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1.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104549, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate different periods of exposure to clarified human saliva for the ability to protect enamel against erosive tooth wear. METHODS: For this purpose, sixty specimens (4 × 4 × 1.5 mm) were prepared from third human molars. For all groups, the period before abrasion was performed by remineralisation with human saliva (except in G1). The specimens were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the different remineralisation times of exposure to clarified human saliva: no exposure to saliva (G1) and 30 min (G2), 60 min (G3), 90 min (G4), 120 min (G5), and 240 min (G6) of exposure to human saliva. A 5-day cycling was performed with 5 min of erosion (1% citric acid; pH 2.3), 4x/day. After the first and last erosive episodes, the abrasion challenge was performed with slurry of fluoride toothpaste (1450 ppm F-, as sodium monofluorophosphate) plus human saliva (1:3), with an electric toothbrush (15 s, with a total of 120 s of slurry immersion). Surface loss (SL) was determined using an optical profilometer (n = 10) and for qualitative analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was performed (n = 3). The SL data were statistically analysed by one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected among the groups for SL (p > 0.05), and ESEM showed similar aspects of eroded enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The period of in vitro exposure to clarified human saliva was not able to protect against enamel erosion.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Saliva/química , Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(8): 1074-1078, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431755

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of oral squamous cell carcinoma with demographic variables and oral health indicators. . METHODS: The observational case-control study was conducted at the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November, 2015, to August, 2016.Pathologically confirmed patients with oral cancer represented the cases, while The controls were ethnically and linguistically-matched subjects without any oral pathology. Demographical, clinical and pathological data was taken down to assess variables, risk factors, and oral health indicators. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modelling were employed for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 551 subjects, 341(62%) were males, and 210(38%) were females. Of the total, 276(50.1%) were cases and 275(49.9%) were controls. The mean age of the cases was 55.0}13.4 years and that of the controls was 52.8}14.9 years (p=0.073). Poor oral hygiene, periodontal diseases, material of toothbrush, and no use of mouthwash were significant predictors of oral cancer (p<0.05 each). Smoking and using smokeless tobacco were also significant variables. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health indicators in combination with smoking conferred an increased risk of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
3.
J Complement Integr Med ; 16(3)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339857

RESUMO

Ayurveda recommends sound and healthy life. It basically focuses on prevention rather than treatment. It includes a systematic lifestyle pattern which is composed of several principles and activities. Dinacharya (Daily routine) is one of the important principles. It includes various activities started from just before sunrise. All these activities are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis of the body. Tooth brushing is one of the essential routines of Ayurveda daily practices. Traditionally it has been advocated with a soft twig of medicinal plants with or without herbal tooth powder. There are so many medicinal plants have been described in this context. Contradictory plants have also been described. Oral hygiene products are so much advanced and globalized nowadays. There are so many types of toothbrushes; dentifrices, dental floss, tongue scrapers, mouthwashes, oral irrigators, etc. are available along with specifications. Contemporary oral hygiene products esp. dentifrices are chemically rich and have their own side effects. No doubt these products have their own advantages like easy availability and adjustability according to current lifestyle. But their safety is questionable on long-term use. Herbal products have additional benefits over it that those are natural and easily adjustable and acceptable with body physiology.


Assuntos
Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Ayurvédica/instrumentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
4.
Nursing ; 49(8): 56-60, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343536

