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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692856

RESUMO

Introduction: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) may be on the increase as a result of changing lifestyles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of associated factors in 18-35 year old Nigerians and compare to findings from a similar European study. Methods: Following ethical approval, 1349 subjects from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria participated in this cross sectional study. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no) and investigator rated pain using the Schiff ordinal scale (0-3). Erosive tooth wear using the BEWE index was assessed. A questionnaire regarding the nature of the DH, erosive dietary intakes, tooth brushing habits and other factors was completed by patients. Bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: 32.8% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 32.9% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Questionnaire reported sensitivity was 41.2%. There were statistically significant associations between Schiff score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001); and BEWE erosive tooth wear score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001). There were significant associations between DH and some oral hygiene practices such as brushing frequency, brush movement and brushing after breakfast. Fresh fruit and fruit/vegetable juice intake also showed significant association. Conclusion: The most important risk factors of DH for this population in Nigeria appear to be the frequency and characteristics of tooth brushing. This should be considered in its prevention and management.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 258, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as childhood neurobehavioural disorder. Due to short attention span, oral hygiene and dental treatment of such individuals can be challenging. Aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health of children and adolescents with and without ADHD living in residential care in rural Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. METHODS: Included in the study were 79 participants (male/female:58/21, age 9-15 years) living in residential care: 34 participants with ADHD and 45 participants without ADHD (control). Oral examination included the following parameters decayed, missing, filled teeth in the primary dentition (dmft), decayed, missing, filled surfaces/teeth in the secondary dentition (DMFS/DMFT), approximal plaque index (API), bruxism and orthodontic treatment. Additionally, oral hygiene, last dental visit and treatment performed, and dietary habits were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dmft, API, bruxism and oral hygiene habits between groups. However, participants with ADHD tended to have higher DMFS/DMFT values than the control group. Ongoing orthodontic treatment was found more often in the control group. The ADHD group tended to consume acidic/sugary beverages and sweet snacks more often than the controls. Different treatments (control visit/prophylaxis, dental therapy, orthodontic treatment) were performed at the last dental visit in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, oral health was similar in children and adolescents with or without ADHD from the same residential care setting. Parents/guardians need instructions for better supervision of oral hygiene and dietary habits to improve the poor oral health of children with or without ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Residenciais , População Rural , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623067

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the association between the number of existing teeth (NET) and socioeconomic status (SES), oral health-related behaviours, and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults aged 55-79 years. The study included 3255 adults who underwent oral health examinations and answered questionnaires regarding SES, oral health-related behaviours, and metabolic diseases in the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2015). The dependent variable was the binary status based on the median NET in each age group. The independent variables were based on SES, oral health-related behaviours, and the presence of metabolic syndrome. The study findings showed that the factors associated with the NET were sex, household income, education level, region of residence, daily toothbrushing frequency, dental visit within 1 year, smoking, and metabolic syndrome. NET was lower in males (adjusted OR: 0.74), in low household income group (adjusted OR: 0.77), in primary school graduates (adjusted OR: 0.53), in rural residents (adjusted OR: 0.78), and in medicaid beneficiaries (adjusted OR: 0.78). The interventions aimed at preserving existing teeth in elderly population should consider their SES, oral health-related behaviours, and metabolic syndrome and overhauling current oral healthcare system and redefining the roles of oral health professionals.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 68, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries offer systematic group prevention programs in kindergarten and school in order to promote children's oral health. Little is known, however, about the actual toothbrushing abilities of children when group prevention programs end. METHODS: In Germany, all children take advantage from a nationwide group prevention program (called "Gruppenprophylaxe") lasting from kindergarten up to sixth grade (12 years of age). Standardized recommendations are given concerning brushing systematics and brushing movements. N = 174 children at the age of 12 were thus randomly selected from two German towns and were asked to perform toothbrushing to the best of their abilities in front of a mirror which also served as a camera. Brushing behavior was analyzed by video analysis. RESULTS: Children brushed their teeth for an average of 200 s ± 80.48 s (mean ± SD). Still, more than 55% missed at least one sextant when brushing inner surfaces, 16% missed them all. Only 7.5% of the children brushed both inner and outer surfaces by the intended movements (vertical movements on the inner surfaces and circular movements on the outer surfaces) for at least 90% of the respective brushing time. Instead, horizontal brushing was very common on the lateral surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis indicates that children have low efficiency to adopt the tooth-brushing recommendations given in prevention programs. This is surprising as great endeavors are made to help children internalize the recommendations. Future research is needed to better understand which factors impede adoption of toothbrushing recommendations in children and which efforts are necessary to improve their toothbrushing abilities.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos
5.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e036, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141035

