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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652982

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn attention to microbial transmission risk via aerosols in dental practice. Demonstration electric toothbrushes are used intra-orally for education. The aim of this investigation was to measure the size of droplets emitted by the brush head of two demonstration oscillating-rotating electric toothbrushes. Measurement of droplet production and size was recorded in vitro using three methods: (1) Malvern Spraytec (LASER particle size measurement device with detectable particle size of 0.1-2500 µm) and brushes mounted on a 3D-printed, two-shell form-fit fixture with a supply of tap water; (2) a DustTrak aerosol measurement device and toothpaste slurry, with brushing simulated in the oral cavity of a phantom head; (3) high-speed visualization in a simulated-use situation in the oral cavity of a phantom head, with individual evaluation of tap water, water with detergent, 70% ethanol, glycerin and toothpaste slurry. Both brushes showed the size of emitted droplets was consistently between 200 and 1200 µm, categorized as splatter (dental aerosols are <50 µm diameter). No significant incremental aerosol-sized matter was detected during toothbrush operation. The high-speed video visualization confirmed only splatter-sized droplets during operation. These findings indicate that oscillating-rotating toothbrushes do not produce aerosol-sized particles during simulated use.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Equipamentos Odontológicos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Cremes Dentais
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD008367, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush, or combination, together with suction of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care (OHC) on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 February 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 February 2020), Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 February 2020), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 25 February 2020) and CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 25 February 2020). We also searched the VIP Database (January 2012 to 8 March 2020). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, using the random-effects model of meta-analysis when data from four or more trials were combined. MAIN RESULTS: We included 40 RCTs (5675 participants), which were conducted in various countries including China, USA, Brazil and Iran. We categorised these RCTs into five main comparisons: chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse or gel versus placebo/usual care; CHX mouthrinse versus other oral care agents; toothbrushing (± antiseptics) versus no toothbrushing (± antiseptics); powered versus manual toothbrushing; and comparisons of other oral care agents used in OHC (other oral care agents versus placebo/usual care, or head-to-head comparisons between other oral care agents). We assessed the overall risk of bias as high in 31 trials and low in two, with the rest being unclear. Moderate-certainty evidence from 13 RCTs (1206 participants, 92% adults) shows that CHX mouthrinse or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of VAP compared to placebo or usual care from 26% to about 18% (RR 0.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.47 to 0.97; P = 0.03; I2 = 66%). This is equivalent to a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 12 (95% CI 7 to 128), i.e. providing OHC including CHX for 12 ventilated patients in intensive care would prevent one patient developing VAP. There was no evidence of a difference between interventions for the outcomes of mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.33; P = 0.86, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 944 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -1.10 days, 95% CI -3.20 to 1.00 days; P = 0.30, I2 = 74%; 4 RCTs, 594 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (MD -0.89 days, 95% CI -3.59 to 1.82 days; P = 0.52, I2 = 69%; 5 RCTs, 627 participants; low-certainty evidence). Most studies did not mention adverse effects. One study reported adverse effects, which were mild, with similar frequency in CHX and control groups and one study reported there were no adverse effects. Toothbrushing (± antiseptics) may reduce the incidence of VAP (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; P = 0.01, I2 = 40%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± antiseptics). There is also some evidence that toothbrushing may reduce the duration of ICU stay (MD -1.89 days, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.27 days; P = 0.02, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 749 participants), but this is very low certainty. Low-certainty evidence did not show a reduction in mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; P = 0.12, I2 = 0%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants) or duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -0.43, 95% CI -1.17 to 0.30; P = 0.25, I2 = 46%; 4 RCTs, 810 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients from 26% to about 18%, when compared to placebo or usual care. We did not find a difference in mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of stay in the intensive care unit, although the evidence was low certainty. OHC including both antiseptics and toothbrushing may be more effective than OHC with antiseptics alone to reduce the incidence of VAP and the length of ICU stay, but, again, the evidence is low certainty. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether any of the interventions evaluated in the studies are associated with adverse effects.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1395-1400, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047696