RESUMO

An effective means of maintaining oral health is imperative for the health of long-term-care patients. This article assesses oral hygiene using an electric toothbrush compared with a manual toothbrush.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cuidadores , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Instituições Residenciais
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 167, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for analytical techniques for measuring Erosive Tooth Wear (ETW) on natural surfaces in clinical studies. The purpose was to investigate the use of two instruments aimed to assess initial to more advanced stages of ETW. METHODS: Human premolar enamel samples (2x3mm) (n = 24), were polished flat and mounted in resin cylinders (4 cylinders, 6 samples in each). Part 1: Baseline analyses by White Light Interferometer (WLI), Surface Reflection Intensity (SRI: TableTop and OptiPen) and Surface Hardness (SH). Erosion (1% citric acid (pH 3.6) for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. SRI and SH analyses after every erosion episode and by WLI after 10 min. New indentations were made and enamel loss; was measured by change in indentation depths from toothbrush abrasion (200 g, 60 strokes, 30 s). Another series of 2 × 5 min erosion (totally15 min and 20 min) was analysed with SH and SRI after each erosion, and by WLI (on samples and impressions of samples) after 20 min. Part 2 investigated WLI performance in the interface where initial erosion increases in severity and substance loss occurs. The samples were repolished. Baseline analyses by WLI, SRI (TableTop and OptiPen) and SH. Four cylinders were etched for 1, 2, 4, 8 min respectively and analysed by SRI, SH on samples, and WLI on samples and impressions). RESULTS: Part1: SRI decreased from baseline to ~ 6 min etch and increased slightly after abrasion, the two devices correlated well (ICC 0.98 p < 0.001, Spearmans rs 0.91 p < 0.001). SH decreased nearly linearly to 10 min etch, but increased distinctly after abrasion. Mean enamel loss from abrasion alone was 0.2 µm (change in indentation depths). After 10 min etch, it was 0.27 µm (WLI) and after 20 min etch, it was 2.2 µm measured on samples vs 2.4 µm on impressions of samples (7% higher). Part 2: From baseline to 8 min etch; SRI and SH decreased whereas WLI presented increasing etch depths. CONCLUSIONS: With some adjustments, the use of SRI and WLI in combination seems to be a promising strategy for monitoring ETW in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dentária/etiologia , Atrito Dentário , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Ácido Cítrico/química , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dureza , Humanos , Abrasão Dentária/patologia , Erosão Dentária/patologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 168, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mitigating effect of the use of interdental brushes on periodontal health inequality. METHODS: This study was based on the data acquired in the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI; 2013-2015). A total of 17,583 participants (7,633 males and 9,950 females)) aged 19 years or older completed the KNHANES VI between 2013 and 2015. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using socioeconomic characteristics (sex, age, level of education, individual income), personal health practice (smoking, toothbrushing, dental flossing, interdental brushing, dental clinic visiting), systematic medical factors (diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity) and the community periodontal index. We confirmed differences in the prevalence of periodontal disease with the use of an interdental brushes stratified according to individual income. RESULTS: Three logistic regression models adjusted for covariates hierarchically. In all models, individuals who used an interdental brush were not significantly different from individuals who did not use an interdental brush. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for interdental brushing was 0.918 with a 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.797-1.057. When periodontal disease was the outcome of the model, the lowest income group had 1.266 (95% CIs 1.066 to 1.502) times the odds of having periodontal disease than the highest income group. In interdental brush nonusers, the lowest income group had 1.276 (95% CI 1.061-1.533) times the odds of having periodontal diseases than the highest income group. However, in the interdental brush users, there were no significant differences in periodontal disease prevalence among income groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the use of interdental brushes could alleviate periodontal health inequality.