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1.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 245-254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017731

RESUMO

Women comprise approximately 50% of medical students; however, only 14% of current orthopaedic residents are women. There are many factors that contribute to the reluctance of female medical students to enter the field including limited exposure to musculoskeletal medicine during medical school, negative perception of the field, lack of female mentors, barriers to promotion, and acceptance by senior faculty. Diversity in orthopaedics is critical to provide culturally competent care. Two pipeline programs, the Perry Initiative and Nth Dimensions, have successful track records in increasing female and underrepresented minorities in orthopaedic surgery residency training. Recognizing and combating implicit bias in orthopaedics will improve recruitment, retention, promotion, and compensation of female orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the current status of women in orthopaedics, describe ways to improve diversity in the field, and make surgeons aware of how implicit bias can contribute to discrepancies seen in orthopaedic surgery, including pay scale inequities and women in leadership positions.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Médicas , Sexismo , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos
3.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 331-342, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze why women quit full-time employment as neurosurgeons and to discuss the conditions required for their reinstatement. METHODS: We asked 94 core hospitals providing training programs in the board certification system adopted by the Japan Neurosurgical Society to indicate the total number and present status of women in their department and to send our anonymous questionnaire to women who had formerly worked as full-time neurosurgeons. The questionnaire consisted of closed and open questions on their reasons for quitting as full-time neurosurgeons. RESULTS: Among 427 women evaluated, 72 (17%) had quit full-time employment as neurosurgeons. Twenty-one women who had quit 3-21 years after starting their neurosurgery careers responded to the questionnaire, including 17 board-certified neurosurgeons, 11 individuals with master's degrees, and 16 mothers. Their main reasons for quitting full-time work were difficulty in balancing their neurosurgical career and motherhood (52%) and the physical burden (38%). At the time of quitting, only 2 units (5%) had a career counseling system for women. Two thirds of participants might resume full-time work as neurosurgeons in the future. Their support system during pregnancy and the child-raising period, and understanding of male bosses and colleagues were identified as the key themes. CONCLUSIONS: The Japan Neurosurgical Society could facilitate supportive environments for women in neurosurgery by enhancing adequate childcare services, changing the work style of full-time neurosurgeons to incorporate diverse working styles, shorter working hours, understanding of their bosses and colleagues, and a career counseling system.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgiões , Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e535-e539, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery is a notoriously difficult career to enter and requires medical students to engage in extracurricular activities to demonstrate their commitment to the specialty. The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC) was established in 2013 as a means for students to display this commitment as well as academic ability. METHODS: A bespoke 22-item questionnaire was designed to determine career outcomes and the role of competition attendance in job applications. It was distributed using the SurveyMonkey website to the 87 attendees at the 2013 and 2014 competitions. RESULTS: Responses were received by 40 competitors (response rate, 46.0%). Twenty-four responders (60.0%) intended to pursue a career in either neurosurgery (n = 18) or neurology (n = 6). This included 10 responders (25.0%) who had successfully entered either neurosurgery (n = 9) or neurology (n = 1). The performance of these 10 was significantly better than the other responders (57.0 ± 13.6% vs. 46.5 ± 13.5% [n = 30]; P = 0.036). Seventeen responders (42.5%) either included their attendance at NUNC in a post-Foundation job application or intend to. CONCLUSIONS: The NUNC provides the opportunity for medical students to demonstrate their interest in neurosurgery. It has the potential to be used as a tool for recognizing medical students suitable for neurosurgery training.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Neurocirurgia , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Medicina , Distinções e Prêmios , Humanos , Neuroanatomia
5.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1105): 20190340, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare key characteristics of interventional radiology (IR) training in the UK with four other English-speaking countries (USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) and summarise requirements for training. METHODS: Main features examined were career pathway and requirements, examinations required, specific competition for IR and the process of applying for training as an international medical graduate. Data were collected from official governing body publications, literature and personal experience. RESULTS: Several differences were highlighted, including length of training (ranging from 6 to 9 years after medical school), length of IR-specific training (ranging from 1 to 3 years) and examinations required (USA and Canada have additional IR-specific examinations). The level of competition is generally high, in all countries. CONCLUSIONS: With the demand for IR services set to increase over the next few years, it is crucial that more IR specialists are trained to meet this demand. Awareness of training structures in other countries can highlight opportunity and pitfalls, and help ensure the number of highly trained interventional radiologists in the UK continues to grow.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Radiologia Intervencionista/educação , Austrália , Canadá , Escolha da Profissão , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
11.
Nursing ; 49(12): 53-56, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764875

RESUMO

Health science librarianship may interest nurses inclined toward research, technology, and education. This article discusses the role of health science librarians as part of the clinical team.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Biblioteconomia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Satisfação no Emprego , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Especialização
12.
J Vet Med Educ ; 46(4): 545-554, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756150