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate of effects of using phase-contrast video technique on education in oral hygiene training. This one blind, parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary clinic. Fifty-three patients who presented to the orthodontics department aged 12-20 years were divided into two groups randomly by computer-generated assigned codes to receive oral hygiene education. The participants were blinded to type of education method. Before orthodontic therapy, the control group was trained only by the conventional method, while the test group was trained by phase-contrast video microscopy method in addition to conventional method. Some images and videos of moving microorganisms in dental plaque were shown to the patients in test group on a computer monitor. Subjects and Methods: The bacterial count, plaque index, and gingival index scores were compared. Measurements were obtained in baseline and follow-ups which were repeated with 1-month intervals after the training. Results: The plaque index scores (1.05 ± 0.1 vs. 1.43 ± 0.2; P < 0.001) and gingival index scores (0.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.14 ± 0.2; P < 0.001) in test group was statistically lower than those in control group at the end of the study. The gingival index scores reduced by 39% in test group vs. 14% in control group. The number of bacteria significantly decreased in the group trained with phase-contrast video microscope technique (8,059,133 ± 3016 vs. 10,830,600 ± 4919; 0.018). Conclusions: The training with phase-contrast microscopy has a more positive effect than the traditional method in oral hygiene education.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Microscopia de Vídeo , Higiene Bucal , Ortodontia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Bactérias , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Placa Dentária/etiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730310

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess feasibility, acceptability, and early efficacy of monetary incentive-based interventions on fostering oral hygiene in young children measured with a Bluetooth-enabled toothbrush and smartphone application. DESIGN: A stratified, parallel-group, three-arm individually randomized controlled pilot trial. SETTING: Two Los Angeles area Early Head Start (EHS) sites. PARTICIPANTS: 36 parent-child dyads enrolled in an EHS home visit program for 0-3 year olds. INTERVENTIONS: Eligible dyads, within strata and permuted blocks, were randomized in equal allocation to one of three groups: waitlist (delayed monetary incentive) control group, fixed monetary incentive package, or lottery monetary incentive package. The intervention lasted 8 weeks. OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were a) toothbrushing performance: mean number of Bluetooth-recorded half-day episodes per week when the child's teeth were brushed, and b) dental visit by the 2-month follow-up among children with no prior dental visit. The a priori milestone of 20% more frequent toothbrushing identified the intervention for a subsequent trial. Feasibility and acceptability measures were also assessed, including frequency of parents syncing the Bluetooth-enabled toothbrush to the smartphone application and plaque measurement from digital photographs. FINDINGS: Digital monitoring of toothbrushing was feasible. Mean number of weekly toothbrushing episodes over 8 weeks was 3.9 in the control group, 4.1 in the fixed incentive group, and 6.0 in the lottery incentive group. The lottery group had 53% more frequent toothbrushing than the control group and 47% more frequent toothbrushing than the fixed group. Exploratory analyses showed effects concentrated among children ≤24 months. Follow-up dental visit attendance was similar across groups. iPhone 7 more reliably captured evaluable images than Photomed Cannon G16. CONCLUSIONS: Trial protocol and outcome measures were deemed feasible and acceptable. Results informed the study protocol for a fully powered trial of lottery incentives versus a delayed control using the smart toothbrush and remote digital incentive program administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03862443.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Recompensa , Escovação Dentária , Pré-Escolar , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Placa Dentária/patologia , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Pais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 161, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the possible enhancement of the biofilm peeling effect of a sonic toothbrush following the use of an antimicrobial mouth rinse. METHODS: The biofilm at a noncontact site in the interdental area was treated by sound wave convection with the test solution or by immersion in the solution. The biofilm peeling effect was evaluated by determining the bacterial counts and performing morphological observations. A Streptococcus mutans biofilm was allowed to develop on composite resin discs by cultivation with stirring at 50 rpm for 72 h. The specimens were then placed in recesses located between plastic teeth and divided into an immersion group and a combination group. The immersion group was treated with phosphate buffer, chlorhexidine digluconate Peridex™ (CHX) mouth rinse or Listerine® Fresh Mint (EO) mouth rinse. The combination group was treated with CHX or EO and a sonic toothbrush. RESULTS: The biofilm thickness was reduced by approximately one-half compared with the control group. The combination treatment produced a 1 log reduction in the number of bacteria compared to the EO immersion treatment. No significant difference was observed in the biofilm peeling effect of the immersion group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of a sonic toothbrush and a mouth rinse enhanced the peeling of the biofilm that proliferates in places that are difficult to reach using mechanical stress.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Ultrassom/instrumentação , Aderência Bacteriana , Carga Bacteriana , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina , Humanos , Escovação Dentária/métodos
6.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578800

