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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(14): 1002-1008, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845538

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the risk factors and prognostic impact of massive introperative blood loss in posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods: Clinical data were collected of 1 896 AIS patients who underwent PSF surgery under general anesthesia in Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School from November 2010 to October 2019 and retrospectively analyzed. According to the volume of intraoperative blood loss, the patients were divided into the massive introperative blood loss group [estimated blood loss (EBL)/estimated blood volume (EBV)≥30%] and the non-massive introperative blood loss group (EBL/EBV<30%). The perioperative parameters between the two groups were compared, single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors related to massive introperative blood loss in PSF surgery. Results: A total of 1 896 AIS patients who underwent PSF surgery were included in the study. There were 298 males and 1 598 females, with an age of (14.5±1.7) years. Among them, 633 (33%) experienced massive intraoperative blood loss. The factors significantly related to the massive blood loss during PSF surgery in this study are: sex, body mass index(BMI), preoperative blood platelet count (PLT), prothrombin time, international normalized ratio(INR), preoperative Cobb angle, duration of operation, the number of fused levels, the number of screws, thoracoplasty, intraoperative use of tranexamic acid and dexmedetomidine; The independent factors included duration of operation longer than 4 hours(OR=4.311,P<0.001), the number of fused levels to be more than 10(OR=4.044,P<0.001), thoracoplasty (OR=2.174,P=0.019), BMI lower than 18.1 kg/m2(OR=2.094,P<0.001), preoperative PLT less than 186.5×109/L(OR=1.480,P=0.009), preoperative INR larger than 1 (OR=1.531,P=0.003) and preoperative Cobb angle larger than 53°(OR=1.306,P=0.036) ;Intraoperative use of tranexamic acid (OR=0.770, P=0.047) and dexmedetomidine (OR=0.653, P=0.008) are protective factors for massive intraoperative blood loss. In addition, in the massive intraoperative blood loss group, length of postoperative hospital stay (P<0.001), volume of postoperative incision drainage (P<0.001), postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion rate (22.7% vs 14.3%, P<0.001), incidence of postoperative hypoalbuminemia (90.3% vs 80.7%, P<0.001) and the number of rescue opioid analgesic requirements after surgery (P=0.006) were significantly higher than those in the non-massive introperative blood loss group. Conclusions: Longer operation duration, higher number of fusion levels, lower BMI, lower preoperative PLT, higher INR, larger preoperative Cobb angle and intraoperative thoraplasty are independent risk factors for massive intraoperative blood loss in AIS patients undergoing PSF surgery. Intraoperative use of tranexamic acid and dexmedetomidine can reduce the risk of massive blood loss in PSF surgery. Massive intraoperative blood loss significantly affects the patient's prognosis.


Assuntos
Cifose , Escoliose , Fusão Vertebral , Adolescente , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escoliose/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 181, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The imaging characteristics of sacral sacralalar-iliac (S2AI) screw trajectory in adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) patients will be determined. METHODS: S2AI screw trajectories were mapped on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) reconstructions of 40 ADS patients. The starting point, placement plane, screw template, and a circle centered at the lowest point of the ilium inner cortex were set on these images. A tangent line from the starting point to the outer diameter of the circle was selected as the axis of the screw trajectory. The related parameters in different populations were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The trajectory length of S2AI screws in ADS patients was 12.00 ± 0.99 cm, the lateral angle was 41.24 ± 3.92°, the caudal angle was 27.73 ± 6.45°, the distance from the axis of the screw trajectory to the iliosciatic notch was 1.05 ± 0.81 cm, the distance from the axis of the screw trajectory to the upper edge of the acetabulum was 1.85 ± 0.33 cm, and the iliac width was 2.12 ± 1.65 cm. Compared with females, the lateral angle of male ADS patients was decreased, but the trajectory length was increased (P < 0.05). Compared to patients without ADS in previous studies, the lateral angle of male patients was larger, the lateral angle of female patients was increased, and the caudal angle was decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is an ideal trajectory of S2AI screws in ADS patients. A different direction should be noticed in the placement of S2AI screws, especially in female patients.