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Higiene Bucal/instrumentação , Periodontite/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 96, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toothbrushing is a daily routine. Still, when adults are asked to manually perform oral hygiene to the best of their abilities, a considerable amount of plaque persists. Little is known about the performance of people who use a powered toothbrush. The present study thus analysed whether the capability to achieve oral cleanliness is better in people for whom powered toothbrushing is a daily routine. METHODS: University students, who either performed powered (N = 55) or manual (N = 60) toothbrushing for more than 6 months on a daily basis were asked to clean their teeth to the best of their abilities by their own device. Plaque was assessed prior to and immediately after brushing. Furthermore, gingival bleeding, recessions, periodontal pocket depths and dental status were assessed. Oral hygiene performance was video-taped and analyzed with respect to brushing duration, sites of brushing and application of interproximal cleaning devices. RESULTS: No differences between groups were found with respect to plaque before and after brushing, clinical parameters and overall brushing duration (all p > 0.05, all d < 0.156). After brushing, plaque persisted at approximately 40% of the sections adjacent to the gingival margin in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: No advantage of daily powered toothbrushing as compared to daily manual toothbrushing was seen with respect to oral hygiene or clinical parameters. The capability to achieve oral cleanliness was low, irrespective of the type of toothbrush under consideration. Additional effort is thus needed to improve this capability.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
8.
J Dent ; 86: 75-80, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of toothbrush bristle configuration and brushing load on the development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). METHODS: Human premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and had their root surfaces partially covered with acrylic resin to simulate gingiva, leaving a 2-mm length area apical to the cemento-enamel junction exposed for brushing. The teeth were brushed under 1- or 3 N load with one of the following toothbrushes (n = 16): a) ordinary/flat-trimmed (Oral-B Indicator); b) rippled (Oral-B Contour); c) cross-angled/multileveled/rubber bristles (Oral-B Pro-Health All-in-One); d) cross-angled/multileveled/flex head (Oral-B Pro-Flex); e) feathered (Oral-B Compact Clean). Brushing was performed using toothpaste slurry (Crest Cavity Protection) for 55,000 double-strokes in back-and-forth motion, to simulate 10 years of brushing. Impressions were taken at baseline and after brushing and scanned by a 3D optical profilometer. The lesions formed were evaluated for volume loss, angle, and shape. RESULTS: The ordinary/flat-trimmed toothbrush caused significantly higher volume loss (3.81 mm3) in comparison to the other toothbrushes (2.56-2.92 mm3). The toothbrush having rubber bristles was associated with NCCLs showing the smallest angle and, along with the rippled toothbrush (53.1%), provoked higher proportion of wedge-shaped lesions (43.8%), whereas teeth brushed with the feathered toothbrush exhibited the lowest prevalence of wedge-shaped lesions (3.1%). The 1- and 3 N load applied during brushing affected neither volume loss nor lesion angle. CONCLUSIONS: At the brushing loads tested, the development of NCCLs was dependent on toothbrush bristle configuration, with the ordinary/flat-trimmed version causing the highest abrasion and the feathered toothbrush the least proportion of wedge-shaped lesions. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Toothbrush bristle arrangement plays a role in NCCL development, with the ordinary/flat-trimmed version being more abrasive and the feathered toothbrush causing less wedge-shaped lesions.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais , Dente Pré-Molar , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Colo do Dente
9.
Am J Dent ; 32(2): 69-73, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This laboratory study compared a newly designed GUM oscillating-rotating power toothbrush with a unique head design that combines both standard nylon filament and extremely tapered filaments to the Oral-B oscillating-rotating-pulsating power toothbrush with the Precision Clean head and to the Oral-B Compact 35 Indicator manual toothbrush for their ability to reach and remove artificial plaque deposits from hard-to-reach interproximal and subgingival sites. METHODS: Interproximal access efficacy (IAE) was evaluated using an artificial plaque substrate placed around simulated teeth. Subgingival access efficacy (SAE) was determined by using simulated gingiva prepared with a 0.2 mm space between the gingiva and artificial plaque substrate covering the simulated teeth. Results were recorded on the same artificial plaque substrate placed under the gingiva and around the simulated teeth. RESULTS: The overall IAE value for the new GUM oscillating-rotating power head indicated that it was significantly more effective compared to the Oral-B power and manual toothbrushes in interproximal access (P< 0.001). The mean value for SAE for the new and commercially available power products also were significantly more effective compared to the manual toothbrush in subgingival access (P< 0.001). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of dental plaque at interproximal and subgingival sites will result in the development of gingivitis if not removed regularly and thoroughly. The demonstrated superior ability of the oscillating-rotating power toothbrush head to reach deeper into those sites versus the manual brush indicates that when used properly, the unique oscillating-rotating head with extremely tapered bristles may be effective for the treatment and prevention of gingivitis.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Dente , Escovação Dentária , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Equipamento , Gengiva , Humanos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180331, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970113

