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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6311-6324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922003

RESUMO

Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of extracellular matrix (ECM) and its over expression in tumor tissues contributes to the increase of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and hinders the penetration of nanoparticles into solid tumors. Materials and Methods: We here reported a tumoral microenvironment responsive multistage drug delivery system (NPs-EPI/HAase) which was formed layer by layer via electrostatic interaction with epirubicin (EPI)-loaded PEG-b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-guanidinoethylmethacrylate) (mPEG-PDPA-PG, PEDG) micelles (NPs-EPI) and hyaluronidase (HAase). In this paper, we focused on the hyaluronidase-combined nanoparticles (NPs-EPI/HAase) for tumor penetration in tumor spheroid and solid tumor models in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed that NPs-EPI/HAase effectively degrade the HA in ECM and facilitate deep penetration of NPs-EPI into solid tumor. Moreover, NPs-EPI mainly employed clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytic pathways for cellular uptake and were subsequently directed to the lysosomes for further drug release triggered by proton sponge effect. Compared with NPs-EPI, the HAase coating group showed an enhanced tumoral drug delivery efficacy and inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusion: Overall, our studies demonstrated that coating nanoparticles with HAase can provide a simple but efficient strategy for nano-drug carriers to enhance solid tumor penetration and chemotherapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Epirubicina/farmacologia , Epirubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/patologia , Polímeros/química , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5611-5620, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cell characteristics and drug resistance of colorectal cancer are associated with failure of cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of PrPC on cancer stem cell characteristics, migration, invasion, and drug resistance of 5FU-resistant CRC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PrPC negative and PrPC positive cells were isolated from 5FU-resistant CRC cells using magnetic activated cell sorting. Sphere formation, cancer stem cell marker expression, migration, invasion, and drug resistance were analyzed. RESULTS: PrPC positive cells showed increased sphere formation capacity and increased expression of cancer stem cell markers compared to PrPC negative cells. In addition, PrPC positive cells showed increased migration, invasion and drug resistance compared to PrPC negative cells. Furthermore, knockdown of PrPC abolished these effects. CONCLUSION: PrPC expression is important in CRC cell behavior, such as sphere formation, migration, invasion, and drug resistance. PrPC is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Proteínas Priônicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898185

RESUMO

A model that recapitulates development of acquired therapeutic resistance is needed to improve oncology drug development and patient outcomes. To achieve this end, we established methods for the preparation and growth of spheroids from primary human lung adenocarcinomas, including methods to culture, passage, monitor growth, and evaluate changes in mutational profile over time. Primary lung tumor spheroids were cultured in Matrigel® with varying concentrations of erlotinib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is ineffective against KRAS mutant cells. Subtle changes in spheroid size and number were observed within the first two weeks of culture. Spheroids were cultured for up to 24 weeks, during which time interactions between different cell types, movement, and assembly into heterogeneous organoid structures were documented. Allele-specific competitive blocker PCR (ACB-PCR) was used to quantify low frequency BRAF V600E, KRAS G12D, KRAS G12V, and PIK3CA H1047R mutant subpopulations in tumor tissue residue (TR) samples and cultured spheroids. Mutant subpopulations, including multiple mutant subpopulations, were quite prevalent. Twelve examples of mutant enrichment were found in eight of the 14 tumors analyzed, based on the criteria that a statistically-significant increase in mutant fraction was observed relative to both the TR and the no-erlotinib control. Of the mutants quantified in erlotinib-treated cultures, PIK3CA H1047 mutant subpopulations increased most often (5/14 tumors), which is consistent with clinical observations. Thus, this ex vivo lung tumor spheroid model replicates the cellular and mutational tumor heterogeneity of human lung adenocarcinomas and can be used to assess the outgrowth of mutant subpopulations. Spheroid cultures with characterized mutant subpopulations could be used to investigate the efficacy of lung cancer combination therapies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Organoides/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Food Chem ; 331: 127360, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585548