Assuntos
Ílio , Sacro , Escoliose , Adulto , Parafusos Ósseos , Feminino , Humanos , Ílio/diagnóstico por imagem , Ílio/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Sacro/diagnóstico por imagem , Sacro/cirurgia , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 52(2): 137-147, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752835

RESUMO

Anterior vertebral body tether (AVBT) is a nonfusion surgical procedure for correction of scoliosis in skeletally immature individuals. With US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2019, AVBT technology is spreading and early to midterm reports are being published. Early clinical reports are promising while precise indications, outcomes, complication profiles, and best practices are being established. Patients who are skeletally immature and wish to avoid a fusion surgery may benefit from this procedure. This article highlights the translational science foundation, early to midterm clinical reports, and future directions for this growing technique in pediatric spinal deformity surgery.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Escoliose/cirurgia , /cirurgia , Adolescente , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 165, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of congenital hemivertebra is challenging and data on long-term follow-up (≥ 5 years) are lacking. This study evaluated the surgical outcomes of posterior thoracolumbar hemivertebra resection and short-segment fusion with pedicle screw fixation for treatment of congenital scoliosis with over 5-year follow-up. METHODS: This study evaluated 27 consecutive patients with congenital scoliosis who underwent posterior thoracolumbar hemivertebra resection and short-segment fusion from January 2007 to January 2015. Segmental scoliosis, total main scoliosis, compensatory cranial curve, compensatory caudal curve, trunk shift, shoulder balance, segmental kyphosis, and sagittal balance were measured on radiographs. Radiographic outcomes and all intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: The segmental main curve was 40.35° preoperatively, 11.94° postoperatively, and 13.24° at final follow-up, with an average correction of 65.9%. The total main curve was 43.39° preoperatively, 14.13° postoperatively, and 16.06° at final follow-up, with an average correction of 60.2%. The caudal and cranial compensatory curves were corrected from 15.78° and 13.21° to 3.57° and 6.83° postoperatively and 4.38° and 7.65° at final follow-up, with an average correction of 69.2% and 30.3%, respectively. The segmental kyphosis was corrected from 34.30° to 15.88° postoperatively and 15.12° at final follow-up, with an average correction of 61.9%. A significant correction (p < 0.001) in segmental scoliosis, total main curve, caudal compensatory curves and segmental kyphosis was observed from preoperative to the final follow-up. The correction in the compensatory cranial curve was significant between preoperative and postoperative and 2-year follow-up (p < 0.001), but a statistically significant difference was not observed between the preoperative and final follow-up (p > 0.001). There were two implant migrations, two postoperative curve progressions, five cases of proximal junctional kyphosis, and four cases of adding-on phenomena. CONCLUSION: Posterior thoracolumbar hemivertebra resection after short-segment fusion with pedicle screw fixation in congenital scoliosis is a safe and effective method for treatment and can achieve rigid fixation and deformity correction.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Escoliose , Fusão Vertebral , Vértebras Torácicas , Seguimentos , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 106, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early onset scoliosis (EOS) may cause malnutrition in affected patients. Growing-rod treatment has been an effective protocol for treating EOS. The objective of this study is to demonstrate whether growing-rod treatment improves nutritional status of EOS patients. METHODS: Fifty-two EOS patients who had dual growing-rod surgery was enrolled. The minimum follow-up was 3-years. Their body weights were normalized based on the data of two National Population Census of China. Z-scores were used to indicate the standard deviation from the median body weight-for-age. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 6 years. Preoperatively, the prevalence of malnutrition (Z < - 2) was 21.2%, and reduced to 9.6% at the end of the follow-up. Preoperatively, the average Z-score was - 0.94, and it increased to - 0.65 at the latest follow-up (p < 0.05). Patients with preoperative Z-score below - 1 had more significant increase of Z-scores (- 2.15 vs - 1.26, p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation between the change of Z-score and the preoperative Z-score (correlation coefficient - 0.65, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The growing rod surgery and lengthening procedures significantly improves the nutrition status of EOS patients. The body weight gains are more significant in patients with lower body weights.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Escoliose , China , Seguimentos , Humanos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(3): 536-541, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641409