RESUMO

The tongue is one of the primary sources of halitosis. The manual or mechanical removal of biofilm is known to decrease oral malodor. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new tongue hygiene technique hereby referred to as "the X technique" and its effects on both halitosis and the number of microorganisms based on microbiological parameters and diagnostic features of the breath. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included thirty patients divided into a control group (patients without systematized guidelines of lingual hygiene, but who performed the mechanical cleaning of tongue dorsum, each in its own way), the 3R group (instructed to perform the movements of the X technique for 3 repetitions at each brushing), and the 6R group (instructed to perform 6 repetitions of the technique at each brushing). After two weeks, a new data collection was performed. RESULTS: Patients in the 6R group presented the lowest score on the organoleptic assessment scale at the second consultation, followed by the 3R group and the controls. Regarding the self-perception of breath by the method of Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the control group did not perceive improvements in oral malodor; the results of the 3R group and the 6R group were similar. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the X technique improves both measurements and perceptions of halitosis. Microbiological analyses revealed greatest reduction in the 6R group. The findings show that the X technique reduces both organoleptic scores and the number of bacterial colonies, and improves users' perceptions of their breath.


Assuntos
Halitose/prevenção & controle , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Língua/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Biofilmes , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/instrumentação , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 155(4): 462-472, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this 2-arm parallel trial was to determine the plaque removal efficacy (main outcome) and the motivation assessment (secondary outcome) comparing a manual versus an interactive power toothbrush in orthodontic patients. METHODS: Sixty adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances in both arches were randomized in a 1:1 ratio in this parallel, randomized, examiner-blind controlled clinical trial. Eligibility criteria included at least 16 natural teeth, 1-6 "focus care areas," plaque score of ≥1.75, no severe caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, no dental prophylaxis, no smoking, no antibiotics, and no chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Subjects were to brush unsupervised with either an interactive power toothbrush (Oral-B Professional Care 6000, D36/EB20) with Bluetooth technology or a regular manual toothbrush (Oral-B Indicator 35 soft). Focus care areas were each brushed for 10 additional seconds. Plaque removal was assessed with the use of the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TMQHPI) to determine change from baseline at 2 and 6 weeks. Supervised brushing at screening and post-treatment visits recorded actual brushing times. Subject-reported motivational aspects were recorded at screening and week 6. RESULTS: Fifty-nine subjects aged 13-17 years completed the study. The interactive power toothbrush provided significantly (P <0.001) greater plaque reduction versus the manual toothbrush at 2 and 6 weeks according to the whole-mouth TMQHPI. The treatment difference in adjusted mean plaque change from baseline was 0.777 (95% CI 0.614-0.940) at week 2 and 0.834 (0.686-0.981) at week 6. Mean reductions in the number of focus care areas were also significantly greater (P <0.001) in the power brush group at weeks 2 and 6. Brushing times increased significantly at weeks 2 and 6 (P ≤0.013) versus baseline in the interactive power brush group only. Subject-reported motivation was significantly increased in the interactive power brush group at week 6 versus screening (P ≤0.005). CONCLUSIONS: An interactive power toothbrush generated increased brushing times and significantly greater plaque removal versus a manual brush.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/psicologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Clin Dent ; 30(Spec No A): A9-15, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of the Philips Sonicare DiamondClean Smart and Oral-B Genius 8000 powered toothbrushes on gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and supragingival plaque reduction following 42 days of home use. METHODS: This was a randomized, parallel, examiner-blinded, prospective clinical trial with two treatment groups. Eligible participants were generally healthy volunteers who were manual toothbrush users, non-flossers, 18-65 years of age. The subject panel included non-smokers with = 50 sites of gingival bleeding according to the Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and a supragingival plaque score of = 1.8 per Modified Plaque Index (MPI) at 3-6 hours following last tooth brushing encounter. Eligible subjects were randomized to use either a Philips Sonicare DiamondClean Smart with Premium Plaque Control brush head (DCS) or an Oral-B Genius 8000 with FlossAction brush head (OBG) for home use. Each toothbrush was used twice daily for two minutes. All subjects used a standardized fluoride-containing dentifrice. All other oral hygiene measures were prohibited. Subjects returned at Day 14 for an interim compliance and safety assessment, and at Day 42 for the final safety and efficacy assessments. RESULTS: Of 222 enrolled and eligible subjects, 219 completed (112 in the SDC group, 107 in the OBG group) the study. The least squares (LS) mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates for gingivitis reduction and percent reduction per Modified Gingival Index (MGI) following 42 days of product home use were 1.38 (1.30, 1.46) and 51.32% (48.45%, 54.19%) for DCS, and 0.53 (0.45, 0.61) and 20.07% (17.14%, 23.00%) for OBG. The differences, expressed as either reduction or percent reduction, were statistically significant between the two groups, p < 0.001. Statistically significant differences were also observed between products at Day 42 for the gingival bleeding and supragingival plaque reduction endpoints, p < 0.001. There were two reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The Philips Sonicare DiamondClean Smart powered toothbrush reduced gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, and supragingival plaque significantly more than the Oral-B Genius 8000 powered toothbrush following a 42-day home-use period. Both products were safe for use.