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus and their predictors in a population of adults in Brazil. A representative sample of 758 adults from 35 to 59 years of age from Porto Alegre city was examined. A structured questionnaire was applied. The Gingival Bleeding Index and the presence of calculus were measured at 4 sites/tooth. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to determine the predictors for gingival bleeding at >20% of sites. Overall, 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=95.1-98.0) of individuals had ≥ 1 bleeding site. The mean percentages of sites with gingivitis and calculus were 26.1% and 44.6%, respectively. The odds of gingivitis decreased by ∼45% for individuals ≥40 years old compared to younger adults. Individuals that never performed interproximal cleaning and non-whites had an approximately two times higher chance of gingivitis. Smokers had lower chances of gingivitis than never-smokers (odds ratio=0.40; 95% CI=0.24-0.68). Higher numbers of missing teeth were associated with higher chances of gingivitis. The percentage of calculus was significantly associated with skin color, education, proximal cleaning, smoking exposure, dental visits, and tooth loss. It can be concluded that the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus was high in this Brazilian population, and it was associated with age, skin color, education, self-reported proximal cleaning, smoking, dental care, and tooth loss.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários/epidemiologia , Cálculos Dentários/etiologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 155(4): 462-472, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this 2-arm parallel trial was to determine the plaque removal efficacy (main outcome) and the motivation assessment (secondary outcome) comparing a manual versus an interactive power toothbrush in orthodontic patients. METHODS: Sixty adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances in both arches were randomized in a 1:1 ratio in this parallel, randomized, examiner-blind controlled clinical trial. Eligibility criteria included at least 16 natural teeth, 1-6 "focus care areas," plaque score of ≥1.75, no severe caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, no dental prophylaxis, no smoking, no antibiotics, and no chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Subjects were to brush unsupervised with either an interactive power toothbrush (Oral-B Professional Care 6000, D36/EB20) with Bluetooth technology or a regular manual toothbrush (Oral-B Indicator 35 soft). Focus care areas were each brushed for 10 additional seconds. Plaque removal was assessed with the use of the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TMQHPI) to determine change from baseline at 2 and 6 weeks. Supervised brushing at screening and post-treatment visits recorded actual brushing times. Subject-reported motivational aspects were recorded at screening and week 6. RESULTS: Fifty-nine subjects aged 13-17 years completed the study. The interactive power toothbrush provided significantly (P <0.001) greater plaque reduction versus the manual toothbrush at 2 and 6 weeks according to the whole-mouth TMQHPI. The treatment difference in adjusted mean plaque change from baseline was 0.777 (95% CI 0.614-0.940) at week 2 and 0.834 (0.686-0.981) at week 6. Mean reductions in the number of focus care areas were also significantly greater (P <0.001) in the power brush group at weeks 2 and 6. Brushing times increased significantly at weeks 2 and 6 (P ≤0.013) versus baseline in the interactive power brush group only. Subject-reported motivation was significantly increased in the interactive power brush group at week 6 versus screening (P ≤0.005). CONCLUSIONS: An interactive power toothbrush generated increased brushing times and significantly greater plaque removal versus a manual brush.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/psicologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 17(2): 139-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess caries prevalence and periodontal condition in adolescents in Poland and investigate the factors related to oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national survey was carried out among 615 15-year-olds of both sexes living in urban and rural areas. Subjects were selected via cluster sampling. The mean DMFT and its components, the tooth distribution pattern of caries and percentage of subjects with gingival bleeding and gingival pockets were analysed. The information regarding sociodemographic, oral hygiene and nutritional variables was collected via questionnaire to evaluate their relationships with caries and periodontal parameters. The t-test, bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted to evaluate the differences and dependent variables of caries prevalence and gingivitis. RESULTS: Caries prevalence was 94.0%, and DMFT was 5.75 ± 3.74. Higher DMFT, DT and MT values were found in rural areas. 50% of the subjects carried about 75% of the total caries burden. Severe caries (DMFT ≥7) was associated with toothbrushing less than twice a day, not using a fluoridated dentifrice, frequent consumption of snacks and absence of pit-and-fissure sealants. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 37.4% and shallow pockets 2.8%, which were higher in males and rural areas. Gingival bleeding was associated with toothbrushing less than a twice a day, not using dental floss and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables less than once a week. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of oral diseases in Poland is very high. Additional strategies must be implemented to promote oral health early on to improve oral hygiene practices and nutritional habits.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Bolsa Gengival/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Verduras
8.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 77(5): 400-407, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine if socioeconomic inequalities exist in periodontal disease among adult with optimal oral health behaviours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, a national survey of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Overall, 4738 participants aged 35 years and older were included in the analysis. Periodontal disease indicated by pocket depth or loss of attachment ≥4 mm, and gingival bleeding were used as periodontal outcomes. Education and deprivation indicated socioeconomic position. Behavioural factors were dental visits, toothbrushing and smoking. The subset of adults with and without optimal health related behaviours included 2916 and 1822 participants, respectively. The associations between periodontal disease and socioeconomic position were tested adjusting for demographic and behavioural factors. Additional models stratifying the sample to those with and without optimal behaviour subgroup were constructed. RESULTS: Education and deprivation were significantly associated with periodontal disease in the partially adjusted models. In the analysis of those with optimal behaviours, only deprivation and highest level of education showed significant association with periodontitis (PD), but not with gingival bleeding. Among those without optimal behaviours, all socioeconomic factors were associated with all outcomes except deprivation and PD. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health behaviours marginally contributed to inequalities in gingival bleeding and periodontal disease. Socioeconomic inequalities were attenuated among those with optimal behaviours and persisted among those without optimal behaviours. Behaviours appeared to be an effect modifier for the relationship between periodontal outcomes and socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , País de Gales
9.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(1): 87-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900663