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the correction achieved using a convex pedicle screw technique and a low implant density achieved using periapical concave-sided screws and a high implant density. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in outcome between the two techniques. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a series of 51 patients with a thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There were 26 patients in the convex pedicle screw group who had screws implanted periapically (Group 2) and a control group of 25 patients with bilateral pedicle screws (Group 1). The patients' charts were reviewed and pre- and postoperative radiographs evaluated. Postoperative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were recorded. RESULTS: The number of implants (14.5 vs 17.1) and the implant density (1.5 vs 1.9) were significantly lower in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Operating time was 27 minutes shorter in Group 2 than in Group 1, with a mean of 217 minutes (SD 50.5; 120 to 346). The duration of surgery per instrumented vertebra was reduced by 19% in Group 2 (p = 0.011). No statistical difference was found in the postoperative Cobb angle, vertebral rotation, the relative correction achieved, or postoperative PROMs. CONCLUSION: Despite a lower implant density and achieving correction through a convex rod, surgical correction of the Cobb angle and vertebral body rotation was similar in both groups. Periapical pedicle screws and primary correction on the concave side do not seem to be mandatory in order to achieve good surgical results in idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. The operating time was shorter in the group with lower implant density. In conclusion, the technique provided good results and has the potential to reduce complications and costs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):536-541.


Assuntos
Parafusos Pediculares , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24030, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725816

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine if multiple intraspinal anomalies increase the risk of scoliosis correction compared to the normal intraspinal condition or 1 or 2 intraspinal anomalies in congenital scoliosis (CS) and whether correction for multiple intraspinal anomalies need to be performed with preliminary neurosurgical intervention before scoliosis correction.A total of 318 consecutive CS patients who underwent corrective surgery without preliminary neurosurgical intervention at a single institution from 2008 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to different intraspinal conditions. In the normal group (N group; n = 196), patients did not have intraspinal anomalies. In the abnormal group (A group; n = 93), patients had 1 or 2 intraspinal anomalies. In the multiple anomaly group (M group; n = 29), patients had 3 or more intraspinal anomalies including syringomyelia, split cord malformation [SCM], tethered cord, low conus, intraspinal mass, Chiari malformation or/and arachnoid cyst. The occurrence of complications as well as perioperative and radiographic data were analyzed.The incidence rate of multiple intraspinal anomalies in CS patients was 9.1% (29/318). No significant difference was observed in the perioperative outcomes or radiographic parameters at the final follow-up. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups in the total, major or neurological complication rates (all P > .05). Two patients (1 in the N group and 1 in the A group) experienced transient neurological complications, whereas no patient experienced permanent neurological deficits during surgery or follow-up.To our knowledge, the current study reported the largest cohort of intraspinal anomalies in patients with CS that has been reported in the literature. The results of our study demonstrated that patients with congenital scoliosis associated with intraspinal anomalies, even multiple intraspinal anomalies that coexist with more complex intraspinal pathologies, may safely and effectively achieve scoliosis correction without preliminary neurological intervention. More complex intraspinal pathologies do not seem to increase the risk of neurosurgical complications during corrective surgery.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/complicações , Medula Espinal/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/normas , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/normas , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/complicações , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24675, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on respiratory functions after the surgery on the basis of early radiological findings, pain degree, function, and satisfaction scores in operated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). METHODS: Thirty patients with AIS were included in the present study, who were divided into 2 groups. Scoliosis surgery and diaphragmatic breathing and pursed lip exercises were applied in Group 1 (n = 15), whereas merely scoliosis surgery was applied in Group 2 (n = 15). Pulmonary functions, arterial blood gas analysis, Cobb and kyphosis angles, apical vertebral rotation, and apical vertebral translation were measured before and 1st and 6th months after the surgery. Using the SRS-30 test, the psychosocial statuses of the patients and their satisfaction degrees with surgery applied were measured before and after the surgery. RESULTS: Six months after the surgery, the values of Cobb and kyphosis angles and apical vertebral rotations, and apical vertebral translation of the patients were determined to be significantly ameliorated, which is consistent with the literature. Forced vital capacity (l) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (l/s) were observed to be significantly improved in both groups after the surgery (respectively, P = .001, P = .014, P = .001, P = .005). In addition, the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) value was found to be significantly increased 6 months after the surgery compared with that before the surgery in Group 2 (P = .022). SRS-30 showed that most of the scores in Group 1 were dramatically increased; a significant difference between the groups was not recorded. CONCLUSION: Patients with AIS have been found to be satisfied with the surgery. Conversely, pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to slightly improve the respiratory functions in the patients with AIS, 1 and 6 months after the surgery.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Adolescente , Gasometria/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diafragma , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Radiografia/métodos , Respiração , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
10.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(4): 477-484, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing corrective surgery are at risk for iatrogenic spinal cord injury and subsequent new neurologic deficits (NNDs). Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) has been used to identify spinal cord injury; however, available data showing that IONM leads to improved clinical outcomes are inconclusive. This exploratory study aimed to examine the incidence of NNDs after idiopathic scoliosis surgery in two pediatric institutions in Canada with a focus on IONM use. METHODS: Charts of pediatric patients (10-18 yr) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent scoliosis correction surgery were retrospectively identified from the operating room database. Data regarding incidence and severity (mild [isolated sensory deficit] vs severe [any motor deficit]) of NNDs as well as demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted. RESULTS: Of 547 patients reviewed, 359 (66%) underwent IONM and 186 (34%) underwent wake-up test. Neuromonitoring data were missing in two patients. Total incidence of NNDs was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 6.8). Compared with the wake-up test, patients undergoing IONM were less likely to develop NNDs (unadjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.86; P = 0.02). Nevertheless, subgroup analysis did not reveal a statistical difference in severity of those deficits (mild vs severe) with IONM vs wake-up test. Combined anterior and posterior approach was also significantly associated with increased risk of such deficits. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study revealed that IONM was associated with a reduced overall incidence of NNDs in idiopathic scoliosis correction; however, its impact on the severity of those deficits is questionable. As we were unable to adjust for confounding variables, further research is needed to determine the impact of IONM on NNDs.