RESUMO

Poor oral hygiene seems to be the norm in children and teenagers with Down Syndrome (DS). Advances in design and types of toothbrushes may improve biofilm control. This randomized, single-blind, crossover clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of electric toothbrushes regarding mechanical control of biofilm in children and teenagers with DS and their cooperation. Twenty-nine participants with DS, aged 6 to 14 years, used both types of toothbrushes: electric (ET) and manual (MT). The order of use of the different types of toothbrushes was randomly defined, including a 7-day period with each type with 7-day washout period in between. The Turesky-Quigley-Hein biofilm index was used before and after brushing to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Frankl's behavioral scale was used during toothbrushing to assess the participants' cooperation. Paired T-test, Mann Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher's Exact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The quantity of dental biofilm was significantly reduced after both brushing techniques (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in total biofilm (ET: 0.73 ± 0.36; MT: 0.73 ± 0.34; p = 0.985) or % biofilm reduction (ET: 72.22%; MT: 70.96%; p = 0.762) after brushing between techniques or in % biofilm reduction between toothbrushes of age groups (6 -9 years, p = 0.919; 10-14 years, p = 0.671). Participants showed similar cooperation level with the two types of toothbrush (p = 1.000). The use of electric or manual toothbrush had no effect on the quantity of dental biofilm removed in children and teenagers with DS, nor did it influence their cooperation during the procedure.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Cross-Over , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 136, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interdental rubber picks (IRP) have become a frequent and convenient alternative for interdental cleaning. However, only little evidence exists supporting the effectiveness of newer designs available on the market. Therefore, a new in vitro model was evaluated to measure the experimental cleaning efficacy (ECE), as well as the force needed for insertion and during the use of IRP, with high reproducibility. METHODS: Five different sizes of commercially marketed IRP with elastomeric fingers (IRP-F) (GUM SOFT-PICKS® Advanced, Sunstar Deutschland GmbH, Schönau, Germany) or slats (IRP-S) (TePe EasyPick™, TePe D-A-CH GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) were tested. Interdental tooth surfaces were reproduced by a 3D-printer (Form 2, Formlabs Sommerville, MA, USA) according to human teeth and matched to morphologically equivalent pairs (isosceles triangle, concave, convex) fitting to different gap sizes (1.0 mm, 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm). The pre-/post brushing situations at interdental areas (standardized cleaning, computer aided ten cycles) were photographically recorded and quantified by digital image subtraction to calculate ECE [%]. Forces were registered with a load cell [N]. RESULTS: IRP-F have to be inserted with significant higher forces of 3.2 ± 1.8 N compared to IRP-S (2.0 ± 1.6 N; p < 0.001) independent of the size and type of artificial interdental area. During cleaning process IRP-S showed significantly lower values for pushing/pulling (1.0 ± 0.8 N/0.5 ± 0.4 N) compared to IRP-F (1.6 ± 0.8 N/0.7 ± 0.3 N; p < 0.001) concomitant to significantly lower ECE (19.1 ± 9.8 vs. 21.7 ± 10.0%, p = 0.002). Highest ECE was measured with largest size of IRP-F/IRP-S independent the morphology of interdental area. CONCLUSIONS: New interdental cleaning aids can be tested by the new experimental setup supported by 3D printing technology. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, IRP-F cleaned more effectively at higher forces compared to IRP-S.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Alemanha , Humanos , Fotografia Dentária , Pressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escovação Dentária/métodos
8.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(4): 265-274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285744