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of the study was to gain integrative knowledge on oral hygiene behaviors and daily habits affecting caries experience among rural people in India and Dominican Republic (DR). Materials and Methods: Participants were recruited in two countries: La Esquina community, Province Maria Trinidad Sanchez in DR and in Ramgarh, district Chhindwara in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. A total of 104 participants (18-80 years) were in the DR sample while 202 participants (18-85 years) were in the Indian sample. Face-to-face interviews collected information on oral hygiene behaviors, daily habits, and dental care. The caries experience was quantified using decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Results: There were significant differences in a few oral hygiene behaviors, daily habits, and levels of caries experience between the Dominican and Indian subgroups. Use of toothbrush (χ2 = 65.2; P < 0.001), self-reported use of fluoridated toothpaste (χ2 = 94.04; P < 0.001), use of tobacco (χ2 = 32.4; P < 0.001), dental visit (χ2 = 24.84; P < 0.001), attitude toward seeking professional dental care (χ2 = 85.07; P < 0.001), and DMFT scores (F = 13.3; P < 0.001) were significantly different between the two countries. The caries experience was higher in the Dominicans (9.6 ± 8.0 vs. 4.0 ± 5.7) than India's rural. Conclusions: Oral health practices varied considerably between rural populations in these two countries. Caries prevalence was significantly higher in Dominicans despite higher consumption of tobacco and lesser use of toothbrush among rural Indians in the subcontinent.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene Bucal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice CPO , Assistência Odontológica , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909520

RESUMO

This study assessed the differences between immigrants and natives in terms of combined effects of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) or snack consumption and preventive behaviors for severe early childhood caries (SECC) through a large-scale survey of 31,565 native and 1046 immigrant child⁻parent pairs in Taiwan. Children aged 3⁻5 years underwent dental examinations, and parents completed structured questionnaires. Immigrants had a significantly higher SECC prevalence than native children (32.3% vs. 19.4%). A combined effect of SECC was observed in native children who did not receive assistance when brushing teeth at night before sleep and those who consumed SSBs more than four times weekly (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.8). Moreover, native children who did not use dental floss and who consumed snacks more than four times weekly had an aOR of 4.1 for SECC. The combined effects of children with immigrant parents who did not receive assistance when brushing their teeth at night before sleep and those who consumed snacks more than four times weekly had an aOR of 8.2 for SECC. The results suggest the necessity of cross-cultural caries prevention programs for immigrants. Parents must limit children's SSB and snack intake, and implement preventive measures to reduce SECC development.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Lanches , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pais , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1586274, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857502

