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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 212: 103224, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316459

RESUMO

The intensity of a stimulus has been found to have a distinct impact upon response processes (e.g., response speed, response force, & response selection). For instance, reaction times are faster to bright than to dim stimuli (e.g., Kohfeld, 1971). In the present study, we investigated the possible influence of stimulus intensity on binding processes. According to binding theories, stimulus and response features are integrated together in short-lived memory traces, called event files (Hommel, 1998). Any re-encounter with one of these integrated features leads to the automatic retrieval of the previously constructed event file and thus of the response. Thereby bindings between stimuli (relevant and irrelevant) and responses have a direct impact on behavior. In the present experiment, we presented distractors with increasing stimulus intensity and found that intensity did exert an influence on binding processes. However, our results suggest that distractor intensity per se has no direct influence on the binding effect (the more intense a distractor is, the larger the binding effect), but that distractor intensity has an indirect effect on binding via grouping due to similarity between target and distractor intensity.


Assuntos
Atenção , Escuridão , Memória , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
2.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128050, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049419

RESUMO

The biochemical changes induced by LED Blue Light (LBL) (450 nm) in Lane Late oranges were investigated. The selected quantum flux (60 µmol m-2 s-1, 2 days) was associated with resistance against Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit. A holistic overview was obtained by a comparative transcriptome profile analysis, which revealed that LBL favored energy metabolism and redirected metabolic pathways toward the synthesis of diverse primary and secondary metabolism products. LBL favored reactive oxygen species homeostasis and metabolic activities involving lipid metabolism, specifically the synthesis of pigments and oxylipins, and the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and indol- and alkaloid-derivatives. LBL also repressed limonene catabolism and triggered phenylpropanoid derivatives-related changes, which increased content in total flavonoids. Transferring fruit from LBL to darkness favored those processes involving amino acids, different phenylpropanoid, alkaloid and terpenoid classes, and ferrochelatase activity.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/genética , Escuridão , Resistência à Doença , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ferro/metabolismo , Luz , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Penicillium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19988, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203892

RESUMO

Reef-building corals rely on both heterotrophy and endosymbiotic dinoflagellate autotrophy to meet their metabolic needs. Those looking to culture these organisms for scientific or industrial purposes must therefore consider both feeding regimes and the light environment. Herein the effects of three photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels were assessed in fed and unfed specimens of the model coral Pocillopora acuta that were cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Half of the corals were fed Artemia sp. brine shrimp in a separate feeding tank to prevent biofouling, and fragments were exposed to PAR levels of 105, 157, or 250 µmol quanta m-2 s-1 over a 12-h period each day. All cultured corals survived the 140-day treatment, and the physiological response variables assessed-buoyant weight, specific growth rate, linear extension, color, and Fv/Fm-were significantly influenced by feeding, and, to a lesser extent, light. Specifically, fed corals grew faster and larger, and presented darker pigmentation; corals fed at the highest light levels grew at the fastest rate (6 cm year-1 or 175 mg g-1 week-1). Given the high physiological performance observed, we advocate the active feeding of brine shrimp in RAS by those looking to cultivate P. acuta, and likely other corals, over long-term timescales.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Artemia/fisiologia , Processos Autotróficos/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Escuridão , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Processos Heterotróficos/fisiologia , Luz , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4614, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929069

RESUMO

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a complex structure dependent upon multiple mechanisms to ensure rhythmic electrical activity that varies between day and night, to determine circadian adaptation and behaviours. SCN neurons are exposed to glutamate from multiple sources including from the retino-hypothalamic tract and from astrocytes. However, the mechanism preventing inappropriate post-synaptic glutamatergic effects is unexplored and unknown. Unexpectedly we discovered that TRESK, a calcium regulated two-pore potassium channel, plays a crucial role in this system. We propose that glutamate activates TRESK through NMDA and AMPA mediated calcium influx and calcineurin activation to then oppose further membrane depolarisation and rising intracellular calcium. Hence, in the absence of TRESK, glutamatergic activity is unregulated leading to membrane depolarisation, increased nocturnal SCN firing, inverted basal calcium levels and impaired sensitivity in light induced phase delays. Our data reveals TRESK plays an essential part in SCN regulatory mechanisms and light induced adaptive behaviours.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular , Escuridão , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Luz , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canais de Potássio/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos da radiação
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1745-1747, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969610

RESUMO

Circadian rhythmicity generated by the biological clock structures the functioning of human beings over a period of almost 24 hours. This clock is entrained daily by internal and external cues among which light is the most powerful. Several disturbances, whether clinical or biological, observed in bipolar disorders are suggestive of a disruption of the circadian rhythm. Thus, treatments that modulate the biological clock have been developed. So far, the results of light therapy are not unanimous and invite us to better specify the treatment modalities. Dark therapy is a promising intervention that is still not much studied nowadays and therefore opens up great prospects for research in the future.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Escuridão , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Relógios Biológicos/efeitos da radiação , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Humanos
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(6): 561-574, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980951