RESUMO

Objective: Power toothbrushes is considered an effective tool for maintaining oral health; however, its efficacy as compared to manual toothbrushes is still not completely clarified. This article aims to evaluate the efficacy of power toothbrushes compared with the manual toothbrushes in terms of plaque, gingivitis and bleeding reduction.Methods: An electronic search was performed on PUBMED, Web of Science, Wiley and Research Gate. Studies comparing the effectiveness of plaque, gingivitis and bleeding reduction between power and manual toothbrushes were included. Results and effect sizes analysis are presented as standard mean difference (SMD), and subgroup analysis stratified by mode of action of the power toothbrush was performed. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using the Cochrane assessment tool.Results: A total of 21 randomized clinical studies were included. Power toothbrushes were significantly more effective in reducing plaque index (26 trials: SMD = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.14, I2 = 91.5%, p < .0001), gingival index (14 trials: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.82, I2 = 88.7%, p < .0001), and bleeding index (11 trials: SMD = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.43 to 1.40, I2 = 91.8%, p < .0001) compared with the manual toothbrushes, except that there was no significant differences between the oscillating-rotating toothbrushes and manual toothbrushes regarding gingivitis reduction (7 trials: SMD = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.20 to 0.33, I2 = 57.2%, p = .03).Conclusions: Power toothbrushes is more effective in reducing dental plaque, gingivitis and bleeding compared with the manual toothbrush.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/métodos
9.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(4): 265-275.e6, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to systematically review and analyze the difference in efficacy of oscillating-rotating toothbrushes compared with other powered toothbrushes. METHODS: The authors performed a systematic search of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The authors used the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome format to develop a search strategy to answer the study question. The authors searched PubMed-MEDLINE databases. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled clinical trials comparing oscillating-rotating (OR) toothbrushes with other powered toothbrushes published from January 1, 2009 through March 1, 2019. RESULTS: The authors' search resulted in 454 articles; 21 articles were downloaded for review, 15 articles were included in the report, and 12 could be used for meta-analysis. All of the studies were randomized controlled clinical trials that assessed plaque removal and gingival inflammation indexes. Results of the meta-analysis of the randomized controlled clinical trials showed that OR toothbrushes had superior, statistically significant outcomes for whole-mouth plaque reduction, assessed using the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (P < .01), and gingivitis, assessed by using number of bleeding sites (P < .001), but not for the modified gingival index (P > .05) or gingival bleeding index (P > .05). PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is some evidence to suggest that OR powered toothbrushes might remove more plaque and reduce the number of bleedings sites better than other powered toothbrushes, specifically, sonic action toothbrushes.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Escovação Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the randomized double-blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tooth brushing with Salvadora persica (miswak) sticks on Streptococcus mutans count and the mean plaque score relative to brushing with fluoridated tooth paste (FTP). METHODS: Our sample included 94 healthy, high caries-risk, 8 to 9-year-old students recruited from a government school, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between February and April 2016. Subjects were randomly grouped into test (provided with miswak sticks) and control groups (provided with FTP and soft brushes). Both groups were introduced to a preparatory period (PPP) of 3 weeks. Plaque score and saliva sampling were conducted prior to the PPP and in follow-up visits by a single, calibrated and blinded dentist. RESULTS: Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the mean plaque score across the study (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, subjects in the test group with abundant S. sanguinis increased from zero to six after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvadora Persica (miswak) and brushing with FTP significantly reduced plaque scores among school children. In addition, Salvadora persica was found to change the proportions of salivary bacteria in favor of species with less risk of inducing caries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID #: NCT04137393.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Fitoterapia/instrumentação , Salvadoraceae , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Criança , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104549, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate different periods of exposure to clarified human saliva for the ability to protect enamel against erosive tooth wear. METHODS: For this purpose, sixty specimens (4 × 4 × 1.5 mm) were prepared from third human molars. For all groups, the period before abrasion was performed by remineralisation with human saliva (except in G1). The specimens were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the different remineralisation times of exposure to clarified human saliva: no exposure to saliva (G1) and 30 min (G2), 60 min (G3), 90 min (G4), 120 min (G5), and 240 min (G6) of exposure to human saliva. A 5-day cycling was performed with 5 min of erosion (1% citric acid; pH 2.3), 4x/day. After the first and last erosive episodes, the abrasion challenge was performed with slurry of fluoride toothpaste (1450 ppm F-, as sodium monofluorophosphate) plus human saliva (1:3), with an electric toothbrush (15 s, with a total of 120 s of slurry immersion). Surface loss (SL) was determined using an optical profilometer (n = 10) and for qualitative analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was performed (n = 3). The SL data were statistically analysed by one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected among the groups for SL (p > 0.05), and ESEM showed similar aspects of eroded enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The period of in vitro exposure to clarified human saliva was not able to protect against enamel erosion.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Saliva/química , Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais
12.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(3): 174-180, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523081