RESUMO

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children have a prevalence rate of early childhood caries 5 times that of the overall US population. Oral hygiene and oral health beliefs have not been described among AI/AN parents. This study explored constructs of the health belief model informing oral health beliefs and oral hygiene behaviours of parents of AI/AN children ages  0-6 years. The study aimed to determine the toothbrushing behaviour in parents of AI/AN childrenand the relationship between parent oral health beliefs and toothbrushing frequency. A cross-sectional survey which included the Oral Hygiene Scale, Oral Health Belief Questionnaire and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to a convenience sample of parents of AI/AN children 71 months or younger attending outpatient paediatric primary care appointments (N=100). Analyses were conducted to determine parent toothbrushing and the relationship between parent health beliefs and child toothbrushing. The odds of regular child toothbrushing were 49.10 times higher when the parent brushed their own teeth regularly (confidence interval (CI)=11.46-188.14; p<0.001). Parental toothbrushing had a strong positive association with the belief that oral health is as important as physical health. This research endorses parent-focused toothbrushing interventions to reduce AI/AN early childhood caries rates.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Saúde Bucal/etnologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 77(5): 334-339, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712422

RESUMO

Oral health is a determinant for quality of life and preventive behaviours such as regular tooth brushing can reduce the risk of a wide spectrum of oral diseases. Adopting preventive behaviours increases the likelihood of being healthy and can be conditioned by demographic and socio-economic factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe preventive oral hygiene behaviours in the Portuguese population and assess their association with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was developed using data from the first Portuguese National Health Examination Survey. The target population comprised Portuguese community-dwelling residents aged between 25 and 74 years old. The percentage of individuals who brushed their teeth at least twice a day, provided that once was before sleeping, was considered the indicator showing a preventive behaviour, as this is recommended by the General Directorate of Health in Portugal. Poisson regression was used to identify factors independently associated with this behaviour. RESULTS: Sixty-five per cent of the participants reported tooth brushing as recommended. The prevalence of adoption of this preventive behaviour was higher among those living in urban areas and those who have higher educational level. Results show an association between being male and having low educational level with lesser adoption of preventive oral health behaviours. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a need for integrated approaches, from measures tackling social inequalities to actions focused on improving health literacy. It is also important to expand dental healthcare services and improve effective coverage to increase access for rural population.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(4): 87-90, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703075

RESUMO

Fluoride use is one of the main factors responsible for the decline in prevalence and severity of dental caries and cavities (tooth decay) in the United States (1). Brushing children's teeth is recommended when the first tooth erupts, as early as 6 months, and the first dental visit should occur no later than age 1 year (2-4). However, ingestion of too much fluoride while teeth are developing can result in visibly detectable changes in enamel structure such as discoloration and pitting (dental fluorosis) (1). Therefore, CDC recommends that children begin using fluoride toothpaste at age 2 years. Children aged <3 years should use a smear the size of a rice grain, and children aged >3 years should use no more than a pea-sized amount (0.25 g) until age 6 years, by which time the swallowing reflex has developed sufficiently to prevent inadvertent ingestion. Questions on toothbrushing practices and toothpaste use among children and adolescents were included in the questionnaire component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the first time beginning in the 2013-2014 cycle. This study estimates patterns of toothbrushing and toothpaste use among children and adolescents by analyzing parents' or caregivers' responses to questions about when the child started to brush teeth, age the child started to use toothpaste, frequency of toothbrushing each day, and amount of toothpaste currently used or used at time of survey. Analysis of 2013-2016 data found that >38% of children aged 3-6 years used more toothpaste than that recommended by CDC and other professional organizations. In addition, nearly 80% of children aged 3-15 years started brushing later than recommended. Parents and caregivers can play a role in ensuring that children are brushing often enough and using the recommended amount of toothpaste.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
14.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(5): e3141, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggested that the frequency of tooth brushing might be associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the results were inconsistent, and no systematic review was conducted to focus on this topic. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized available observational epidemiological evidences to identify the association between tooth brushing and DM risk and investigate the potential dose-response relationship of them. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase from their inception through December 2017 to identify observational studies examining the association between tooth brushing and the risk of DM. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. We quantitatively combined results of the included studies using a random-effects model. Dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to further examine the effect of tooth brushing frequency on DM risk. RESULTS: We identified 20 relevant studies (one cohort study, 14 case-control studies, and 5 cross-sectional studies) involving 161 189 participants and 10 884 patients with DM. Compared with the highest tooth brushing frequency, the lowest level was significantly associated with an increased risk of DM (OR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47), and there was no significant heterogeneity across the included studies (p = 0.119, I2  = 28.1%). Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the combined risk estimate. The dose-response analysis indicated that the summary odds of DM for an increment of one time of tooth brushing per day was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.16-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Integrated epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that low frequency of tooth brushing may be a risk factor of DM, and lower frequencies of tooth brushing were significantly associated with higher risk of DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682133

