the latter tends to play a central role in the process of digitalization of teaching practices. Methods: This study addresses the following questions: (1) Was there a difference between the teachers regarding their foci of attention expressed via personal pronouns? (2) Was there a difference between the teachers in terms of the quality and degree of their emotional immersion in the discussed topic expressed through the use of emotion words? (3) What are the semantic fields of the word clusters that include the lexemes technology and digital, and do they implicitly convey differences in teachers' understanding of school digitalization? The data were extracted by means of in-depth interviews with 38 Israeli science teachers. The linguistic analysis was employed to examine teachers' language behavior. Results: The results point out the differences in teachers' worldviews, manifested through language behavior. In particular, the differences between the three groups of teachers (outside observers, circumspect participants, and conscientious participants) were found regarding their foci of attention, the level of emotional immersion, and their implicitly conveyed understanding of the digitalization of teaching practices. Conclusions: The teachers' worldviews are the key element for understanding what it means to be or not to be a teacher in a digital society. In addition, our study demonstrates that linguistic analysis in educational research is a promising methodological approach that can render an in-depth and comprehensive picture of the explored phenomenon.


Assuntos
Idioma , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escolaridade , Humanos , Linguística , Tecnologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203770

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of social and health policies that positively affected the health of the populations in Brazil, since 2009 the country has experienced a slower decline of infant mortality. After an economic and political crisis, Brazil witnessed increases in infant mortality that raised questions about what are the determinants of infant mortality after the implementation of such policies. We conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize those determinants with searches in three databases: LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. We included studies published between 2010 and 2020. We selected 23 papers: 83% associated infant mortality with public policies; 78% related infant mortality with the use of the health system and socioeconomic and living conditions; and 27% related to individual characteristics to infant mortality. Inequalities in the access to healthcare seem to have important implications in reducing infant mortality. Socioeconomic conditions and health-related factors such as income, education, fertility, housing, and the Bolsa Família. Program coverage was pointed out as the main determinants of infant mortality. Likewise, recent changes in infant mortality in Brazil are likely related to these factors. We also identified a gap in terms of studies on a possible association between employment and infant mortality.


Assuntos
Renda , Mortalidade Infantil , Brasil/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First investigations indicate a migration background of residents in Germany as a discrete risk factor for poor oral health. A lower level of oral health literacy among people with a migration background is considered a reason worthy of being investigated. AIM: This article presents results on oral health literacy and oral health gained from the MuMi study (promoting oral health and oral health literacy of people with a migration background). METHODS: The oral health and oral health literacy as well as the sociodemographics of patients with and without migration background were examined in 40 dental surgeries in Hamburg, Germany. Associations between migrant status, oral health, and oral health literacy were analyzed with logistic regressions. Potential confounders were gradually integrated into the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Patients with and without a migration background differed significantly in oral health literacy and clinical parameters of oral health (approximal plaque index and degree of caries restoration). The logistic regression analysis revealed highly significant associations between migration background, oral health literacy, and oral hygiene, while also accounting for education and socioeconomic status. DISCUSSION: Migration background constitutes a discrete risk factor for lower oral health and oral health literacy for these relevant population groups. This fact needs stronger reflection in further research and political decision-making in order to promote equality of oral health opportunities.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Migrantes , Escolaridade , Alemanha , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Information on the oral health of the population is important for the assessment of (preventable) disease burden, for the estimation and planning of health resources and costs, and for the evaluation of health inequalities. The aim of this work is to investigate for the first time self-perceived oral health, including associated factors, based on data from a nationally representative sample for the adult population in Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data basis is the nationwide German Health Update study (GEDA 2019/2020-EHIS, n = 22,708 aged 18 years and older). In the telephone interview, the participants were asked how they would describe the state of their teeth and gums - "very good," "good," "fair," "bad," or "very bad." Sociodemographic, behavioral, and dental characteristics are examined as associated factors. Prevalences and results of multivariate binary logistic regressions (odds ratios, OR) are reported. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the participants, 71.4% perceived their oral health as very good or good, 28.6% as fair to very bad. Difficulty in chewing and biting on hard foods (OR 4.0), unmet dental care needs (OR 2.3), male gender (OR 1.5), and not consuming fruits and vegetables daily (OR 1.2) were the most important associated factors for fair to very bad self-perceived oral health; for men, low education (OR 2,1), daily smoking (OR 1.6) and not receiving dental care annually (OR 1.4) were also important. From the results, starting points for promoting oral health can be derived.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 501-510, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280046