Assuntos
Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Escoliose , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/cirurgia
11.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(6): E384-E391, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394978

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate factors affecting the likelihood of achieving minimum clinically important difference (MCID) to patient-reported outcomes defined by the Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) who underwent extensive corrective fusion surgery from the thoracic spine to the pelvis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Achieving MCID for SRS-22r parameters was a measure of surgical efficacy. Patient characteristics and surgical and radiographic factors that affect the likelihood of achieving MCID for SRS-22r parameters are unknown. METHODS: Data from patients with ASD who underwent extensive corrective fusion surgery from the thoracic spine to the pelvis during 2010 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Data from a total of 167 patients with ≥2 years of follow-up were included. Multivariate analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the likelihood of achieving MCID for each of the SRS-22r domains (Function, Pain, Subtotal) 2 years after surgery. The following MCID values were used: 0.90 for Function, 0.85 for Pain, and 1.05 for the Subtotal. RESULTS: MCID achievement rate was 36.5% for Function, 46.1% for Pain, and 44.3% for the Subtotal domain. In multivariate analysis, preoperative SRS-22r Function (odds ratio [OR] = 0.204, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.105-0.396) increased the likelihood of achieving MCID for SRS-22r Function. Preoperative SRS-22r Subtotal (OR = 0.211, 95% CI, 0.107-0.413), preoperative pelvic tilt (OR = 1.072, 95% CI, 1.012-1.136), preoperative pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (OR = 0.965, 95% CI, 0.934-0.997), and postoperative sagittal vertical axis (OR = 0.985, 95% CI, 0.974-0.995) affected the likelihood of achieving MCID for the SRS-22r Subtotal. CONCLUSION: Patients with poor preoperative health-related quality of life were more likely to achieve improvement in SRS-22r parameters after extensive corrective fusion surgery for ASD. Achieving postoperative sagittal alignment increased the likelihood of achieving MCID for the SRS-22r Subtotal domain.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Lordose/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/tendências , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/psicologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/psicologia , Fusão Vertebral/psicologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Instr Course Lect ; 70: 367-378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438922

RESUMO

The advantages of anterior, muscle-sparing interbody fusion for the management of degenerative scoliosis have been well defined in the literature. These include both direct and indirect decompression, restoration of disk/foraminal height and spinal biomechanics, correction of sagittal balance, and improved fusion rates. The continued evolution of minimally invasive techniques and surgical instrumentation has led to reduced morbidity for patients and increased popularity for anterior interbody techniques among surgeons. It is important to remember that when deciding on what interbody approach to use, the surgeon must consider goals of care, anatomic characteristics as seen on preoperative imaging, and surgical levels. Although each approach has distinct advantages and disadvantages, ultimately the most important deciding factor should lie with the surgeons' experience and comfort levels with each approach.