RESUMO

The aim of the present examiner-blind randomized controlled clinical study was to compare the efficacy two soft-bristle toothbrushes in terms of plaque removal. Seventy volunteers were randomly allocated to Group A (tapered-tip toothbrush) or Group B (end-rounded toothbrush). At baseline appointment (Day 0), volunteers underwent plaque examination using the Improved Plaque Identification Index. Under supervision, they brushed their teeth for 1 minute with their assigned toothbrushes and the plaque examination was repeated. Volunteers continued the oral hygiene regimen (assigned toothbrush and a regular dentifrice provided by the researchers) for 7 days. The experimental procedures of Day 0 were then repeated. Separate statistical analyses were performed for mean percent reduction of plaque in the whole-mouth, interproximal and gumline scores at both times, using Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05. After a single toothbrushing, on Day 0, mean percent plaque was significantly reduced in both groups (p<0.05), with statistically greater reductions of whole-mouth (21.39±12.44 vs. 11.40±11.17), gumline (6.32±7.37 vs. 2.89±4.57) and interproximal (10.82±10.49 vs. 5.21±7.68) for Group A as compared to Group B. However, on day 7, no significant difference was observed between groups for whole-mouth (29.94±20.91 vs. 26.58±18.64), gumline (14.04±18.82 vs. 13.78±17.63) and interproximal surfaces (26.41±22.77 vs. 23.12±20.98) (p>0.05). In conclusion, on Day 0, Group A presented higher efficacy in supragingival plaque removal than Group B, as reflected by whole-mouth, gumline and interproximal plaque scores.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/terapia , Gengivite/terapia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Biofilmes , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Aust Dent J ; 64(4): 327-337, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556125

RESUMO

To identify and map existing evidence on the effectiveness of interdental cleaning devices in preventing dental caries and periodontal diseases, a scoping review was carried out by electronically searching PubMed, Scopus and Embase. Studies on interdental cleaning devices, written in English, and published from January 2008 up to April 2019 were included in the review. Of 1860 studies identified, six systematic reviews (SR) were included in the review. One SR each was on flossing, interdental brushes, wood sticks and oral irrigation. Of two SR on multitude of interdental cleaning devices, one assessed comparative efficacy while the other both the individual and comparative efficacy. All reviews had assessed the heterogeneity and the methodological quality of studies included, and performed data extraction and meta-analysis where appropriate. Evidence ranged from weak to moderate with very low- to low-certainty for the adjunctive benefit of these devices to control plaque and gingivitis. It warrants long-term studies with sufficient power and those assessing the impact of interdental cleaning on interproximal caries to corroborate such evidence. Available evidence on the efficacy of interdental cleaning devices suggests that dental practitioners recommend patient-specific interdental cleaning devices that enable patients to achieve a safe and high standard of interdental cleaning.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Doenças Periodontais , Escovação Dentária , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/complicações , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(8): 1074-1078, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431755

