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2.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 41(12): 1525-1527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346682

RESUMO

This article describes a retrospective diagnosis through an artistic representation of a pre-Columbian Central America bowl figuring a child with clinical characteristics of Crouzon syndrome. The report also highlights the importance of icono-diagnosis for a better description of the existing diseases into ancient societies.


Assuntos
Civilização/história , Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico , Corpo Humano , Escultura/história , Antropologia Cultural , Antropologia Médica , Criança , História Antiga , Humanos
3.
4.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 116: 35-36, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153516

RESUMO

The authors present a case of a probable Pott disease from central/southern Mexico, dated 300 BC to 500 AD. This case highlights the importance of iconotopsy/iconodiagnosis for a better description of the natural history of diseases, especially as a complement to morphological analyses of human remains (paleopathology) and laboratory exams (DNA or immunology testing).


Assuntos
Paleopatologia , Postura , Escultura/história , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/história , História Antiga , Humanos , México , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/microbiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia
8.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 42(10): 1253-1254, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Representations of thyroid swelling, intended as an enlarged anterior neck in the artworks of various periods are sporadically reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An African statue belonging to the African Yoruba culture has been analysed. RESULTS: Members of Ogboni Society in Yoruba culture used this statues to represent a real subject and to communicate between the living and dead. CONCLUSION: The statue reported seems to represent a case of real goiter.


Assuntos
Bócio/patologia , Medicina nas Artes , Escultura , África , Endocrinologia/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina nas Artes/história , Pescoço/patologia , Nigéria , Escultura/história
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642107

RESUMO

Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in hospitalized patients. Arts and cultural programs were reported to enhance their quality of life. The Le Louvre à l'hôpital study presents a new approach in which the museum moves to the hospital by displaying and discussing artworks with patients interactively. Over one year, four large statues were disposed in the hospital gardens, 30 reprints of large painting were exhibited in the hospital hall, dining rooms, and circulations areas. A total of 83 small-group guided art discussions (90 min) were organized, which 451 patients attended. The 200 small-size reproductions of paintings placed in the patients' rooms were chosen based on their individual preferences. Decreased anxiety after the art sessions was reported by 160 of 201 patients (79.6%). Out of 451 patients, 406 (90%) said the art program had met their expectations, and 372 (82.4%) wished to continue the experience with caregivers (162 paramedics trained for art activity during 66 workshops). In conclusion, moving the museum to the hospital constitutes a valuable way to provide art activities for inpatients in large numbers, which may reduce hospital-related anxiety in many instances.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia pela Arte/métodos , Terapia pela Arte/organização & administração , Depressão/terapia , Administração Hospitalar , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Cuidadores , Jardins , Humanos , Museus/organização & administração , Pinturas , Qualidade de Vida , Escultura
11.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 175(3): 198-200, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658849

RESUMO

The authors describe a sculpture from Daumier, called "Le Hargneux" (The peevish one), whose physiognomic study evokes hitherto unrecognized cranial-cervical dystonia. It is probably the first representation of dystonia in sculpture, before its scientific identification by Horatio Wood, in 1887.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Distônicos/patologia , Medicina nas Artes , Escultura , Blefarospasmo/complicações , Blefarospasmo/patologia , Distúrbios Distônicos/complicações , Distúrbios Distônicos/história , Músculos Faciais/anormalidades , Músculos Faciais/patologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina nas Artes/história , Paris , Escultura/história
12.
Neurol Sci ; 40(6): 1315-1322, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471018

RESUMO

The Pathology Museum of the University of Florence houses a rich collection of anatomical specimens and over a hundred waxworks portraying pathological conditions occurring in the nineteenth century, when the museum was established. Clinical and autopsy findings of these cases can still be retrieved from the original museum catalogue, offering a rare opportunity for retrospective palaeo-pathological diagnostics. We present a historical case of severe hydrocephalus backed by modern-day anthropological, radiological and molecular analyses conducted on the skeleton of an 18-month-old male infant deceased in 1831. Luigi Calamai (1796-1851), a wax craftsman of La Specola workshop in Florence, was commissioned to create a life-sized wax model of the child's head, neck and upper thorax. This artwork allows us to appreciate the cranial and facial alterations determined by 30 lb of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulated within the cerebral ventricular system. Based on the autopsy report, gross malformations of the neural tube, tumours and haemorrhage could be excluded. A molecular approach proved helpful in confirming sex. We present this case as the so-far most compelling case of hydrocephalus in palaeo-pathological research.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia/genética , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Modelos Anatômicos , DNA Antigo , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/história , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Museus , Escultura , Ceras
13.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(1): 82-86, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347053