Assuntos
Escoliose , Fusão Vertebral , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Coluna Vertebral , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(1): e1-e6, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantially increased operative time and amount of bleeding may complicate the course of surgical treatment in neuromuscular scoliosis. A well-organized team approach is required to reduce morbidity. The aim of this study is to review our early, short-term surgical outcomes with our new integrated approach that includes a 2-attending surgeon team and modifications in the anesthesia protocol in low-tone neuromuscular scoliosis and compare with a matched cohort of our historic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our patients with (1) neuromuscular scoliosis with collapsing spine deformity, (2) low-tone neuromuscular etiology, (3) multilevel posterior column osteotomies with posterior all pedicle screw spinal fusion, and (4) more than 1-year follow-up. Patients were grouped into 2: group 1 consisted of patients managed with the integrated surgical team approach, group 2 included the matched historic patients. RESULTS: There were 16 patients in group 1 and 17 patients in group 2. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, number of levels fused, major coronal deformity magnitude, pelvic obliquity, number of posterior column osteotomies, or amount of deformity correction. However, significantly shorter operative time (241 vs. 297 min, P=0.006), less intraoperative bleeding (1082 vs. 1852 mL, P=0.001), less intraoperative blood transfusion (2.1 vs. 3.1 U, P=0.028), less postoperative intensive care unit admission (23% vs. 100%, P=0.001), and shorter hospital stay (4.7 vs. 5.9 d, P=0.013) were observed in group 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that spinal deformity surgery in patients with underlying low-tone neuromuscular disease may not be as intimidating as previously thought. Our surgical team approach integrating a 2-attending surgeon operative team, a new anesthetic protocol that includes a modification of perioperative blood management is effective in reducing operative times, blood loss, transfusion rates, intensive care unit admission, and length of hospital stay. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective comparative study.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Adolescente , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Doenças Neuromusculares/complicações , Duração da Cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Parafusos Pediculares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/etiologia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Cirurgiões , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(3): e204-e210, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few reports on the surgical management of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Affected patients tend to have more rapid curve progression than those with idiopathic EOS, and their course is further complicated by medical comorbidities. As surgical techniques and implants for growing spines become more widely applied, this study seeks to better delineate the safety and efficacy of growth-friendly spinal instrumentation in treating this population. METHODS: A prospective registry of children treated for EOS was queried for MFS patients treated between 1996 and 2016. Forty-two patients underwent rib-based or spine-based growing instrumentation and were assessed on preoperative, surgical, and postoperative clinical and radiographic parameters including complications and reoperations. Subgroup analysis was performed based on spine-based versus rib-based fixation. RESULTS: Patients underwent their index surgery at a mean age of 5.5 years, when the major coronal curve and kyphosis measured 77 and 50 degrees, respectively. Over half were treated with traditional growing rods. Patients underwent 7.2 total surgical procedures-4.7 lengthening and 1.9 revision surgeries not including conversion to fusion-over a follow-up of 6.5 (±4.1) years. Radiographic correction was greatest at index surgery but maintained over time, with a final thoracic height measuring 23.8 cm. Patients experienced a mean of 2.6 complications over the course of the study period; however, a small group of 6 patients experienced ≥6 complications while over half of patients experienced 0 or 1. Implant failures represented 42% of all complications with infection and pulmonary complications following. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest report on patients with EOS and MFS. All subtypes of growth-friendly constructs reduced curve progression in this cohort, but complications and reoperations were nearly universal; patients were particularly plagued by implant failure and migration. Further collaborations are needed to enhance understanding of optimal timing and fixation constructs for those with MFS and other connective tissue diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Marfan/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cifose/etiologia , Cifose/cirurgia , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/etiologia , Fusão Vertebral , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22420, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380733