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Placa Dentária/terapia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Gengivite/terapia , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Dent ; 30(Spec No A): A16-23, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of powered and manual tooth brushing on plaque and gingivitis following two and six weeks of home use. METHODS: This was a randomized, three-arm, parallel-design clinical trial. Eligible participants were manual toothbrush users who were generally healthy non-smokers, aged 18-65 years, with a plaque score of = 1.8 per Lobene and Soparkar Modified Plaque Index (MPI), and mild to moderate gingivitis, defined as a Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) = 1 on at least 20 sites. Subjects with advanced periodontal disease, excessive gingival recession, and heavy deposits of calculus or rampant decay were excluded. Enrolled participants were randomly dispensed one of three devices: a powered toothbrush (Philips Sonicare DiamondClean Smart with Premium Gum Care brush head) used in either Gum Heath mode (DC-GH) or Clean mode (DC-C), or an ADA reference manual toothbrush (MTB). Efficacy and safety variables were assessed at Baseline, and at two and six weeks following twice-daily product home use. RESULTS: For the primary endpoint, reduction in gingivitis per Modified Gingival Index (MGI) at Week 2, 188 subjects completed and were included in the analysis. Expressed as percent reduction from Baseline, the adjusted mean reduction and Standard Error (SE) estimates were 60.31% (1.95%) for DC-GH, 53.08% (1.95%) for DC-C, and 16.59% (1.96%) for MTB. The difference between each power toothbrush group and the manual toothbrush was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Statistically significant differences were also observed between DC-GH, DC-C, and manual tooth brushing for MGI at Week 6, as well as for MPI and GBI at Weeks 2 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: The powered toothbrush, used in either Gum Health or Clean mode, was statistically significantly superior to a manual tooth brush in reducing gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, and plaque following two and six weeks of home use.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Placa Dentária/terapia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Gengivite/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Dent ; 30(Spec No A): A24-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of a powered and a manual toothbrush on gingivitis and plaque following two and four weeks of home use. METHODS: This was a randomized, parallel-design, single-blind clinical trial. Eligible participants were generally healthy non-smoking manual toothbrush users aged 18-65 years, with a plaque score of = 1.8 per Lobene and Soparkar Modified Plaque Index (MPI) following a 3-6 hour plaque accumulation period, and mild to moderate gingivitis defined as a Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) = 1 on at least 20 sites. Subjects with advanced periodontal disease, xerostomia, excessive gingival recession, uncontrolled diabetes, and heavy deposits of calculus or rampant decay were excluded. Enrolled participants were randomly dispensed either a Philips Sonicare powered toothbrush used with the InterCare brush head (PTB) or an American Dental Association (ADA) reference manual toothbrush (MTB). Efficacy and safety variables were assessed at Baseline, and at two and four weeks following twice-daily product home use. The primary endpoint of the study was reduction of gingivitis per the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) after four weeks of home use. RESULTS: All 148 randomized subjects (74 per group) completed the study. A statistically significant difference in MGI reduction was observed between the two study groups (p < 0.001). The least square (LS) mean and standard error reduction from Baseline was 0.72 (0.04) for the PTB group compared to 0.09 (0.04) for the MTB group. Expressed as percent reduction from Baseline, the LS mean values were 35.77% (2.19%) and 4.22% (2.19%) for PTB and MTB, respectively. Statistically significant differences were also observed for MGI reduction at Week 2, as well as for MPI and GBI reduction at Weeks 2 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: The powered toothbrush was statistically significantly superior to a manual toothbrush in reducing gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, and plaque following two and four weeks of home use.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Placa Dentária/terapia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(12): e14923, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia develops in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who have been mechanically ventilated for at least 48 hours. Implementing effective oral car could reduce the incidence of VAP. However, previous studies on scrubs in oral care have failed to suggest which the best choice. Therefore, this protocol proposes to perform a network meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral care scrubs in preventing VAP. METHODS: We are going to search the electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. Study selection and data collection will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool will be used to assess the risk of bias of included studies. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be used to assess the incidence rate of VAP in critical patients. The evidence mapping (EM) method will be introduce as a tool intended to complement the conventional systematic review (SR) and is suitable for this issue, at the same time, R software will be used for representing the outcome of EM-SR. We shall assess the heterogeneity on the bias of the magnitude of heterogeneity variance parameter (I or Cochrane Q). We are also going to conduct subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis if needed. The application of Stata and R software will be performed the calculations. RESULTS: The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This network meta-analysis will provide comprehensive evidence of different scrubs in oral care for preventing VAP. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018117019.