RESUMO

The influence of food components on nanoparticle (NP) internalization indicates a need to investigate the behaviors of NPs in a complex system. This study measured the changes of TiO2 NP colloidal stability and quenching of anthocyanin fluorescence to indicate NP-anthocyanin interactions, and cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, expression of ABC transporters and intracellular Ti concentrations in 3D Caco-2 spheroids co-exposed to NPs and anthocyanins to indicate the influence of anthocyanins on NP bio-effects. The anthocyanins were observed to have minimal impacts on colloidal properties of TiO2 NPs. Meanwhile, NP-anthocyanin co-exposure did not induce cytotoxicity or oxidative stress. The fluorescence quenching study indicated the binding of anthocyanins onto TiO2 NPs, and the binding affinity was inversely correlated with NP internalization into 3D Caco-2 spheroids. This may be partially related with the up-regulation of ABC transporters. Our results may provide novel insights into understanding the interactions of NPs and anthocyanins with human intestinal cells.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/farmacocinética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antocianinas/química , Células CACO-2 , Coloides/farmacocinética , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/química
5.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597876

RESUMO

This manuscript describes a protocol to evaluate cancer cell deaths in three dimensional (3D) spheroids of multicellular types of cancer cells using supernatants from Lactobacillus fermentum cell culture, considered as probiotics cultures. The use of 3D cultures to test Lactobacillus cell-free supernatant (LCFS) are a better option than testing in 2D monolayers, especially as L. fermentum can produce anti-cancer effects within the gut. L. fermentum supernatant was identified to possess increased anti-proliferative effects against several colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in 3D culture conditions. Interestingly, these effects were strongly related to the culture model, demonstrating the notable ability of L. fermentum to induce cancer cell death. Stable spheroids were generated from diverse CRCs (colorectal cancer cells) using the protocol presented below. This protocol of generating 3D spheroid is time saving and cost effective. This system was developed to easily investigate the anti-cancer effects of LCFS in multiple types of CRC spheroids. As expected, CRC spheroids treated with LCFS strongly induced cell death during the experiment and expressed specific apoptosis molecular markers as analyzed by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and FACS analysis. Therefore, this method is valuable for exploring cell viability and evaluating the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Livre de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
6.
J Vis Exp ; (158)2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421010

RESUMO

Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is the combination of transient pore formation following electric pulse application with the administration of cytotoxic drugs, which enhances the cytotoxic effect of the applied agent due to membrane changes. In vitro 3D culture systems simulate the in vivo tumor growth and preserve the biological characteristics of tumors more accurately than conventional monolayer cell cultures. We describe a protocol for the development of 3D tumor organoids using conjunctival melanoma (CM) and uveal melanoma (UM) cell lines as well as the use of hand-held customized electrodes, suitable for in vitro ECT in the culture well without destruction of the tumor environment. This protocol analyzes the culture and growth of 3D CM and UM spheroids and their reaction to bleomycin (2.5 µg/mL) alone, electroporation (EP) (750 Volts/cm, 8 pulses, 100 µs, 5 Hz) alone, and ECT as a combination of EP and bleomycin. The drug concentration and the EP settings used in this protocol were established as preferred ECT conditions according to previous experiments. The assay used to determine the spheroid viability was conducted 3-7 days following treatment. The effect on viability and growth of the 3D tumor spheroids was significant only after ECT. The customized electrodes are described in detail in order to facilitate the application of pulses in the culture well. This novel treatment of 3D UM and CM spheroids sets a steppingstone for future clinical application.


Assuntos
Eletroquimioterapia/instrumentação , Eletroquimioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Bleomicina/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Eletrodos , Eletroporação , Neoplasias Oculares/patologia , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e12697, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473600