RESUMO

Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) are commonly implanted for the treatment of early-onset scoliosis. While most authors report favorable short-term results, little is known about long-term deformity correction. This prospective cohort study assesses spinal deformity control in a homogeneous spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patient group treated with MCGR implants, a standardized lengthening protocol and a minimum follow-up of four years. 17 SMA patients with progressive scoliosis were treated with MCGR implanted parallel to the spine with rib-to-pelvis fixation. Radiologic measurements were performed before and after MCGR implantation and during external lengthening procedures. These included measurements of the scoliotic curve, kyphosis, lordosis, pelvic obliquity and the spinal length. Additional clinical data of the complications were also analyzed. 17 children (mean age 7.4 years) were surgically treated and underwent a total of 376 lengthenings. Complication rates were 3.5% in respect to all interventions or 41% of the patients had complications during 3.5% of the lengthening sessions. The initial implantation significantly reduced the main scoliotic curve by 59%, with the correction remaining constant throughout the follow-up. Pelvic obliquity was also significantly and permanently corrected by 72%, whereas kyphosis and lordosis were not influenced. The spinal length could be significantly increased mostly during the first year of treatment. Bilateral implantation of MCGRs for correction of spinal deformity in children with SMA showed no decrease of the lengthening potential during a four-year follow-up. Therefore, the previously described 'law of diminishing returns' could not be applied to this patient population.Level of Evidence/Clinical relevance: Therapeutic Level IV.


Assuntos
Alongamento Ósseo/instrumentação , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/cirurgia , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Alongamento Ósseo/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fixadores Internos , Cifose/etiologia , Cifose/patologia , Cifose/cirurgia , Lordose/etiologia , Lordose/patologia , Lordose/cirurgia , Magnetismo , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/complicações , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/patologia , Pelve/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próteses e Implantes , Costelas/cirurgia , Escoliose/etiologia , Escoliose/patologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1560-1566, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135451

RESUMO

AIMS: To report the mid-term results of a modified self-growing rod (SGR) technique for the treatment of idiopathic and neuromuscular early-onset scoliosis (EOS). METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 16 consecutive patients with EOS treated with an SGR construct at a single hospital between September 2008 and December 2014. General demographics and deformity variables (i.e. major Cobb angle, T1 to T12 length, T1 to S1 length, pelvic obliquity, shoulder obliquity, and C7 plumb line) were recorded preoperatively, and postoperatively at yearly follow-up. Complications and revision procedures were also recorded. Only patients with a minimum follow-up of five years after surgery were included. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were included. Six patients had an idiopathic EOS while ten patients had a neuromuscular or syndromic EOS (seven spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and three with cerebral palsy or a syndrome). Their mean ages at surgery were 7.1 years (SD 2.2) and 13.3 years (SD 2.6) respectively at final follow-up. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the major curve was 66.1° (SD 8.5°) and had improved to 25.5° (SD 9.9°) at final follow-up. The T1 to S1 length increased from 289.7 mm (SD 24.9) before surgery to 330.6 mm (SD 30.4) immediately after surgery. The mean T1 to S1 and T1 to T12 growth after surgery were 64.1 mm (SD 19.9) and 47.4 mm (SD 18.8), respectively, thus accounting for a mean T1 to S1 and T1 to T12 spinal growth after surgery of 10.5 mm/year (SD 3.7) and 7.8 mm/year (SD 3.3), respectively. A total of six patients (five idiopathic EOS, one cerebral palsy EOS) had broken rods during their growth spurt but were uneventfully revised with a fusion procedure. No other complications were noted. CONCLUSION: Our data show that SGR is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of EOS in nonambulatory hypotonic patients with a neuromuscular condition. Significant spinal growth can be expected after surgery and is comparable to other published techniques for EOS. While satisfactory correction of the deformity can be achieved and maintained with this technique, a high rate of rod breakage was seen in patients with an idiopathic or cerebral palsy EOS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1560-1566.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/etiologia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(10): 1169-1174, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive distractions of recently introduced magnetically controlled growing rods (MGCRs) spare multiple operations in the surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). Since the costs of the implants are high, concerns have been raised regarding cost-effective, optimal but safe MGCR options: single or dual constructs. OBJECTIVES: To report deformity control, spinal growth and complication incidence in EOS patients treated with MCGR singleor dual-rod constructs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 47 patients with MCGRs inserted at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (UK) in 2013-2014, who were followed up for at least 1 year. In 32 patients, T1-S1 distances, and coronal and sagittal curves were measured on preoperative and postoperative X-rays, and at a one-year follow-up. All complications were recorded. The patients were analyzed in 2 groups: those with single-rod constructs (24 patients) and those with dual-rod constructs (23 patients). RESULTS: Comparing postoperative with one-year follow-up measurements, T1-S1 length increase was better in the dual-rod group (3.29%) than in the single-rod group (0.34%) (p = 0.031). In the whole series, mean scoliosis magnitude dropped by 27.5% at the one-year follow-up. The dual-rod group showed better mean curve correction: 36.5% compared to 15.3% in the single-rod group (p = 0.0076). Overall, 34.04% of the patients had complications: 45.8% in the single-rod group and 30.4% in the dual-rod group (p = 0.0413). Metalwork failure was observed in 8 patients, lengthening problems in 5 and wound infections in 2; there was also 1 case of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). Preoperative hyperkyphosis was associated with more complications (75%, p = 0.037), most of which were metalwork failure (41.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The MCGRs are efficient at controlling EOS; however, the complication rate is high, particularly in single-rod constructs. The use of dual-rod constructs allows for better curve control, greater T1-S1 length increase and a lower complication rate.