RESUMO

Importance: Strabismus is a binocular vision disorder characterized by the partial or complete inability to maintain eye alignment on the object that is the target of fixation, usually accompanied by suppression of the deviating eye and consequent 2-dimensional monocular vision. This cue has been used to infer the presence of strabismus in a substantial number of famous artists. Objective: To provide evidence that Leonardo da Vinci had strabismus. Design, Setting, and Participants: In exotropia, the divergent eye alignment is typically manifested as an outward shift in the locations of the pupils within the eyelid aperture. The condition was assessed by fitting circles and ellipses to the pupils, irises, and eyelid apertures images identified as portraits of Leonardo da Vinci and measuring their relative positions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Geometric angle of alignment of depicted eyes. Results: This study assesses 6 candidate images, including 2 sculptures, 2 oil paintings, and 2 drawings. The mean relative alignments of the pupils in the eyelid apertures (where divergence is indicated by negative numbers) showed estimates of -13.2° in David, -8.6° in Salvator Mundi, -9.1° in Young John the Baptist, -12.5° in Young Warrior, 5.9° in Vitruvian Man, and -8.3° in an elderly self-portrait. These findings are consistent with exotropia (t5 = 2.69; P = .04, 2-tailed). Conclusions and Relevance: The weight of converging evidence leads to the suggestion that da Vinci had intermittent exotropia with the resulting ability to switch to monocular vision, which would perhaps explain his great facility for depicting the 3-dimensional solidity of faces and objects in the world and the distant depth-recession of mountainous scenes.


Assuntos
Exotropia/história , Pessoas Famosas , Pinturas/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Escultura/história
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(2): 412-417, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ancient Greek term "apoplexy" as is repeatedly mentioned by the Hippocratic School of Medicine, included a cluster of diseases, mainly those concerning the central nervous system. The term was wrongfully infiltrated in Western European medicine as synonymous to what is called today a "stroke" of the brain. OBJECTIVE: While in "Corpus Hippocraticum" the definition of the stroke was rather ambiguous; our study aims to unveil those fragments referring to it, in order to compose the Hippocratic theory of what it stood for "Acute Brain Suffering" (Greek: Οξείες Οδύνες του Εγκεφάλου) during the Classical era of ancient Greece. METHOD: A bibliographic research of the "Hippocratic Collection" was conducted during our study in order to connect all fragments from the original ancient Greek text, and reconstruct the "Hippocratic Stroke Theory". Three editions have been used as reference. French edition by Littré, and two Greek ones by Kaktos and Pournaropoulos. RESULTS: The "Acute Brain Suffering" seems to be the entity we call "Stroke" in modern clinical practice. Edema (collection of fluids-humours theory) was considered to be the most significant element which though could have been addressed by a cranial decompression for the symptoms to improve. The symptoms in question were, acute brain pain, diplopia, vertigo, ataxia, saliva, and urine loss as well as feces incontinence. CONCLUSION: Both therapeutic approach and symptomatology exhibited significant similarities with the modern concept of the stroke. The Hippocratic School was a scientifically advanced sect of medicophilosophers who promoted global medicine.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos , Pinturas/história , Escultura/história , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
15.
J Homosex ; 66(13): 1817-1855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289361

RESUMO

African American sculptor Richmond Barthé (1901-1989) conjoined issues of sexuality and race in works that foreground the aesthetic worth of Black bodies. While exposing Western figuration practices that exclude Black people from artistic visibility, Barthé also targeted the African American distaste for the explicit treatment of nudity. Barthé's androgynous sculptures have by now become the trademark of his art, but Barthésian scholarship still neglects the significance of a small group of statues, which de-emphasize the aura of same-sex desire, in order to explore the intricacies of corporeal ambisexuality. In view of his homoerotic depictions and the presence of the hermaphrodite at the core of his disruption of the sexual dichotomy, the frequent assumption that Barthé remained "closeted all his life" does not stand critical scrutiny. Instead of taking refuge in the sexual closet, Barthé debunked the man/woman binary as the foremost epistemic construct that prompts the societal need for sexual self-misrepresentations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Literatura Erótica , Homossexualidade , Escultura/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 175(1-2): 2-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314743