RESUMO

Dental caries is considered a major health problem among schoolchildren in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). According to Health Belief Model (HBM)-based research, children's oral health behavior can be determined by their guardians' beliefs. This study aimed to describe children's oral health behavior and its association with childhood dental caries, as well as to assess associations between children's tooth-brushing behavior and guardians' beliefs in an urban area of Lao PDR, using HBM. Data were collected from ten primary schools in the Sisattanak district, the Vientiane capital, between 2013 and 2014. Ten dentists with the help of dental hygienists and schoolteachers conducted dental health check-ups at the schools that diagnosed dental caries based on visual inspection. They also conducted a questionnaire-based survey with the schoolchildren's guardians to collect data including socio-economic and demographic information, their children's oral health behavior, and guardians' beliefs derived from HBM, including perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of child dental caries, perceived benefit of and perceived barrier to child's tooth brushing, and self-efficacy in making their children brush their teeth twice daily. A mixed-effects logistic regression model assessed the association between dental caries and children's oral health behavior and between children's tooth-brushing behavior and guardians' beliefs. Data from 1161 of 1304 (89.0%) children registered at the schools were used. The prevalence of dental caries was 82%. Children who brushed their teeth ≥ twice/day were significantly less likely to have dental caries than those brushing once or seldom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.91). The number of children who brushed twice daily also significantly increased with the increased level of guardians' self-efficacy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.91 to 2.41). In conclusion, childhood dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing. Children's tooth-brushing behavior was associated with guardians' self-efficacy in making their children brush twice daily.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
J Oral Rehabil ; 46(1): 65-75, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the presence of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) was related to the considered risk factors and to show the corresponding odds ratio in a predictive model. METHODS: The sample was 280 dentistry students. In an initial clinical examination, 140 cases were selected that presented one or more teeth with non-carious cervical wear. For each case, a similar sex and age control without any tooth with non-carious cervical lesions was selected. An occlusal examination and periodontal probing were performed in all cases and controls by skilled dentists. All the subjects answered a questionnaire referring to factors of brushing, bruxism, preferred chewing side, consumption of extrinsic acids and the presence of intrinsic acids. Data were analysed by means of univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of all the study variables, only the protrusion interferences, interferences on the non-working side, the brushing force, CPITN value and the consumption of salads increase the risk of NCCLs in the univariate regression. The best predictive model was formed by the combination of CPITN variables >1, the consumption of acidic salads, self-reported bruxism, brushing force and attrition. However, it only correctly classifies 68.75% of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the multifactorial aetiology of NCCLs, the combination of several factors being necessary to explain their presence. The risk factors that make up the predictive model are not sufficient to explain the appearance of NCCLs. Dentists should take into account all these risk factors in prevention, diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/patologia , Colo do Dente/patologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Acético/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Desgaste dos Dentes/etiologia , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ther Apher Dial ; 23(2): 187-194, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354003

RESUMO

Some peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis cases are thought to be caused by the pathogens in the oral cavity; however, the relationship between peritonitis and oral hygiene habits is unclear. In this study, we retrospectively examined the relationship between oral hygiene habits and peritonitis in patients who agreed to a questionnaire survey. Of the 75 patients, 37 patients developed PD-related peritonitis during the observation period. Peritonitis-free survival was significantly higher in patients who spent more time on oral hygiene daily and in patients who replaced their toothbrush more frequently (P < 0.05). According to multivariable analysis, increased daily oral hygiene duration and more frequent toothbrush replacement were associated with a significantly (P < 0.01) lower risk for peritonitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.37 [95% CI, 0.18-0.77] and HR 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17-0.70], respectively). In conclusion, PD patients with superior oral hygiene habits showed a lower risk for PD-related peritonitis.