Assuntos
Escoliose , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Próteses e Implantes , Radiografia , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral
18.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 875-880, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of short-term halo-pelvic traction (HPT) combined with surgery in the treatment of severe spinal deformities. METHODS: In the study, 24 patients diagnosed as severe spinal deformity accepted the treatment of one-stage short-term HPT and two-stage surgery from January 2015 to May 2018 in our orthopedics department. 24 cases (9 males and 15 females) were retrospectively reviewed. The average age of the cohort was (28.8±10.0) years (12-48 years). The height, scoliosis angle, kyphosis angle, the height difference of shoulders, the height difference of crista iliaca, C7PL-CSVL and the perpendicular distance of S1 and the convex point of the patients were assessed at pre-traction, post-traction and post-surgery. The paired t test was used to analyze the difference among pre-traction, post-traction and post-surgery. RESULTS: The average traction time of 24 cases was (2.5±1.1) weeks (1-5 weeks). The height of pre-traction and post-traction were (141.7±11.2) cm (116-167 cm) and (154.1±9.5) cm (136-176 cm) respectively, showing significant difference (P < 0.05), and the increased height was (12.4±4.6) cm (4-20 cm). The average scoliosis angle before traction was 104.9°±35.0°(25°ï¼158°), and it was significantly decreased in post-traction[64.8°±21.0°(19°ï¼92°)] and post-surgery[39.3°±17.0° (10°-70°)] (P < 0.05). The traction's coronal correction rate was 37.2%±10.9% (11.9%-51.2%) and the total coronal correction rate was 61.9%±12.6%(26.9%-79.0%). The average kyphosis angle before traction was 106.9°±29.2°(54°ï¼163°), and it was significantly decreased in post-traction [63.1°±17.1°(32°ï¼92°)] and post-surgery [39.0°±16.8°(10°ï¼68°)](P < 0.05). The traction's sagittal correction rate was 40.0%±10.7%(16.7%-55.5%) and the total sagittal correction rate was 64.3%±10.7%(49.0%-87.5%). The average C7PL-CSVL before traction was (3.2±2.8) cm, and it was significantly decreased in post-traction [(2.5±2.5) cm] (P < 0.05). The perpendicular distance of S1 and the convex point before traction was (10.5±4.8) cm, and it was significantly decreased in post-traction[(8.4±3.5) cm] (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The one-stage short-term HPT combined with two-stage surgery is a safe and effective procedure for severe spinal deformities. The clinical efficacy is satisfactory and the complication is relatively less.