RESUMO

Baricitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that was independently predicted, using artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, to be useful for COVID-19 infection via proposed anti-cytokine effects and as an inhibitor of host cell viral propagation. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacology of baricitinib across relevant leukocyte subpopulations coupled to its in vivo pharmacokinetics and showed it inhibited signaling of cytokines implicated in COVID-19 infection. We validated the AI-predicted biochemical inhibitory effects of baricitinib on human numb-associated kinase (hNAK) members measuring nanomolar affinities for AAK1, BIKE, and GAK. Inhibition of NAKs led to reduced viral infectivity with baricitinib using human primary liver spheroids. These effects occurred at exposure levels seen clinically. In a case series of patients with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, baricitinib treatment was associated with clinical and radiologic recovery, a rapid decline in SARS-CoV-2 viral load, inflammatory markers, and IL-6 levels. Collectively, these data support further evaluation of the anti-cytokine and anti-viral activity of baricitinib and support its assessment in randomized trials in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inteligência Artificial , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/virologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1943-1951, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a standard treatment in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the role of PTEN in TKI resistance remains poorly understood. We aimed to determine the functional role of PTEN knockout and analyse the predictive significance of PTEN expression for TKI treatment in RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed PTEN knockout cells in RCC cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and analysed the effect of PTEN knockout on spheroid formation and resistance to sunitinib and sorafenib. RESULTS: PTEN knockout promoted spheroid formation and decreased sunitinib/sorafenib sensitivity in RCC cell lines. PTEN immunohistochemistry in 74 metastatic RCCs treated with sunitinib and sorafenib revealed negative PTEN expression in 23% of samples. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association of negative PTEN expression with poor progression-free survival in metastatic RCC treated with sunitinib and sorafenib (p=0.024) or sunitinib alone (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: PTEN may be a biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with metastatic RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2207-2217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280215

RESUMO

Background: Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNP) are suitable for co-delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. The structural advantages of polymers and biomimetic properties of lipids enable higher encapsulation of drugs and controlled release profile. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared for co-delivery of curcumin and cisplatin for enhanced cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer. Material and Methods: Chitosan, cisplatin, curcumin, Lipoid S75 were selected as structural components and ionic gelation method was used for preparation of LPHNPs. Nanoparticles were formed via ionic interaction of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged lipid. Results: The optimized nanoparticles were of 225 nm with cationic charge. The encapsulation efficiency was greater than 80% with good drug loading. The drug release profile showed controlled release behavior of both curcumin and cisplatin simultaneously and the absence of burst release. The in vitro therapeutic efficacy and cellular association was evaluated using A2780 ovarian cell lines. To further investigate therapeutic efficacy, we developed 3D spheroids as tumor model to mimic the in vivo conditions. The cytotoxicity and uptake of co-loaded LPHNPs were evaluated on 3D spheroids and results indicated increased chemosensitization and enhanced therapeutic efficacy of co-loaded LPHNPs. Conclusion: Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles could be a suitable platform for co-delivery of curcumin and cisplatin for enhanced cytotoxic effect on ovarian cell lines.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletricidade Estática
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1830, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286350

RESUMO

A synthetic biology method based on heterologous biosynthesis coupled with genome mining is a promising approach for increasing the opportunities to rationally access natural product with novel structures and biological activities through total biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate the advantage of the synthetic biology method to explore biological activity-related chemical space through the comprehensive heterologous biosynthesis of fungal decalin-containing diterpenoid pyrones (DDPs). Genome mining reveals putative DDP biosynthetic gene clusters distributed in five fungal genera. In addition, we design extended DDP pathways by combinatorial biosynthesis. In total, ten DDP pathways, including five native pathways, four extended pathways and one shunt pathway, are heterologously reconstituted in a genetically tractable heterologous host, Aspergillus oryzae, resulting in the production of 22 DDPs, including 15 new analogues. We also demonstrate the advantage of expanding the diversity of DDPs to probe various bioactive molecules through a wide range of biological evaluations.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fungos/química , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Biologia Sintética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Aspergillus/química , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Naftalenos/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Agregados Proteicos , Pironas/química , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Estereoisomerismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231774, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302356

RESUMO

Cancer is a complex disease caused by multiple types of interactions. To simplify and normalize the assessment of drug effects, spheroid microenvironments have been utilized. Research models that involve agent measurement with the examination of clonogenic survival by monitoring culture process with image analysis have been developed for spheroid-based screening. Meanwhile, computer simulations using various models have enabled better predictions for phenomena in cancer. However, user-based parameters that are specific to a researcher's own experimental conditions must be inputted. In order to bridge the gap between experimental and simulated conditions, we have developed an in silico analysis method with virtual three-dimensional embodiment computed using the researcher's own samples. The present work focused on HeLa spheroid growth in soft agar culture, with spheroids being modeled in silico based on time-lapse images capturing spheroid growth. The spheroids in silico were optimized by adjusting the growth curves to those obtained from time-lapse images of spheroids and were then assigned virtual inner proliferative activity by using generations assigned to each cellular particle. The ratio and distribution of the virtual inner proliferative activities were confirmed to be similar to the proliferation zone ratio and histochemical profiles of HeLa spheroids, which were also consistent with those identified in an earlier study. We validated that time-lapse images of HeLa spheroids provided virtual inner proliferative activity for spheroids in vitro. The present work has achieved the first step toward an in silico analysis method using computational simulation based on a researcher's own samples, helping to bridge the gap between experiment and simulation.


