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1.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 28-52, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019275

RESUMO

Abstract Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are indicative of generalized disruptions in neurological networks of cortico-subcortical areas. Their presence leads to problems in children's cognitive development with future academic repercussions. The presence of NSS was assessed and compared in 144 children aged 6 to 11 years of low-medium socioeconomic status from Mexico City and the metropolitan area through the Infant Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN, for its Spanish acronym) and the School Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANES, for its Spanish acronym). Results indicate significant differences by sex. Girls showed better performance in word articulation. In groups by age, significant differences were found in leximetric-comprehension, visual perception and executive function-errors. Participants showed the presence of developmental NSS which include: language (articulation disorders, oral and written language disturbances, difficulty finding words), psychomotricity, visual perception and other cognitive functions. There are several factors related to those impairments such as age, socioeconomic context and critical stages in child's development. Identification and early diagnosis can reduce the risk of school failure.


Resumo Os Sinais Neurológico Sutis (SNS) são indicadores de interrupções generalizadas nas redes de trabalho neural de áreas córtico-subcorticais, cuja presença leva a problemas no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo da criança que representam repercussões acadêmicas negativas. Na presente pesquisa, foi avaliada e comparada a presença de SNS com os processos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico médio-baixo com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, sem antecedentes neurológicos ou psiquiátricos, por meio dos Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) e Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas por gênero, já que as meninas apresentaram melhor desempenho na articulação de palavras. Nos grupos por idade, as diferenças significativas foram encontradas na velocidade de leitura e compreensão, visuopercepção e função executiva e erros. Em geral, os participantes mostraram presença de SNS de desenvolvimento, que incluem interferências na linguagem (problemas articulatórios, alterações da linguagem oral e escrita, dificuldade para encontrar palavras), psicomotricidade, visuopercepção e outras funções cognitivas. Ao final, conclui-se que a identificação e o diagnóstico precoce dos SNS permite diminuir o risco de fracasso escolar.


Resumen Los Signos Neurológicos Blandos (SNB) son indicativos de interrupciones generalizadas en las redes de trabajo neuronal de áreas cortico-subcorticales, cuya presencia conlleva a problemas en el desarrollo neurocognitivo del niño que representan repercusiones académicas negativas. En la presente investigación se evaluó y comparó la presencia de SNB con los procesos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico medio-bajo con edades entre los 6 y 11 años sin antecedentes neurológicos o psiquiátricos por medio de los Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) y Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Los resultados indicaron diferencias significativas por sexo, ya que las niñas presentaron mejor desempeño en la articulación de palabras. En los grupos por edad, las diferencias significativas se encontraron en leximetría-comprensión, visopercepción y función ejecutiva-errores; y, en general, los participantes mostraron presencia de SNB de desarrollo, que incluyen afectaciones en: lenguaje (problemas articulatorios, alteraciones del lenguaje oral y escrito, dificultad para encontrar palabras), psicomotricidad, visopercepción y otras funciones cognitivas. Al final, se concluye que la identificación y diagnóstico temprano de los SNB permite disminuir el riesgo de fracaso escolar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Escolaridade , Manifestações Neurológicas , Testes Neuropsicológicos
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565114

RESUMO

Introduction: The proportion of antenatal attendants in Ghana who had at least four antenatal visits increased from 78% in 2008 to 87% in 2014. However, it is not known whether these visits followed the recommended timing of focused antenatal clinic attendance in Ghana. We sought to assess the adherence to the clinic schedule and its determinants in the Accra Metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with postpartum women. Multiple logistic regression was used in the analysis of determinants of adherence to the recommended timing of clinic attendance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among 446 focused antenatal care clinic attendants, 378 (84.8%) had four or more visits. Among these, 101 (26.7%) adhered to the recommended clinic schedule. Women who adhered were more likely to have had education up to Junior High School [AOR=3.31, 95%CI (1.03-10.61)] or Senior High School [AOR=4.47, 95%CI (1.14-17.51)], or have history of abortion [(AOR=3.36, 95%CI (1.69-7.96)]. For every week increase in gestational age at booking at the antenatal clinic, respondents were 34% less likely to complete all four antenatal visits at the recommended times. [(AOR=0.66, 95% (0.60-0.73)]. Conclusion: Majority of women receiving focused antenatal care in the Accra Metropolis have four or more visits but only about a quarter of them adhered to the recommended clinic schedule. Having high school education, history of abortion and early initiation of antenatal care were predictors of adherence to clinic schedule. Women should be educated on early initiation of antenatal care to enhance adherence.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565129