Assuntos
Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Antissépticos Bucais , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
16.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(3): 414-415, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861174

RESUMO

Many dermatologic procedures are painful and traumatic, for both pediatric patients and providers alike. Vibration anesthesia has recently been discussed as an effective method for reducing pain associated with injections, but some vibration machines can be cost prohibitive for providers. We describe how to employ an electric toothbrush as an inexpensive and effective option to provide vibration anesthesia during painful pediatric procedures.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Humanos
17.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 16(41): 364-371, 2019 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739916

RESUMO

Toothbrushes play an essential role in personal oral hygiene by effective plaque removal.However, they get heavily contaminated by bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and fungi which may originate from the oral cavity after every use as well as from the environment where they are stored. This systematic review was conducted to identify various decontamination interventions attempted scientifically and it summarizes the efficacy of each. Meta-analysis illustrated that the use of Ultra-violet rays and Microwave had a significant effect on reduction of the microbial count of a used toothbrush with a mean difference of -2.61 and CI (-4.66,-0.76) with I2=98%. When compared with non-active treatment group, the natural agents (garlic, green tree and tea-tree oil) proved to sterilize the toothbrushes effectively with mean difference of -483.34, CI (-914.79, -51.88) and I2=100%.In contrast, chlorhexidine showed the insignificant result with a mean difference of -347.55 and CI (-951.90, 256.80) with I2=100%. The evidence from this review suggests that decontaminating toothbrush reduces bacterial load. Toothbrushes exposed to radiation and natural agents proved to sanitize them effectively but chlorhexidine rendered insignificant results. Keywords: Chemical agent; disinfection; radiation; microbial load; natural agent; toothbrush.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/métodos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Alho , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Nepal , Higiene Bucal , Chá , Óleo de Melaleuca , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Pediatr Dent ; 41(1): 20-24, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803472