Assuntos
Ágar/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1997-2010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273698

RESUMO

Background: As one of the most widely produced engineered nanomaterials, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are used in biomedicine and healthcare products, and as implant scaffolds; therefore, the toxic mechanism of nano-TiO2 has been extensively investigated with a view to guiding application. Three-dimensional (3D) spheroid models can simplify the complex physiological environment and mimic the in vivo architecture of tissues, which is optimal for the assessment of nano-TiO2 toxicity under ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. Methods and Results: In the present study, the toxicity of nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation was investigated in 3D H22 spheroids cultured in fibrin gels. A significant reduction of approximately 25% in spheroid diameter was observed following treatment with 100 µg/mL nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation after seven days of culture. Nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation triggered the initiation of the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway, increasing the expression levels of TGF-ß1, Smad3, Cdkn1a, and Cdkn2b at both the mRNA and protein level, which resulted in cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In addition, nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation also triggered the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were shown to be involved in cell cycle regulation and the induction of TGF-ß1 expression. Conclusion: Nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and the formation of smaller spheroids, which were associated with TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway activation and ROS generation. These results reveal the toxic mechanism of nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation, providing the possibility for 3D spheroid models to be used in nanotoxicology studies.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Titânio/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240190

RESUMO

Enteroids are cultured primary intestinal epithelial cells that recapitulate epithelial lineage development allowing for a more complex and physiologically relevant model for scientific study. The large presence of intestinal stem cells (ISC) in these enteroids allows for the study of metabolite effects on cellular processes and resulting progeny cells. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate (BUT) are bacterial metabolites produced in the gastrointestinal tract that are considered to be beneficial to host cells. Therefore, the objective was to study the effects of SCFAs on biomarkers of ISC activity, differentiation, barrier function and epithelial defense in the intestine using mouse and human enteroid models. Enteroids were treated with two concentrations of acetate (ACET), propionate (PROP), or BUT for 24 h. Enteroids treated with BUT or PROP showed a decrease in proliferation via EdU uptake relative to the controls in both mouse and human models. Gene expression of Lgr5 was shown to decrease with BUT and PROP treatments, but increased with ACET. As a result of BUT and PROP treatments, there was an increase in differentiation markers for enterocyte, Paneth, goblet, and enteroendocrine cells. Gene expression of antimicrobial proteins Reg3ß, Reg3γ, and Defb1 were stimulated by BUT and PROP, but not by ACET which had a greater effect on expression of tight junction genes Cldn3 and Ocln in 3D enteroids. Similar results were obtained with human enteroids treated with 10 mM SCFAs and grown in either 3D or Transwell™ model cultures, although tight junctions were influenced by BUT and PROP, but not ACET in monolayer format. Furthermore, BUT and PROP treatments increased transepithelial electrical resistance after 24 h compared to ACET or control. Overall, individual SCFAs are potent stimulators of cellular gene expression, however, PROP and especially BUT show great efficacy for driving cell differentiation and gene expression.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Claudina-3/genética , Claudina-3/metabolismo , Enterócitos/citologia , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Células Enteroendócrinas/citologia , Células Enteroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/citologia , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/genética , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/metabolismo , Celulas de Paneth/citologia , Celulas de Paneth/efeitos dos fármacos , Celulas de Paneth/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Defensinas/genética , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(8): 183264, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151609