RESUMO

Introduction: Female condom awareness and use have been poorly documented in sub-Saharan region especially among street youths. This study assessed its awareness and use among street youths. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 964 youths between ages 15 to 24 years old using questionnaires to elicit information. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted at 5% level of significance. Results: More than half (69.9%) were males and between 20-25 years of age (61.2%). More than three-quarter (81.0%) had initiated sexual activity. Almost half (47.9%) of the respondents have heard about female condoms however only 16.8% have ever seen while 4.3% have actually ever used a female condom. Age, education, current sexual activity and experience of rape attempt were predictors of female condom awareness. Conclusion: Awareness of female condom was a significant predictor of utilization of female condoms. There is therefore a need for proper awareness and education on the effectiveness of female condoms.


Assuntos
Preservativos Femininos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17127, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577703

RESUMO

To investigate the functional connectome alterations in cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) patients with thalamus lacunes and its relation to cognitive impairment.This case-control study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all participants provided informed consent. There were 14 CSVD patients with thalamus lacunes (CSVDw.), 27 without (CSVDwo.), and 34 healthy controls (HC) recruited matched for age, sex, and education to undergo a 3T resting-state functional MR examination. The whole-brain functional connectome was constructed by thresholding the Pearson correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and the topologic properties were analyzed by using graph theory approaches. Networks were compared between CSVD patients and HC, and associations between network measures and cognitive function were tested.Compared with HC, the functional connectome in CSVDw. patients showed abnormalities at the global level and at the nodal level (P < .05, false discovery rate corrected). The network-based statistics method identified a significantly altered network consisting 6 nodes and 13 connections. Among all the 13 connections, only two connections had significant correlation with episodic memory (EM) and processing speed (PS) respectively (P < .05). The CSVDwo. patients showed no significant network alterations relative to controls (P > .05).The configurations of brain functional connectome in CSVDw. patients were perturbed but not obvious for those without, and correlated with the mild cognitive impairment, especially for EM and PS. This study suggested that lacunes on thalamus played a vital role in mediating the neural functional changes of CSVD patients.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Conectoma , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Tálamo/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Leucoencefalopatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowing the factors associated with periodic HIV testing among female sex workers (FSW) is essential to expand testing coverage and to broaden programs of treatment as prevention. METHODS: We used data from 4,328 FSWs recruited by the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. Data analysis considered the complex sampling design. The prevalence of HIV testing in the last year and periodic HIV test were estimated. Factors associated with regular HIV testing were identified through logistic regression models. RESULTS: The testing coverage in the last year was 39.3%. Only 13.5% of FSW reported having performed a periodic HIV test in the last year. Among the factors associated with the higher probability of HIV testing in the last year were a better level of education, living with a partner, working indoors, consistent use of condoms, and regular use of public and private health services stood out. DISCUSSION: Periodic HIV testing allows early diagnosis and immediate treatment of cases, reducing the chances of spreading the infection to the population. However, factors such as stigma and discrimination hinder the use of regular health services. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to expand awareness campaigns, especially among FSWs with low educational level and greater vulnerability, in order to broaden the perception of risk and the importance of periodic testing, in addition to encouraging regular health care.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical-epidemiological profile of Chikungunya virus infection and the factors associated with hospitalization during the peak of the most recent epidemic period in Brazil (2016-2017). METHODS: Two official databases of the State Health Secretariat of Ceará were used, and a total of 182,731 notifications were analyzed. RESULTS: Independent factors associated with hospital admission were chronic kidney disease (OR 4.56, 95% CI 3.36-6.17), hypertension (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.69-2.14), leukopenia (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.56-2.30) and diabetes mellitus (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.44-1.99). CONCLUSIONS: The pre-existing comorbidities have shown the potential to destabilize the patients' clinical status.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1715-1722, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Cognitive limitations are a serious health and social problem, which concerns elderly people. Effective prevention and treatment of cognitive dysfunction is one of the challenges of modern medicine. There is not enough consistent data in the literature to indicate to indicate the relationship between various clinical and demographic factors with cognitive functioning in different age ranges. The aim: To analyze clinical and demographic predictors of mild cognitive impairment by age group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The analysis included 817 participants (669 with normal cognitive function and 148 people with MCI). The evaluation of the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. All participants were screened for cognitive functioning using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III. Different cognitive domains were evaluated with different neuropsychological tools: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Clock Drawing test, Verbal Fluency test, Digit Span Test and Trail Making test. RESULTS: Results: It has been shown that independently associated with MCI ware age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13) and level of education (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.69-0.81). Depending on the age, it turned out that in the younger MCI group, age, education and depression were significant, and the age and level of education were significant in the older MCI group. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The identification of cognitive dysfunctions is an important element of the diagnostic and therapeutic process.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Humanos
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558923