RESUMO

During Santiago Ramón y Cajal's lifetime, two monuments to him were erected in Madrid. However, Cajal excused himself from attending their inaugurations for reasons that have so far remained unexplained. The present report has therefore investigated the political context and personal circumstances that might account for his behavior. The first monument is a fountain in El Retiro Park, the work of sculptor Victorio Macho, inaugurated in 1926 during a major confrontation between progressive intellectuals and physicians against the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. An official press release warned of a prison sentence for those who attempted a second (illegal) inauguration. The second monument appeared in 1931, barely a month after the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic. This full-body statue, standing>3m (around 10ft) high on a narrow pedestal, was financed by medical students and sculpted by Lorenzo Domínguez, a Chilean medical student. Its unlikely height and thinness earned it the nickname 'The Pencil'. At present, it flanks the entrance to Cajal's old classroom at the Madrid College of Physicians. Closer inspection reveals fractures as evidence of its having been broken into pieces at some point, presumably during bombings that took place in 1936. The calcareous Novelda stone used in its construction and its exposure to the elements may also partly explain its deterioration. A few metres away, a second sculpture, apparently a replica of the original, was inaugurated in 1998. Cajal's excuses for not attending the inaugurations of both his monuments may have different explanations. Regarding the fountain, it was probably a gesture of solidarity against those (many of whom were doctors) opposing the dictatorship whereas, when The Pencil was inaugurated, Cajal was 79 years old, and his physical limitations might have accounted for his inability to attend the ceremony. Thus, given the different political context in which each inauguration took place, Cajal's attitude was presumably in line with his politics, but also the result of his age-related infirmities.


Assuntos
Médicos , Ativismo Político , Escultura , Idoso , Atitude , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos/história , Rejeição em Psicologia , Escultura/história , Espanha
17.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 25(2): 108-111, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912773

RESUMO

The coping with rheumatoid arthritis of the famous French impressionist painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) is described in former publications. The heavily handicapped painter has in his last years created sculptures in cooperation with the sculptor Richard Guino (1890-1973). The extraordinary genesis of the sculptures through a masterful artistic cooperation, as well as the resulting legal issues and shameful copyright infringements, is reported. Renoir's decision to create sculptures with the help of Guido can be attributed to his remarkable artistic vision, vitality, optimistic nature, and strong will and is also a further testimonial of creative coping of an artist overcoming the physical handicap due to rheumatoid arthritis of his final years, so far not described in detail in the medical literature.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/história , Direitos Autorais/história , Pessoas Famosas , Pinturas/história , Escultura/história , Adaptação Psicológica , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Mãos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(7): 1034-1039, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876424

RESUMO

Structural analysis of marble statues, carried out by non-invasive and in situ methods, is crucial to define the state of conservation of the artworks and to identify the deterioration phenomena that can affect them. In this work, we combined in situ non-destructive techniques, ultrasonic tomography (US), ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence (UV-IF) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to study the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Italy). The US revealed the presence of some metallic pivots, associated with areas of high sound velocity; moreover, a more degraded area has been identified in the lower part of the bass-relief. The acquired UV-IF image confirmed the presence of surface degradation, allowing a preliminary evaluation of the extension of a fracture, from surface to bulk. In addition, the different materials (both original and/or integrations) that compose the studied surface have been identified. The XRF has contributed to define the nature of the inorganic materials applied during undocumented previous restoration works on the surface as filler for lacunae.


Assuntos
Arte , Carbonato de Cálcio , Escultura , Fluorescência , Itália , Métodos , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Eur Neurol ; 82(4-6): 116-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918427

RESUMO

The theoretical conceptualization of artistic ingenuity and creativity, as reflections of the highest-level cognitive functions in the human brain, has recently evolved from a purely philosophical pursuit to a compelling neuroscientific undertaking. Changes in artistic style have been extensively studied in association with brain dysfunction in the presence of neurological and psychiatric diseases in famous artists. This paper presents the case of Yannoulis Halepas (1851-1938), who is widely regarded as the most influential sculptor of modern Greek art. At the age of 27, already at the peak of his fame, Halepas abruptly abandoned the sculpture world after developing schizoaffective disorder, only to resurge onto the art scene after an almost 40-year-long hiatus with a fundamentally reformed artistic style. Two distinct periods have preoccupied art critics: Halepas's early premorbid years (1870-1878), which were imbued with the principles of neoclassicism, and the later postmorbid years (1918-1938), which mark the artist's transcendence to expressionism and contemporary art. From a neuroaesthetical perspective, the extensive and multifaceted oeuvre that Halepas produced in his lifetime allows a close study of his artistic development throughout and beyond mental disease. In addition, his lifework is a unique account in the history of art of the struggle of artistic genius with the limits of the rational mind and its conscious reality.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/história , Escultura/história , Criatividade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
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