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of oral squamous cell carcinoma with demographic variables and oral health indicators. . METHODS: The observational case-control study was conducted at the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November, 2015, to August, 2016.Pathologically confirmed patients with oral cancer represented the cases, while The controls were ethnically and linguistically-matched subjects without any oral pathology. Demographical, clinical and pathological data was taken down to assess variables, risk factors, and oral health indicators. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modelling were employed for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 551 subjects, 341(62%) were males, and 210(38%) were females. Of the total, 276(50.1%) were cases and 275(49.9%) were controls. The mean age of the cases was 55.0}13.4 years and that of the controls was 52.8}14.9 years (p=0.073). Poor oral hygiene, periodontal diseases, material of toothbrush, and no use of mouthwash were significant predictors of oral cancer (p<0.05 each). Smoking and using smokeless tobacco were also significant variables. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health indicators in combination with smoking conferred an increased risk of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
15.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 168, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mitigating effect of the use of interdental brushes on periodontal health inequality. METHODS: This study was based on the data acquired in the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI; 2013-2015). A total of 17,583 participants (7,633 males and 9,950 females)) aged 19 years or older completed the KNHANES VI between 2013 and 2015. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using socioeconomic characteristics (sex, age, level of education, individual income), personal health practice (smoking, toothbrushing, dental flossing, interdental brushing, dental clinic visiting), systematic medical factors (diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity) and the community periodontal index. We confirmed differences in the prevalence of periodontal disease with the use of an interdental brushes stratified according to individual income. RESULTS: Three logistic regression models adjusted for covariates hierarchically. In all models, individuals who used an interdental brush were not significantly different from individuals who did not use an interdental brush. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for interdental brushing was 0.918 with a 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.797-1.057. When periodontal disease was the outcome of the model, the lowest income group had 1.266 (95% CIs 1.066 to 1.502) times the odds of having periodontal disease than the highest income group. In interdental brush nonusers, the lowest income group had 1.276 (95% CI 1.061-1.533) times the odds of having periodontal diseases than the highest income group. However, in the interdental brush users, there were no significant differences in periodontal disease prevalence among income groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the use of interdental brushes could alleviate periodontal health inequality.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Higiene Bucal/instrumentação , Periodontite/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 167, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for analytical techniques for measuring Erosive Tooth Wear (ETW) on natural surfaces in clinical studies. The purpose was to investigate the use of two instruments aimed to assess initial to more advanced stages of ETW. METHODS: Human premolar enamel samples (2x3mm) (n = 24), were polished flat and mounted in resin cylinders (4 cylinders, 6 samples in each). Part 1: Baseline analyses by White Light Interferometer (WLI), Surface Reflection Intensity (SRI: TableTop and OptiPen) and Surface Hardness (SH). Erosion (1% citric acid (pH 3.6) for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. SRI and SH analyses after every erosion episode and by WLI after 10 min. New indentations were made and enamel loss; was measured by change in indentation depths from toothbrush abrasion (200 g, 60 strokes, 30 s). Another series of 2 × 5 min erosion (totally15 min and 20 min) was analysed with SH and SRI after each erosion, and by WLI (on samples and impressions of samples) after 20 min. Part 2 investigated WLI performance in the interface where initial erosion increases in severity and substance loss occurs. The samples were repolished. Baseline analyses by WLI, SRI (TableTop and OptiPen) and SH. Four cylinders were etched for 1, 2, 4, 8 min respectively and analysed by SRI, SH on samples, and WLI on samples and impressions). RESULTS: Part1: SRI decreased from baseline to ~ 6 min etch and increased slightly after abrasion, the two devices correlated well (ICC 0.98 p < 0.001, Spearmans rs 0.91 p < 0.001). SH decreased nearly linearly to 10 min etch, but increased distinctly after abrasion. Mean enamel loss from abrasion alone was 0.2 µm (change in indentation depths). After 10 min etch, it was 0.27 µm (WLI) and after 20 min etch, it was 2.2 µm measured on samples vs 2.4 µm on impressions of samples (7% higher). Part 2: From baseline to 8 min etch; SRI and SH decreased whereas WLI presented increasing etch depths. CONCLUSIONS: With some adjustments, the use of SRI and WLI in combination seems to be a promising strategy for monitoring ETW in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dentária/etiologia , Atrito Dentário , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Ácido Cítrico/química , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dureza , Humanos , Abrasão Dentária/patologia , Erosão Dentária/patologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
17.
J Complement Integr Med ; 16(3)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339857

RESUMO

Ayurveda recommends sound and healthy life. It basically focuses on prevention rather than treatment. It includes a systematic lifestyle pattern which is composed of several principles and activities. Dinacharya (Daily routine) is one of the important principles. It includes various activities started from just before sunrise. All these activities are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis of the body. Tooth brushing is one of the essential routines of Ayurveda daily practices. Traditionally it has been advocated with a soft twig of medicinal plants with or without herbal tooth powder. There are so many medicinal plants have been described in this context. Contradictory plants have also been described. Oral hygiene products are so much advanced and globalized nowadays. There are so many types of toothbrushes; dentifrices, dental floss, tongue scrapers, mouthwashes, oral irrigators, etc. are available along with specifications. Contemporary oral hygiene products esp. dentifrices are chemically rich and have their own side effects. No doubt these products have their own advantages like easy availability and adjustability according to current lifestyle. But their safety is questionable on long-term use. Herbal products have additional benefits over it that those are natural and easily adjustable and acceptable with body physiology.