RESUMO

Introduction: high risk HPV is the perpetrator of cervical cancer disease, however screening and vaccination is not included in cervical cancer prevention program within public hospitals in Kenya. This descriptive study assessed the association of specific microbial STI and socio-demographic characteristics and practices with cervical cytomorphologic presentations in regards to pre cervical cancer grades amongst health seeking patients attending the reproductive health clinic of Nakuru County referral hospital, a public hospital under newly devolved health services governance. Methods: a total of 142 patients (AGC/AIS, n=8; HSIL, n=59; LSIL, n=35; controls, n=40) whose median age ranged between 20-70 years were purposively sampled. A structured questionnaire with closed and open ended entries was administered and STI screening including Pap smear examination for cytomorphological profiling done according to revised 2014 Bethesda classification. Associations were established using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression model to determine prediction of cervical atypia manifestations. Results: a majority of the study participants had only primary education or no education in AGC/AIS (63%) and HSIL (73%) relative to LSIL (49%) and controls (53%) (P=0.017). Koilocyte rates were higher in AGC/AIS (25%), HSIL (52%) and LSIL (77%) compared controls (12.5%) (P<0.0001). ASCUS predominated in HSIL (61%) and LSIL (86%), while almost all AGC/AIS had AGCUS (88%). HR HPV 16/18 infection rates were higher in AGC/AIS (100%), HSIL (80%) and LSIL (83%) relative to controls (10%) (P<0.0001), and was associated with higher risk of having AGC/AIS (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.940-1.947; P<0.0001); HSIL, (OR, 36.3; 95% CI, 9.5-139.5; P<0.0001); and LSIL (OR, 50.1; 95% CI, 12.0-209.0; P<0.0001). Conclusion: altogether, pre-cervical cancer in Kenyan women is characterized by koilocytosis and ASCUS probably from the high rates of HPV 16/18 infections. Promoting cancer education and screening for high risk HPV infections and pre-cancerous lesions will improve women's reproductive health.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/patologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Escolaridade , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489067