Assuntos
Higiene Bucal/normas , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Peritonite/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Br J Nutr ; 121(1): 74-81, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394246

RESUMO

Limited knowledge is available on total fluoride exposure, excretion and retention in infants, despite the first year of human life being the critical period for dental development and risk of dental fluorosis. This study investigated total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), excretion (TDFE) and retention (TDFR) in infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated water areas at pre- and post-weaning stages of development. Healthy infants, aged 0-12 months, were recruited and their TDFI (mg/kg body weight (BW) per d), from diet and toothpaste ingestion, was assessed over a 3-d period using a dietary diary and tooth-brushing questionnaire. TDFE (mg/kg BW per d) was estimated by collecting 48-h urine and faeces. TDFR (mg/kg BW per d) was estimated by subtracting TDFE from TDFI. A total of forty-seven infants completed the study: sixteen at pre-weaning and thirty-one at post-weaning stages, with a mean age of 3·4 and 10·0 months, respectively. TDFI was lower in the non-fluoridated area (P<0·001) and at the pre-weaning stage (P=0·002) but higher in formula-fed infants (P<0·001). TDFE was mainly affected by type of feeding, with higher excretion in formula-fed infants (P<0·001). TDFR was lower in the non-fluoridated area (P<0·001) and at the pre-weaning stage (P<0·001) but higher in formula-fed infants (P=0·001). In conclusion, a relatively large proportion of fluoride intake is retained in the body in weaned infants. This is an important consideration in fluoride-based prevention programmes, with goals to maximise caries prevention while minimising the risk of dental fluorosis.


Assuntos
Fluoretação/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/análise , Desmame , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Fezes/química , Fluoretos/urina , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180019, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of simultaneous oral health risk behaviors and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: The study comprised data of 109,104 adolescents participating in the Brazilian National School-based Student Health Survey. The simultaneous presence of less frequent toothbrushing (E), current smoking (C), no visits to the dentist (D), low fruit intake (F), and high sugar intake (A) was assessed by comparison of observed/expected prevalence (OP/EP). Logistic regression was used to assess sociodemographic and family factors associated with the clustering patterns of oral health risk behaviors. RESULTS: The simultaneous occurrence of two or more oral health risk behaviors was of 60.40%. The highest prevalence values were found for the following patterns with OP/EP over 1.20: EDF, CFA, and EDFA. The odds for two or more combined oral health risk behaviors were higher for adolescents whose parents did not participate in homework, from public schools, males, and of Asian or Indigenous ethnicity (OR > 1.00; p < 0.05). Low family affluence level (FAL) acted as a risk factor for the pattern ECDFA (OR = 2.58; p = 0.009), while low and mean FAL functioned as protection factors for the pattern CFA (OR = 0.71; p < 0.001, and OR = 0.76; p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of simultaneous oral health risk behaviors was low and negatively associated with sociodemographic and family factors. Interventions aiming at reducing these behavior patterns should prioritize the groups that have been identified as being at most risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil , Doces , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Dent Med Probl ; 55(3): 313-320, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial plaque control plays a key role in the prevention of caries and periodontal diseases. Hygiene negligence in this respect may influence the state of gingiva, and - in the long term - the number of lost teeth. The recommended method of mechanical control of dental plaque is tooth brushing twice a day. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of tooth brushing, the use of various oral hygiene accessories, the number of preserved teeth, and the occurrence of gingival bleeding in adult Poles, based on a questionnaire study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prepared questionnaire consisted of a general part, assessing the socioeconomic and general medical status of respondents, as well as of specific questions about behavioral actions related to oral hygiene. The study was conducted in 10 Polish cities in Mobile Medical Units as part of the "Health First" campaign in 2017. RESULTS: The study included 713 respondents: 447 females and 264 males at an average age of 51.1 ±17.6 years. During the previous 6 months, 448 females and 265 males had visited the dentist. The average number of teeth among the respondents aged 35-44 years was 27, and for subjects >65 years old -13. There were statistically significant differences in the frequency of tooth brushing depending on sex and place of residence. The respondents used manual soft and medium toothbrushes more often than electric brushes (p < 0.05). Inhabitants of larger cities, compared to rural residents, used dental floss and toothpicks more frequently (p < 0.05). In total, 271 (50%) of the respondents reported gingival bleeding during tooth brushing. There was a statistically significant association of gingival bleeding with genetic load, and with the use of a manual soft toothbrush and mouthwash. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-health behaviors of adult Poles in maintaining optimal oral hygiene are unsatisfactory and need improvement.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Carga Genética , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Arcada Parcialmente Edêntula/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais , Polônia/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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