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study focused on the role of CLE1-CLE7 peptides as environmental mediators and indicated that root-induced CLE2 functions systemically in light-dependent carbohydrate metabolism in shoots. Plants sense environmental stimuli and convert them into cellular signals, which are transmitted to distinct cells and tissues to induce adequate responses. Plant hormones and small secretory peptides often function as environmental stress mediators. In this study, we investigated whether CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED proteins, CLE1-CLE7, which share closely related CLE domains, mediate environmental stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression analysis of CLE1-CLE7 revealed that these genes respond to different environmental stimuli, such as nitrogen deprivation, nitrogen replenishment, cold, salt, dark, and sugar starvation, in a sophisticated manner. To further investigate the function of CLE2, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing the ß-glucuronidase gene under the control of the CLE2 promoter or expressing the CLE2 gene under the control of an estradiol-inducible promoter. We also generated cle2-1 and cle2-2 mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. In these transgenic lines, dark induced the expression of CLE2 in the root vasculature. Additionally, induction of CLE2 in roots induced the expression of various genes not only in roots but also in shoots, and genes related to light-dependent carbohydrate metabolism were particularly induced in shoots. In addition, cle2 mutant plants showed chlorosis when subjected to a shade treatment. These results suggest that root-induced CLE2 functions systemically in light-dependent carbohydrate metabolism in shoots.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Escuridão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Luz , Brotos de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(10): 1163-1179, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908089

RESUMO

Sixty-four bottles of red palm olein and palm olein (constituted as control) samples were stored at permutations of common home setting variables which are: temperature (room temperature (24°C) or 8°C), light (kept in dark or exposure under light) and oxygen (opened or sealed caps). The effects of temperature, oxygen and light on the stability of red palm olein and palm olein were studied over 4 months of storage at simulated domestic conditions. The degree of auto- and photo-oxidations was evaluated by monitoring the following quality parameters: acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, fatty acids composition, carotenes and vitamin E. It is noted from the study that opened bottles of red palm olein was found to be stable for 4 months in comparison to its counterpart (palm olein) evidenced from their primary oxidative constituents (peroxides) and hydrolytic behavior (free fatty acids). Opened bottles are better off when stored at 8°C and protected from light for a longer shelf-life. Sealed bottles of palm olein showed better storage stability in the dark at 8°C; whereas sealed bottles of red palm olein was found to be stable at both temperatures studied without the influence of light. After 4 months of varying storage conditions, the fatty acid composition, vitamin E and carotenes of both oils remained unchanged. The phytonutrients in red palm olein rendered better storage stability when compared to palm olein.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Escuridão , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Luz/efeitos adversos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Palmeira/classificação , Peróxidos , Fotólise , Vitamina E/análise
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201001, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811311

RESUMO

Arctic regions are highly impacted by climate change and are characterized by drastic seasonal changes in light intensity and duration with extended periods of permanent light or darkness. Organisms use cyclic variations in light to synchronize daily and seasonal biological rhythms to anticipate cyclic variations in the environment, to control phenology and to maintain fitness. In this study, we investigated the diel biological rhythms of the Arctic scallop, Chlamys islandica, during the autumnal equinox and polar night. Putative circadian clock genes and putative light perception genes were identified in the Arctic scallop. Clock gene expression oscillated in the three tissues studied (gills, muscle, mantle edge). The oscillation of some genes in some tissues shifted from daily to tidal periodicity between the equinox and polar night periods and was associated with valve behaviour. These results are the first evidence of the persistence of clock gene expression oscillations during the polar night and might suggest that functional clockwork could entrain rhythmic behaviours in polar environments.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Pectinidae/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Ritmo Circadiano , Escuridão , Luz
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 155: 549-559, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846390

RESUMO

Flavonoid biosynthesis is a crucial secondary metabolism process for tea plants. Its metabolism is affected by multiple environmental factors, especially light. Shade, also known as dark stress (DS), is generally used during cultivation to improve tea quality by influencing the flavonoid accumulation. To explore the molecular mechanisms of flavonoid biosynthesis under DS, metabolomics and transcriptomics (METR) analyses were performed in tea callus via culturing the plants in vitro using 12 h light/12 h dark cycles (A) or completely dark (B) conditions for 30 days. In total, 161 differential metabolic products (DMPs) and 3592 differential expression genes (DEGs) were identified. The major flavonoids including epicatechin gallate, catechin gallate, gallocatechin-catechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the total of catechin, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin contents were all remarkably down-regulated in tea callus under DS. Meanwhile, 9 genes including CsPAL, Cs4CL, CsCHS, CsFLS, CsDFR, CsANS, CsLAR, CsANR, and CsUFGT determined to be responsible for the flavonoid biosynthesis. In addition, 2 transcription factors (TFs) including CsMYBT1 and CsMYBT2 verified to play key role in regulation the flavonoid biosynthesis. These results helped us further understand the underlying molecular mechanism of flavonoid metabolism in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Escuridão , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/efeitos da radiação , Catequina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105731, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827843