RESUMO

Introduction: Mortality of adult patients who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is higher in low-income than in high-income countries. After the failure of standard first-line treatment, patients switch to second-line regimens. However, there are limited data about the outcome of patients after switching to a second-line regimen in the study area. This study aimed to measure the rate of mortality and its determinants among HIV patients on second-line ART regimens. Methods: Multicenter institution based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 1192 adult patients who started second-line ART between 2008 and 2016 in eight selected hospitals of Amhara region. Patients who started second-line treatment after the failure of first-line treatment were included. Patient medical records, registration books, and computer database were used to collect the data. Time to death after a switch to second-line ART was the primary outcome of interest. Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to identify determinant factors of mortality. Results: Among 1192 patients who were on second-line ART, 136 (11.4%) died with 3,157 person-years of follow up. Over the study period, the mortality rate was 4.33 per 100 person-years. Not taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR): 6.6; 95% CI: 2.9, 15.0), did not make modification on second-line regimen (AHR: 4.4; 95% CI: 2.8, 6.8), poor clinical adherence (AHR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.5), functional status of bedridden (AHR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.8), and having attained a tertiary level of education (AHR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) were independent determinants of mortality. Conclusion: The incidence rate of mortality was high and most of the deaths occurred within 12 months after switching to second-line ART. Higher mortality among adult HIV-infected patients was associated with poor adherence, no formal education, not taking IPT, being bedridden at the time of the switch, and not modifying second-line treatment. Improving treatment adherence of patients by providing consistent adherence counseling, providing INH prophylaxis and monitoring patient's regimen more closely during the first twelve months after switch could decrease mortality of HIV patients on a second-line regimen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoas Acamadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 71, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological aspects of HIV infection and AIDS among indigenous peoples of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the occurrence and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS in the indigenous population assisted by the Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena (Indigenous Special Health District) Mato Grosso do Sul between 2001 and 2014, based on three secondary databases. Annual rates of HIV and AIDS detection and prevalence were calculated, considering case distribution according to village, Health Base Pole and sociodemographic variables. Accumulated rates of detection, mortality and case fatality were calculated by ethnic group and for the Health Base Pole with the highest number of cases. RESULTS: The HIV detection rate fluctuated between 0.0 and 18.0/100 thousand people in the study period. For AIDS, there was no notification before 2007, but in 2012 its rate reached 16.6/100 thousand. HIV prevalence grew between 2001 and 2011, and it continuously grew for AIDS starting from 2007. The highest HIV detection rates occurred among Guarani peoples (167.1/100 thousand) and for AIDS, among the Kaiowá peoples (79.3/100 thousand); mortality and fatality rates were higher among the Kaiowá. Regarding the Dourados Health Base Pole, the AIDS detection rate increased, and the mortality and fatality rates decreased. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection and AIDS have been increasing among indigenous peoples, with distribution of the disease mainly in the Health Base Poles of the southern region of the state, where greater economic and social vulnerability are also observed. The endemic character of HIV and AIDS can become epidemic in some years given the existence of cases in other villages in the state. Its occurrence among the Guarani and Kaiowá populations indicates the need for expanded diagnosis, access to treatment and prevention measures.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soroprevalência de HIV/tendências , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(3): 182-188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441457

RESUMO

Background: Despite women's adequate knowledge and the obvious unmet need for family planning (FP), contraceptive prevalence in Nigeria is low. A greater understanding of the barriers to FP that informs service utilisation and preferences is needed to improve service delivery. Aim: This study was aimed at assessing the use and preferences of FP services among women. Subjects and Methods: A community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional survey was carried out among 367 women (15-49 years of age) residing in Ikosi-Isheri, Kosofe local government area, who were selected by multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and were analysed using SPSS software version 20. Frequency distributions and cross tabulations were generated. The Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine associations, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Although 64.0% were aware of FP, only 26.4% had ever used FP services. The contraceptive prevalence was 17.9%. Traditional or religious restrictions were given as the reasons for not using FP (40.9%). The preferred FP services were those offered at primary healthcare centres (45.2%) and teaching hospitals (33.9%) because of proximity (38.7%), privacy (14.5%) and health workers being female (22.6%). Age, level of education and marital status were associated with the utilisation of FP services (P < 0.001, P = 0.020 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Although awareness was high, uptake was low. Government health facilities were preferred. Primary healthcare should be strengthened, and FP services should be scaled up to make FP more accessible. Services should be closer to where people live while providing the privacy they desire.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Governo Local , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basis for healthy development is established during the first years of one's life. In this early phase, parents can significantly influence the health conditions under which their child grows up. Parental education can play a key role in this regard. This study examines the association of maternal education with health and health behavior in infants. METHODS: A subsample of the representative German KiGGS study (Wave 1, 2009-2012) on the health of children and adolescents was investigated. Data from 1727 mothers who reported on health-specific characteristics of their infants (0 to 2 years), on their own educational background, and on characteristics of the family were analyzed. The influence of maternal education on indices of health and health behavior in infants was investigated by means of logistic regression; additional predictors were considered in regression models. RESULTS: Higher maternal education was associated with better health behavior, but not with overall infant health. The impact of maternal education on health behavior remained significant when considering other predictors (financial worries, low maternal age at childbirth, premature birth/low birth weight). Overall, low maternal education was accompanied by an accumulation of additional risks. CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal education can help infants have a good start in their lives. The impact of poor health behavior on infant health may not become apparent until later in their lives. For prevention and intervention, it is important to identify sensitive stages of development during childhood and the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between maternal education and infant health behavior.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/educação , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno , Pais , Gravidez
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 823-835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420761