RESUMO

Appalachia has low rates of college attendance and graduation, but relevant data investigating student attrition from physiology majors in this region are lacking. This exploratory study examined freshman attrition from an undergraduate exercise physiology program in Appalachia with the goal of identifying potential strategies for improving retention across similar programs in this underserved region. Questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of the fall semester to freshman (n = 247) and students transferring out of the major [Transferred group (T); n = 50] by the end of their first semester were compared against those that remained [Retained group (R); n = 190]. The Transferred group was invited to participate in qualitative interviews. Fewer Transferred students reported feeling underprepared in academic preparedness skills, but more reported feeling underprepared in math. At the end of the semester, more in the Transferred group reported doing worse than expected in math and in getting good grades and had a lower grade point average (R: 3.27 ± 0.05; T: 2.62 ± 0.15; P < 0.01). More in the Transferred group were first-generation (FG) college students (R: 17%; T: 30%). Transferred FG had lower academic preparation and performance and more financial need than Retained FG. In interviews (n = 35), most students expressed a change in career goals and many noted the academic rigor of the program, while academic advising, faculty, and the major received generally positive praise. This study identified several factors that would allow for early identification of incoming freshmen at risk for attrition and proposes strategies for improving retention within Appalachian physiology programs.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Região dos Apalaches , Escolaridade , Humanos , Motivação
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 688, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For people with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), lifestyle changes may be the most effective intervention. Online groups for people with diabetes holds a great potential to support such changes. However, little is known about the association between participation in online groups and lifestyle changes based on internet information in people with T2D. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported lifestyle changes and participation in online groups in people with T2D. METHODS: We used e-mail survey data from 1,250 members of The Norwegian Diabetes Association, collected in 2018. Eligible for analyses were the 540 respondents who reported to have T2D. By logistic regressions we studied the association between self-reported lifestyle changes and participation in online groups. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, education, and time since diagnosis. RESULTS: We found that 41.9 % of the participants reported lifestyle changes based on information from the internet. Only 6 % had participated in online groups during the previous year. Among those with a disease duration of less than 10 years, 56.0 % reported lifestyle changes, whereas 33.4 % with a disease duration of 10 years or more did so. The odds for lifestyle changes were more than doubled for those who participated in online groups. People who had been diagnosed with diabetes for less than 10 years were significantly more likely to change their lifestyle compared to those with a longer disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle changes based on information from the internet among people with T2D are associated with participation in online groups. Lifestyle changes are also associated with time since diagnosis, making the first years after a T2D diagnosis particularly important for lifestyle interventions. People with T2D, web site developers, online group moderators, health care services, and patient organisations should be aware of this important window for lifestyle change, and encourage participation in online groups.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2335-2343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231743

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to verify the differences of the moral judgment toward the people who abuse drugs according to the schooling of the participants. This is the Brazilian part of a multicentric study. N=180 individuals in a community in Brasília, DF, Brazil; following consent, descriptive data were collected by anonymous interviewer-administered questionnaire that included socio-demographic, educational level and the history of drug use. Participants were predominantly females, middle-aged, married, employed, religious, with high school education; higher schooling considered alcohol abusers, marijuana, cocaine and crack are important as anyone else; the majority with lower education level knew someone who used drugs, but no association was found regarding drug use and schooling; in the unadjusted logistic regression model, positive associations were found between higher schooling and 'who use drugs are as important as anyone else' for all drugs studied; after adjusted, the association remained only for marijuana (all p<0.05). The negative attitude surrounding drugs issue can be an important obstacle. The results suggest that education can help to reduce the stigma associated; public policies would be important to minimizing social harm caused by stigmatized visions of drug users.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Brasil , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais
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