Assuntos
Cifose , Escoliose , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Tração , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1375-1383, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993330

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate metallosis in patients with magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGRs) and characterize the metal particle profile of the tissues surrounding the rod. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of patients with early onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with MCGRs and undergoing rod exchange who were consecutively recruited between February 2019 and January 2020. Ten patients were recruited (mean age 12 years (SD 1.3); 2 M:8 F). The configurations of the MCGR were studied to reveal the distraction mechanisms, with crucial rod parts being the distractable piston rod and the magnetically driven rotor inside the barrel of the MCGR. Metal-on-metal contact in the form of ring-like wear marks on the piston was found on the distracted portion of the piston immediately outside the barrel opening (BO) through which the piston rod distracts. Biopsies of paraspinal muscles and control tissue samples were taken over and away from the wear marks, respectively. Spectral analyses of the rod alloy and biopsies were performed to reveal the metal constituents and concentrations. Histological analyses of the biopsies were performed with haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: Titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and neodymium (Nd) concentrations in the biopsies taken near the wear marks were found to be significantly higher than those in the control tissue samples. Significantly increased Nd concentrations were also found in the tissues near the barrel of the MCGR. Chronic inflammation was revealed by the histological studies with fibrosis and macrophage infiltration. Black particles were present within the macrophages in the fibrotic tissues. CONCLUSION: Ti and V were generated mainly at the BO due to metal-on-metal contact, whereas the Nd from the rotor of the MCGR is likely released from the BO during distraction sessions. Phagocytotic immune cells with black particles inside raise concern regarding the long-term implications of metallosis. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1375-1383.


Assuntos
Reação a Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Escoliose/cirurgia , Biópsia , Criança , Feminino , Reação a Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Magnetismo , Masculino , Neodímio/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Titânio/efeitos adversos , Vanádio/efeitos adversos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22426, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991478

RESUMO

Razor back deformity is one of the most noticeable problems of severe scoliosis. Thoracoplasty has been reported to be a useful approach to correct the rib hump deformity. However, the outcomes of thoracoplasty in patients with severe, rigid, thoracic scoliosis have not yet been evaluated.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a modified technique of thoracoplasty (rib ends fixed under transverse process) for rib hump deformity in adults with severe thoracic scoliosis and severe pulmonary dysfunction.Patients with severe thoracic scoliosis and severe pulmonary dysfunction who underwent staged surgical strategy including halo-pelvic traction, spinal osteotomy combined with the modified thoracoplasty were included. To avoid paradoxical breathing result from multiple rib resections and enlarge the capacity of thoracis, the ends after rib resection were fixed under transverse process compared with conventional thoracoplasty. Patients were excluded on the basis of pulmonary diseases and inadequate follow-up. Data on deformity correction and pulmonary complications were reviewed. A t test was performed on the pre- and postoperative data of pulmonary function, height of the rib hump deformity, and total lung area.Eighteen patients (5 men and 13 women) with a major thoracic curve of >130° were included. The mean age of patients was 25.3 ±â€Š3.6 years (range, 19-32 years), with an average length of follow-up of 30.2 months. After application of halo-pelvic traction, the mean major thoracic curve decreased from 168.2°â€Š±â€Š14.28° to 97.3°â€Š±â€Š10.75° and the thoracic kyphosis decreased from 159.4°â€Š±â€Š20.60° to 94.8°â€Š±â€Š9.58°. On average, 6.3 (range, 4-8) ribs were resected. The height of the rib hump decreased from 84.6 ±â€Š13.3 to 15.3 ±â€Š3.4 mm. The average predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) before surgery was 37.2 ±â€Š13.30%, indicative of severe pulmonary impairment, with a small but non-significant improvement in the FVC% at the final follow-up. The mean total lung area increased from 2583.2 ±â€Š501.36 to 2890.1 ±â€Š537.30 mL at the last follow-up. No severe pulmonary complications occurred.Our modified approach to thoracoplasty procedure is effective and safe in correcting a razor back deformity in patients with severe, rigid, scoliosis, and severe pulmonary dysfunction, without causing any significant change in long-term pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Escoliose/cirurgia , Toracoplastia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Toracoplastia/efeitos adversos , Toracoplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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