RESUMO

When analyzing effect heterogeneity, the researcher commonly opts for stratification or a regression model with interactions. While these methods provide valuable insights, their usefulness can be somewhat limited, since they typically fail to take into account heterogeneity with respect to many dimensions simultaneously, or give rise to models with complex appearances. Based on the potential outcomes framework and through imputation of missing potential outcomes, our study proposes a method for analyzing heterogeneous effects by focusing on treatment effects rather than outcomes. The procedure is easy to implement and generates estimates that take into account heterogeneity with respect to all relevant dimensions at the same time. Results are easily interpreted and can additionally be represented by graphs, showing the overall magnitude and pattern of heterogeneity as well as how this relates to different factors. We illustrate the method both with simulations and by examining heterogeneous effects of obesity on HDL cholesterol in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort. Obesity was associated with reduced HDL in almost all individuals, but effects varied with smoking, risky alcohol consumption, higher education, and energy intake, with some indications of non-linear effects. Our approach can be applied by any epidemiologist who wants to assess the role and strength of heterogeneity with respect to a multitude of factors.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , HDL-Colesterol , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Obesidade , Fumar
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 66, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448028

RESUMO

Introduction: Unattended pregnancies are characterized by significant morbidity maternal and morbidity and mortality fetal. This study aims to determine the frequency of unattended pregnancies, to describe the socio-demographic profile and to assess the maternal and fetal outcomes during childbirth among women who did not attend antenatal care (ANC) in the city of Lubumbashi. Methods: It was an analytical cross-sectional study of maternal pregnancy from December 2013 to May 2014 in 10 maternity hospitals in Lubumbashi. Women who did not receive ANC were compared to women who had followed them (ANC≥4). Maternal socio-demographic parameters, maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Results: We found that the frequency of no pregnancy monitoring was 21.23% and the mean number of antenatal visits was 2.6 ± 1.9. An analysis of the relationship between ANC and socio-demographic characteristics of women who were delivered shows that the lack of follow-up was 2.29 times higher for adolescent girls than for adult women (OR=2.29 [1.54-3.41]), 4 times higher for women living alone than for women living in unions (OR=4.00 [2.05-7.79]) and 4.08 times higher for women with low levels of education (illiterate or primary) than among those with a high level of education (OR=4.08 [3.08-5.40]). Compared to those who followed them well, we did not find that women who did not attend ANC had a high risk of obstetric emergency (OR = 1.90 [1.26-2.95]), rupture of membranes fetal admission (OR=1.31 [1.02-1.68]), fetal mal presentation (OR=1.89 [1.03-3.44]), caesarean delivery (OR=1.78 [1.21-2.63]), eclampsia (OR=3.00 [1.09-8.70]), uterine rupture (OR=4.76 [1.00-47.19]) and anemia (OR=2.33 [1.06-5.13]). Rates of preterm birth (OR = 1.93 [1.33-2.80]), post-maturity (OR=1.47 [1.00-2.30]), low birth weight (OR=2.33 [1.56-3.46]), neonatal depression (OR=3.89 [2.52-6.02]), neonatal transfer (OR=1.60 [1.11-2.32]) and perinatal mortality (OR=2.70 [1.59-4.57]) were significantly higher in neonates from women with prenatal consultations than in those with well followed. Conclusion: Our study shows that the lack of follow-up of ANC is associated with high maternal morbidity and high perinatal morbidity and mortality in our environment.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Maternidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190046, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food consumption according to the degree of processing and associations with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of the Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), with 520 civil servants of university campuses, Rio de Janeiro, 2012-13. A food frequency questionnaire was used to classify food consumption: 1) in natura, minimally processed, food preparations based on these foods; 2) processed foods; 3) ultra-processed foods. The relative energy contribution of each group was determined, and a seemingly unrelated equations regression (SUR) regression model was used to estimate associations with sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The in natura food group (1) contributed with 59% of the energy consumption and was directly associated with age [45-49 years (ß = 1.8 confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI -1.2; 4.8); 50-54 (ß = 1.5 95%CI -1.5; 4.5); 55-59 (ß = 2.9 95%CI -0.4; 6.3) and ≥ 60 (ß = 4.6 95%CI 1.1; 8.2)], compared to age ≤ 44. In contrast, the group of ultra-processed foods contributed 27% and were inversely associated with age [45-49 (ß = -1.7 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 50-54 (ß = -1.8 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 55-59 (ß = -4.9 95%CI -8.0; -2.0); ≥ 60 (ß = -4.5 95%CI -7.6; -1.5)]. Gender, income and schooling were not associated with food consumption. CONCLUSION: Younger adults had higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, indicating the need for interventions mainly in this age group. The absence of association with other sociodemographic characteristics may be due to the influence of contextual factors.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
16.
JAMA ; 322(8): 756-763, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454044