RESUMO

The effect of ambient light level on road traffic collisions (RTCs) involving a motorcycle was investigated. Data were drawn from the STATS19 database of UK reported RTCs for the period 2005-2015. To isolate the effect of ambient light (daylight vs darkness) an odds ratio was used to compare RTCs at specific times of day in the weeks either side of the Spring and Autumn clock changes. This work extended previous studies by using a more precise method for distinguishing between RTCs in daylight and after dark, thus avoiding the ambiguity of twilight. Data for four-wheel motor vehicle (FWMV) RTCs were also investigated to provide a datum. As expected, the risk of an RTC occurring was significantly higher after dark compared to daylight for both motorcycles and FWMVs. Investigation of contextual factors suggests that risk after dark is significantly higher for motorcycles compared to FWMVs for RTCs with two-vehicles, on roads with low speed limits (≤30 mph), at T-junctions, and junctions controlled by a give way sign. These are the situations where visual aids for increasing conspicuity after dark have the greater potential for reducing motorcycle RTCs.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Escuridão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1861(12): 148285, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777306

RESUMO

The influence of transition metal binding on the charge storage ability of native bacterial reaction centers (BRCs) was investigated. Binding of manganous ions uniquely prevented the light-induced conformational changes that would yield to long lifetimes of the charge separated state and the drop of the redox potential of the primary electron donor (P). The lifetimes of the stable charge pair in the terminal conformations were shortened by 50-fold and 7-fold upon manganous and cupric ion binding, respectively. Nickel and zinc binding had only marginal effects. Binding of manganese not only prevented the drop of the potential of P/P+ but also elevated it by up to 117 mV depending on where the metal was binding. With variable conditions, facilitating either manganese binding or light-induced structural changes a controlled tuning of the potential of P/P+ in multiple steps was demonstrated in a range of ~200 mV without the need of a mutation or synthesis. Under the selected conditions, manganese binding was achieved without its photochemical oxidation thus, the energized but still native BRCs can be utilized in photochemistry that is not reachable with regular BRCs. A 42 Å long hydrophobic tunnel was identified that became obstructed upon manganese binding and its likely role is to deliver protons from the hydrophobic core to the surface during conformational changes.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Luz , Manganês/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas do Centro de Reação Fotossintética/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/efeitos da radiação , Escuridão , Dimerização , Íons , Cinética , Metais/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13050, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747681

RESUMO

Peanut pods develop underground, which is the most salient characteristic in peanut. However, its developmental transcriptome remains largely unknown. In the present study, we sequenced over one billion transcripts to explore the developmental transcriptome of peanut pod using Illumina sequencing. Moreover, we identified and quantified the abundances of 165,689 transcripts in seed and shell tissues along with a pod developmental gradient. The dynamic changes of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were described in seed and shell. Additionally, we found that photosynthetic genes were not only pronouncedly enriched in aerial pod, but also played roles in developing pod under dark condition. Genes functioning in photomorphogenesis showed distinct expression profiles along subterranean pod development. Clustering analysis unraveled a dynamic transcriptome, in which transcripts for DNA synthesis and cell division during pod expansion were transitioning to transcripts for cell expansion and storage activity during seed filling. Collectively, our study formed a transcriptional baseline for peanut fruit development under dark condition.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Escuridão , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sementes/genética , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1861(10): 148257, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621805

RESUMO

Export of reducing power from chloroplasts to cytoplasm serves to balance the NADPH/ATP ratio that is optimal for CO2 assimilation. Rapid cytoplasmic streaming in characean algae conveys the exported metabolites downstream towards the shaded plastids where envelope transporters may operate for the import of reducing power in accordance with the direction of concentration gradients. Import of reducing equivalents by chloroplasts in the analyzed area transiently enhances the pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence F' controlled by the redox state of photosystem II acceptor QA. When the microfluidic pathway was transferred to darkness while the analyzed cell area remained in dim background light, the amplitude of cyclosis-mediated F' changes dropped sharply and then recovered within 5-10 min. The suppression of long-distance signaling indicates temporal depletion of transmitted metabolites in the streaming cytoplasm. The return to overall background illumination induced an exceptionally large F' response to the first local light pulse admitted to a remote cell region. This indicates the appearance of excess reductants in the streaming cytoplasm at a certain stage of photosynthetic induction. The results suggest highly dynamic exchange of metabolites between stationary chloroplasts lining the microfluidic pathway and the streaming cytoplasm upon light-dark and dark-light transitions. Evidence is obtained that slow stages of chlorophyll fluorescence induction in algae with rapid cytoplasmic streaming directly depend on cyclosis-mediated long-distance delivery of metabolites produced far beyond the analyzed cell area.