Assuntos
Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Ayurvédica/instrumentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
18.
Nursing ; 49(8): 56-60, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343536

RESUMO

An effective means of maintaining oral health is imperative for the health of long-term-care patients. This article assesses oral hygiene using an electric toothbrush compared with a manual toothbrush.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cuidadores , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Instituições Residenciais
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 96, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toothbrushing is a daily routine. Still, when adults are asked to manually perform oral hygiene to the best of their abilities, a considerable amount of plaque persists. Little is known about the performance of people who use a powered toothbrush. The present study thus analysed whether the capability to achieve oral cleanliness is better in people for whom powered toothbrushing is a daily routine. METHODS: University students, who either performed powered (N = 55) or manual (N = 60) toothbrushing for more than 6 months on a daily basis were asked to clean their teeth to the best of their abilities by their own device. Plaque was assessed prior to and immediately after brushing. Furthermore, gingival bleeding, recessions, periodontal pocket depths and dental status were assessed. Oral hygiene performance was video-taped and analyzed with respect to brushing duration, sites of brushing and application of interproximal cleaning devices. RESULTS: No differences between groups were found with respect to plaque before and after brushing, clinical parameters and overall brushing duration (all p > 0.05, all d < 0.156). After brushing, plaque persisted at approximately 40% of the sections adjacent to the gingival margin in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: No advantage of daily powered toothbrushing as compared to daily manual toothbrushing was seen with respect to oral hygiene or clinical parameters. The capability to achieve oral cleanliness was low, irrespective of the type of toothbrush under consideration. Additional effort is thus needed to improve this capability.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
20.
J Dent ; 86: 75-80, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of toothbrush bristle configuration and brushing load on the development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). METHODS: Human premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and had their root surfaces partially covered with acrylic resin to simulate gingiva, leaving a 2-mm length area apical to the cemento-enamel junction exposed for brushing. The teeth were brushed under 1- or 3 N load with one of the following toothbrushes (n = 16): a) ordinary/flat-trimmed (Oral-B Indicator); b) rippled (Oral-B Contour); c) cross-angled/multileveled/rubber bristles (Oral-B Pro-Health All-in-One); d) cross-angled/multileveled/flex head (Oral-B Pro-Flex); e) feathered (Oral-B Compact Clean). Brushing was performed using toothpaste slurry (Crest Cavity Protection) for 55,000 double-strokes in back-and-forth motion, to simulate 10 years of brushing. Impressions were taken at baseline and after brushing and scanned by a 3D optical profilometer. The lesions formed were evaluated for volume loss, angle, and shape. RESULTS: The ordinary/flat-trimmed toothbrush caused significantly higher volume loss (3.81 mm3) in comparison to the other toothbrushes (2.56-2.92 mm3). The toothbrush having rubber bristles was associated with NCCLs showing the smallest angle and, along with the rippled toothbrush (53.1%), provoked higher proportion of wedge-shaped lesions (43.8%), whereas teeth brushed with the feathered toothbrush exhibited the lowest prevalence of wedge-shaped lesions (3.1%). The 1- and 3 N load applied during brushing affected neither volume loss nor lesion angle. CONCLUSIONS: At the brushing loads tested, the development of NCCLs was dependent on toothbrush bristle configuration, with the ordinary/flat-trimmed version causing the highest abrasion and the feathered toothbrush the least proportion of wedge-shaped lesions. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Toothbrush bristle arrangement plays a role in NCCL development, with the ordinary/flat-trimmed version being more abrasive and the feathered toothbrush causing less wedge-shaped lesions.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais , Dente Pré-Molar , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Colo do Dente
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