RESUMO

Importance: There are substantial and increasing educational differences in US adult life expectancy. To reduce social inequalities in mortality, it is important to understand how specific causes of death have contributed to increasing educational differences in adult life expectancy in recent years. Objective: To estimate the relationship of specific causes of death with increasing educational differences in adult life expectancy from 2010 to 2017. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional study of 4 690 729 deaths recorded in the US National Vital Statistics System in 2010 and 2017. Exposures: Sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy at age 25 years and years of life lost between ages 25 and 84 years by cause of death. Results: The analysis included a total of 2 211 633 deaths in 2010 and 2 479 096 deaths in 2017. Between 2010 and 2017, life expectancy at age 25 significantly declined among white and black non-Hispanic US residents from an expected age at death of 79.34 to 79.15 years (difference, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.23 to -0.14]). Greater decreases were observed among persons with a high school degree or less (white men: -1.05 years [95% CI, -1.15 to -0.94], white women: -1.14 years [95% CI, -1.24 to -1.04], and black men: -0.30 years [95% CI, -0.56 to -0.04]). White adults with some college education but no 4-year college degree experienced similar declines in life expectancy (men: -0.89 years [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.73], women: -0.59 years [95% CI, -0.77 to -0.42]). In contrast, life expectancy at age 25 significantly increased among the college-educated (white men: 0.58 years [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.73], white women: 0.78 years [95% CI, 0.57 to 1.00], and black women: 1.70 years [95% CI, 0.91 to 2.53]). The difference between high- and low-education groups increased from 2010 to 2017, largely because life-years lost to drug use increased among those with a high school degree or less (white men: 0.93 years [95% CI, 0.90 to 0.96], white women: 0.50 years [95% CI, 0.47 to 0.52], black men: 0.75 years [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.79], and black women: 0.28 years [95% CI, 0.25 to 0.31]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this serial cross-sectional study, estimated life expectancy at age 25 years declined overall between 2010 and 2017; however, it declined among persons without a 4-year college degree and increased among college-educated persons. Much of the increasing educational differences in years of life lost may be related to deaths attributed to drug use.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010430, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448111

RESUMO

Background: Secondary education and delayed marriage provide long-term socio-economic and health benefits to adolescent girls. We tested whether a structural and norms-based intervention, which worked with adolescent girls, their families, communities, and secondary schools to address poverty, schooling quality and gender norms, could reduce secondary school drop-out and child marriage among scheduled-caste/scheduled-tribe (SC/ST) adolescent girls in rural settings of southern India. Methods: 80 of 121 villages in Vijayapura and Bagalkote districts, Karnataka State, were randomly selected (control = 40; intervention = 40). All 12-13 year-old SC/ST girls in final year of primary school (standard 7th) were enrolled and followed for 3 years (2014-2017) until the end of secondary school (standard 10th). Primary trial outcomes were proportion of girls who completed secondary school and were married, by trial end-line (15-16 years). Analyses were intention-to-treat and used individual-level girl data. Results: 92.6% (2275/2457) girls at baseline and 72.8% (1788/2457) at end-line were interviewed. At end-line, one-fourth had not completed secondary school (control = 24.9%; intervention = 25.4%), and one in ten reported being married (control = 9.6%; intervention = 10.1%). These were lower than expected based on district-level data available before the trial, with no difference between these, or other schooling or sexual and reproductive outcomes, by trial arm. There was a small but significant increase in secondary school entry (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 3.58, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.36-9.44) and completion (AOR=1.54, 95%CI = 1.02-2.34) in Vijayapura district. The sensitivity and attrition analyses did not impact the overall result indicating that attrition of girls at end-line was random without much bearing on overall result. Conclusions: Samata intervention had no overall impact, however, it added value in one of the two implementation districts- increasing secondary school entry and completion. Lower than expected school drop-out and child marriage rates at end-line reflect strong secular changes, likely due to large-scale government initiatives to keep girls in school and delay marriage. Although government programmes may be sufficient to reach most girls in these settings, a substantial proportion of SC/ST girls remain at-risk of early marriage and school drop-out, and require targeted programming. Addressing multiple forms of clustered disadvantage among hardest to reach will be key to ensuring India "leaves no-one behind" and achieves its gender, health and education Sustainable Development Goal aspirations. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01996241.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
18.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(5): 397-408, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394932