RESUMO

Purpose: This study's purposes were to: (1) correlate toothbrushing effectiveness measured by plaque removal with children's parent- reported ability to perform life tasks and their executive function; and (2) compare plaque removal by children using a manual versus electric toothbrush. Methods: A convenience sample of 120 healthy five- to 11-year-olds was randomly and evenly assigned to manual or electric tooth- brush groups. A questionnaire was developed from items selected from previously validated social science instruments and completed by caregivers. Plaque was measured by calibrated scorers using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified before and after children brushed with respective toothbrushes. Statistical significance was established at P<0.05. Results: The type of toothbrush had no effect on brushing effectiveness. Ability to write a complete address, tie shoes independently, cut meat with a knife, and cut out complex shapes were associated with better toothbrushing effectiveness. Increasing ability to play a musical instrument and wash dishes independently were associated with increased plaque removal. Parents were good predictors of a child's readiness to brush, based on plaque removal scores. Conclusions: Certain life skills and quality of performance of tasks were associated with toothbrushing effectiveness in five- to 11-year-olds and may be used to determine a child's readiness to brush independently.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária , Criança , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índice de Higiene Oral , Desempenho Psicomotor , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 44, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese dentists are obliged to provide reliable guidance to patients about tooth brushing. However, attitudes and behaviours of Chinese dental students regarding oral health have been insufficient. Traditionally, dental students were taught how to brush, but not how to evaluate tooth brushing. Here, we applied a three-session-procedure (TSP) based on experiential learning (EL) in a tooth brushing course for Chinese dental students. The aim was to improve dental students' knowledge, practice of tooth brushing and self-evaluation, which may help cultivate their ability to conduct evaluation for friends, relatives and future patients. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study design with a pre-test and post-test group was applied. A total of 176 students were enrolled in the TSP, which included a 1.5-h lecture course, a 3-h practice course for evaluation and comparison of manual and electric tooth brushing, and an after-class experience report. A survey including a knowledge test and a questionnaire on tooth brushing habits and opinions about the TSP was conducted 2 weeks later. The data about tooth brushing and the survey were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Manual and electric tooth brush demonstrated almost equal overall efficiency in reducing plaque. However, for some students, either manual or electric tooth brushing was more suitable. Thus, it is advisable to estimate the exact differences in the efficiency of tooth brushing methods for each individual. The survey showed that tooth brushing by dental students significantly improved after TSP. The students could make self-evaluation and proper recommendations to family members and friends. The TSP was helpful in interpreting and evaluating manual and electric tooth brushing methods. CONCLUSIONS: A TSP course improved dental students' knowledge, practice of tooth brushing and self-evaluation. In conclusion, a TSP based on EL is an effective and well-organized method of education on tooth brushing for Chinese dental students.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia/métodos , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Odontologia , Escovação Dentária/métodos , China , Índice de Placa Dentária , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal/normas , Higiene Bucal/normas , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(9): 3551-3556, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of toothbrush stiffness and dentifrice slurry abrasivity on the development and progression of simulated non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human maxillary premolars were allocated to 12 groups generated by the association between toothbrushes, soft, medium, and hard stiffness, and simulated dentifrice slurries, lower, medium, and higher; deionized water (DI) served as negative control. Teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks, and their root surfaces partially covered with acrylic resin to simulate gingiva, leaving a 2-mm area apical to the cemento-enamel junction exposed to toothbrushing. Specimens were brushed with the test slurries for 35,000 and 65,000 double strokes. Impressions taken at baseline and after both brushing periods were scanned by a 3D optical profilometer. Dentin volume loss (mm3) was calculated by image subtraction. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests. RESULTS: All toothbrushes caused higher volume loss when associated to higher abrasive slurry, compared to medium- and lower-abrasive slurries. Medium caused more volume loss than lower-abrasive slurry, which led to more volume loss than DI. Hard and medium toothbrushes were not different when used with medium- or higher-abrasive slurries. There were no differences among toothbrushes when used with DI and lower-abrasive slurry. Overall, 35,000 brushing strokes resulted in significantly less volume loss than 65,000. CONCLUSIONS: Toothbrush stiffness was an important factor on NCCL development, especially when brushing with medium- and higher-abrasive slurries. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Medium and hard toothbrushes associated with medium- and high-abrasive toothpastes can yield more severe NCCLs.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Abrasão Dentária , Colo do Dente , Escovação Dentária , Humanos , Colo do Dente/patologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais
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