Assuntos
Chara/citologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos da radiação , Chara/metabolismo , Chara/efeitos da radiação , Escuridão , Cinética
17.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 74, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that artificial light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian rhythms, sleep, and contribute to the development of obesity. However, almost all previous studies are cross-sectional, thus, there is a need for prospective investigations of the association between LAN and obesity risk. The goal of our current study was to examine the association between baseline LAN and the development of obesity over follow-up in a large cohort of American adults. METHODS: The study included a sample of 239,781 men and women (aged 50-71) from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who were not obese at baseline (1995-1996). We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether LAN at baseline was associated with the odds of developing obesity at follow-up (2004-2006). Outdoor LAN exposure was estimated from satellite imagery and obesity was measured based on self-reported weight and height. RESULTS: We found that higher outdoor LAN at baseline was associated with higher odds of developing obesity over 10 years. Compared with the lowest quintile of LAN, the highest quintile was associated with 12% and 19% higher odds of developing obesity at follow-up in men (OR (95% CI) = 1.12 (1.00, 1.250)) and women (1.19 (1.04, 1.36)), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high LAN exposure could predict a higher risk of developing obesity in middle-to-older aged American adults.


Assuntos
Escuridão/efeitos adversos , Escolaridade , Iluminação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sono , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12228, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699267

RESUMO

Nitrate (N) response is modulated by light, but not understood from a genome-wide perspective. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of nitrate response in light-grown and etiolated rice leaves revealed 303 and 249 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) respectively. A majority of them were exclusive to light (270) or dark (216) condition, whereas 33 DEGs were common. The latter may constitute response to N signaling regardless of light. Functional annotation and pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs showed that nitrate primarily modulates conserved N signaling and metabolism in light, whereas oxidation-reduction processes, pentose-phosphate shunt, starch-, sucrose- and glycerolipid-metabolisms in the dark. Differential N-regulation of these pathways by light could be attributed to the involvement of distinctive sets of transporters, transcription factors, enriched cis-acting motifs in the promoters of DEGs as well as differential modulation of N-responsive transcriptional regulatory networks in light and dark. Sub-clustering of DEGs-associated protein-protein interaction network constructed using experimentally validated interactors revealed that nitrate regulates a molecular complex consisting of nitrite reductase, ferredoxin-NADP reductase and ferredoxin. This complex is associated with flowering time, revealing a meeting point for N-regulation of N-response and N-use efficiency. Together, our results provide novel insights into distinct pathways of N-signaling in light and dark conditions.


Assuntos
Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Escuridão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Luz , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1415-1417, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526750

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, may be transmitted via airborne droplets or contact with surfaces onto which droplets have deposited. In this study, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to survive in the dark, at two different relative humidity values and within artificial saliva, a clinically relevant matrix, was investigated. SARS-CoV-2 was found to be stable, in the dark, in a dynamic small particle aerosol under the four experimental conditions we tested and viable virus could still be detected after 90 minutes. The decay rate and half-life was determined and decay rates ranged from 0.4 to 2.27 % per minute and the half lives ranged from 30 to 177 minutes for the different conditions. This information can be used for advice and modelling and potential mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saliva Artificial/química , Salvia/virologia , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Escuridão , Humanos , Umidade , Cinética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9340, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518299

RESUMO

Many animals acquire biologically important information from conspecifics. Social learning has been demonstrated in many animals, but there are few experimental paradigms that are suitable for detailed analysis of its associative processes. We established procedures for appetitive and aversive social learning with living and dead conspecifics in well-controlled stimulus arrangements in crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. A thirsty demonstrator cricket was released in a demonstrator room and allowed to visit two drinking apparatuses that contained water or saltwater and emitted apple or banana odour, and a thirsty learner was allowed to observe the demonstrator room through a net. In the post-training test, the learner preferred the odour of the water-containing apparatus at which the demonstrator stayed. When a dead cricket was placed on one of the two apparatuses, the learner avoided the odour of that apparatus. Further experiments suggested that a living conspecific can be recognized by either visual or olfactory cues for appetitive social learning, whereas olfactory cues are needed to recognize a dead conspecific for aversive social learning, and that different associative processes underlie social learning with living and dead conspecifics. The experimental paradigms described here will pave the way for detailed research on the neural basis of social learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Escuridão
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