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to generate normative data on the M-WCST in a Lebanese adult population and to examine the relationship between performance on this task and demographic variables. The sample consisted of 220 healthy adults aged between 18 and 64 years. Regression-based strategy was applied to generate normative data. The results showed a statistically significant effect of age and level of education on the M-WCST measures, whereas gender was not significant. Demographically calibrated percentiles and scaled scores were created. Finally, this study was the first to provide normative-adjusted tables for the M-WCST scores in Lebanon.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Escolaridade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Classificação de Cartas de Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393348

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by different etiological agents with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics accounting for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Since 1996, the Brazilian Department of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV) in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense has been conducting periodic serosurveys of conscripts enlisted for the Brazilian army to assess STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge and risk factors pertaining to STIs. This article aims to present the hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen - HBsAg) and C (anti-HCV) seroprevalence estimates and risk factors as per the 8th edition of the Conscript Survey performed in 2016.This cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire and blood testing for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C.In total 38,247 conscripts were enrolled; after applying exclusion criteria, 37,282 conscripts were included. The estimated HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were 0.22% and 0.28%, respectively. Higher HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were observed in the North Region (0.49%) and in the Central-west Region (0.65%), respectively. Regarding hepatitis B vaccination, 23.5% (n = 8412) of the individuals reported being unvaccinated and 47.4% (n = 16,970) did not know if they had been vaccinated. Among the anti-HCV positive conscripts, 53% (n = 51, 0.56%, P = .049) reported that they had never had sexual intercourse. Regarding self-reported STI status, most of the positive anti-HCV (n = 100, 0.29%, P < .01) and positive HBsAg (n = 76, 0.22%, P = .205) conscripts reported not having a STI. From those who tested positive for HBsAg, 89% (n = 42, 0.28%, P = .005) reported not making consistent use of condoms with steady partners.Our data suggest a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian young men, and relatively low rates of self-reported HBV immunization. History of STIs, higher number of partners, inconsistent use of condoms, and lack of awareness of routes of transmission were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections. To achieve the World Health Organization's goal of viral hepatitis elimination, access to hepatitis information, testing, and surveillance need to be improved.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(5): 941-947, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a novel decision aid (DA) in improving the patients' level of knowledge and decreasing decisional conflicts while deciding for SWL vs. RIRS in case of a symptomatic renal stone < 2 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective randomized study patients were randomized to receive either standard informing process (group 1, n=57) or DA (group 2, n=58). Level of knowledge was assessed with a questionnaire of 10 questions before and after patient informing process. Level of decisional conflict was assessed with a previously validated scoring system. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with adequate level of knowledge. RESULTS: Level of knowledge increased significantly in both groups after patient informing process. The increase was significantly more prominent in group 2 (p=0.045). Percentage of patients with adequate knowledge was also higher in group 2 (56.1%vs.74.1%, p=0.04). Mean decisional conflict scale score (higher score indicates higher decisional conflict level) was also significantly higher in group1 (14.7±14.5 vs. 10.1±13.7, p=0.045). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed higher education level (college degree) and use of DA as factors associated with adequate level of knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, The DA was shown to have a positive impact on level of knowledge and diminish the level of decisional conflict for patients with a symptomatic non-lower pole renal stone < 20 mm. We recommend development and use of DAs for particular clinic scenarios to aid in education of patients and shared decision making process in stone disease clinics.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Litotripsia a Laser/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Conflito (Psicologia) , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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