RESUMO

Despite the critical influence of motivation on education and work outcomes, little is known about the motivations driving people to become and remain veterinarians. This qualitative study explored the career motivations stated by Australian veterinary graduates (n = 43) using a free-response Ten Statements Test (TST) at graduation, with follow-up interviews 6-8 months later (n = 10). TST responses were coded using an alternate inductive-deductive approach that tested their fit against existing theories of motivation. Results showed that the stated motivations were predominantly oriented to perceived value, rather than self-beliefs such as expectancy of success. About a quarter of the statements were animal-related, principally themed around intrinsic animal orientation (e.g., I like animals) or extrinsic animal-related purpose (e.g., I want to help animals). However, many non-animal themes also emerged, including both intrinsic (e.g., love of learning, challenge/problem solving, variety, social relatedness) and extrinsic (e.g., helping people, social contribution, career opportunity) motivations. Interview data revealed a motivational narrative of early formative influences, with some interviewees describing a later transition toward more people- or goal-oriented motivations. This exploratory study, outlining a broad taxonomy of veterinary career motivations and their alignment to self-determination theory in particular, may provide a useful framework for exploring career motivations in veterinary education.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Austrália , Humanos , Motivação
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1511, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the transition to adulthood many young adults become obese for the first time in their lives, yet relatively little research has examined why people in this life phase become obese. This study examines what career and family life-course pathways during the transition to adulthood are related to developing obesity in young adulthood. METHODS: We use data from the NLSY97, a U.S. nationally representative panel survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 1997 to 2013 (N = 4688), and apply multichannel sequence analysis in order to identify clusters of typical career-family pathways during the transition to adulthood (age 17 to 27), and subsequently investigate whether these pathways are associated with becoming obese at the end of young adulthood (age 28), using logistic regression. We control for obesity at age 17 and family background factors (race, parental education, parental income, and family structure). To take into account the fact that the transition to adulthood has a different meaning for men and for women, we also interact career-family clusters with gender. RESULTS: For women, pathways characterized by college education, early home leaving, and postponement of family formation decrease the probability of becoming obese. For men, pathways characterized by early marriage increase the probability of becoming obese. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of gender differences in how career and family pathways are related to becoming obese in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Emprego , Família , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Casamento , Obesidade/etiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J R Soc Med ; 112(11): 462-471, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710823

RESUMO

Locum doctors are often perceived to present greater risks of causing harm to patients than permanent doctors. After eligibility and quality assessment, eight empirical and 34 non-empirical papers were included in a narrative synthesis to establish what was known about the quality and safety of locum medical practice. Empirical literature was limited and weak methodologically. Locums enabled healthcare organisations to maintain appropriate staffing levels and allowed staffing flexibility, but they also gave rise to concerns about continuity of care, patient safety, team function and cost. There was some evidence to suggest that the way locum doctors are recruited, employed and used by organisations, may result in a higher risk of harm to patients. A better understanding of the quality and safety of locum working is needed to improve the use of locum doctors and the quality and safety of patient care that they provide.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Satisfação no Emprego , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Humanos
18.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e8, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714110

RESUMO

Understanding the knowledge and perceptions of veterinary students of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as potential future prescribers of antimicrobials may serve as an opportunity to improve stewardship of AMR. Pre-final (n = 42) and final (n = 29) year veterinary students of the University of Pretoria completed questionnaires to determine their knowledge and perceptions of AMR. Of the 71 respondents, mixed practice (48%) and small animal practice (45%) were the most preferred career choices post-graduation, with the field of gross pathology being the least preferred. Over 80% of the respondents believed that veterinary practitioners' misuse of antimicrobials contributes to AMR and a higher percentage (98.6%) believed that farmers' misuse of antimicrobials encourages the development of AMR, in particular, in food animals (60.6%) compared to companion animals (50.7%). Agreement in the ranking of abuse of antimicrobials between pre-final and final year students was fair (36.4%; kappa 0.3), and the most abused antimicrobials in descending order listed by the students were tetracyclines, penicillins, sulphonamides and aminoglycosides. There was wide disparity between training and potential field application, as well as variations in the correct matching of antimicrobials to their respective antibiotic classes. Responses to the clinical application of antimicrobials also varied widely. Despite the apparent teaching of AMR to veterinary students, gaps may exist in the translation of theoretical concepts to clinical applications, hence the need for focused and targeted antimicrobial prescription and stewardship training to bridge these potential identified gaps.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina Veterinária , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br Dent J ; 227(8): 741-746, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654014

RESUMO

Orthodontics, like all areas of dentistry, offers the option to pursue a career in academia. In addition to providing clinical care for patients, academic orthodontists have a role in educating dental students and the wider dental community. There is also the option to engage with and undertake research, which may advance treatment and improve patient care. There is currently a shortage of academic orthodontists in the UK, with institutions reporting difficulties in the recruitment to academic posts. This problem is not only confined to orthodontics but widespread among dentistry. As a result, there is concern regarding the long-term future of dental academia. This paper considers why this might be the case and aims to raise awareness of the shortage in dental academic staff. It will discuss some of the main reasons put forward to explain this shortage and offer information and guidance to those interested in pursuing a career as an orthodontic academic.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Ortodontia , Escolha da Profissão , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Ortodontistas , Estudantes de Odontologia
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