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop effective and specific anti-cancer drugs based on membrane active peptides. In previous studies we showed that human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derived peptides facilitate specific killing of cancer cells. These antitumor peptides were found by conventional melanoma two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures to induce apoptosis of cancer cells and to specifically target lipid phosphatidylserine located on the outside of cancer cell membranes. In order to have a more relevant in vitro model able to mimic the natural microenvironments of tumor tissues we established three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS). We used a set of (retro) di-peptides derived from LF11, an 11 amino acid long fragment of hLFcin, which differed in peptide length, positive net charge and hydrophobicity and determined antitumor activity and non-specific toxicity on non-neoplastic cells using 2D and 3D model systems. 2D studies unveiled a correlation between length, positive net charge and hydrophobicity of peptides and their specific antitumor activity. (Retro) di-peptides as R-DIM-P-LF11-215 and DIM-LF11-322 with a net charge of +9 and moderate hydrophobicity exhibited the highest specific antitumor activity. Further evaluation of the peptides anticancer activity by 3D in vitro studies confirmed their higher activity and cancer specificity compared to their parent R-DIM-P-LF11, with the exception of DIM-LF11-339. This highly hydrophobic peptide caused cell death mainly at the border of tumor spheroids indicating that too high hydrophobicity may prevent peptides from reaching the center of the spheroids.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Lactoferrina/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lactoferrina/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Peptídeos/química , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2779, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066786

RESUMO

3D cell culture models consisting of self-assembled tumour cells in suspension, commonly known as tumour spheroids, are becoming mainstream for high-throughput anticancer drug screening. A usual measurable outcome of screening studies is the growth rate of the spheroids in response to treatment. This is commonly quantified on images obtained using complex, expensive, optical microscopy systems, equipped with high-quality optics and customized electronics. Here we present a novel, portable, miniaturized microscope made of low-cost, mass-producible parts, which produces both fluorescence and phase-gradient contrast images. Since phase-gradient contrast imaging is based on oblique illumination, epi-illumination is used for both modalities, thus simplifying the design of the system. We describe the system, characterize its performance on synthetic samples and show proof-of-principle applications of the system consisting in imaging and monitoring the formation and growth of lung and pancreas cancer tumour spheroids within custom made microfluidic devices.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Microscopia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
17.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 48(1): 542-559, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054336

RESUMO

Celastrol is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating cancers. However, its low water solubility and poor tumour selection represent major pitfalls for clinical application. In the present study, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) firstly was conjugated with PVP-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (Polymer) and celastrol then modified by folic acid. The as-prepared folate receptor-targeted celastrol AuNP (FCA) was characterized using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrometry, transmission electron microscope, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The physical properties of FCA were also determined in solubility, drug encapsulation and in vitro drug release. Its anticancer activities were assessed in the 2D and 3D breast cancer models. The results showed that FCA was synthesized successfully with good solubility, high encapsulation efficiency and loading content. FCA showed the optimal cumulative release at pH 5.0 and high cellular uptake and exhibited significant inhibition on breast cancer cells. FCA also induced more significant apoptosis either in 2D and 3D breast cancer model than the celastrol AuNP and celastrol alone. These findings demonstrate that FCA improves water solubility of celastrol and enhances its anticancer activities against breast cancer. FCA might be a potential candidate of anticancer drug for breast cancer in the future if further development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama , Ácido Fólico/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Triterpenos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cápsulas , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Receptores de Folato com Âncoras de GPI/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109927, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982725

RESUMO

According to cancer stem cell theory, only a limited number of self-renewing and cloning cells are responsible for tumor relapse after a period of remittance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Doxorubicin and α-Mangostin, two antiproliferative drugs, on both tumor bulk and stem cells in multicellular tumor spheroids originated from the luminal MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. A new and original fluorimetric assay was used to selectively measure the activity of the retinaldehyde-dependent isoenzymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), which are markers of a subpopulation of breast cancer stem cells. The administration of 5 µg/ml (12.2 µM) α-Mangostin for 48 h provoked: i) a marked disaggregation of the spheroids, leading to a doubling of their volume (p < 0.01), ii) a 40 % decrease in cell viability (p < 0.01), evaluated by the acid phosphatase assay, and iii) a reduction by more than 90 % of RALDH activity. By contrast, Doxorubicin given for 48 h in the range of 0.1-40 µM did not significantly reduce cell viability and caused only a modest modification of the spheroid morphology. Moreover, 40 µM Doxorubicin increased RALDH activity 2.5-fold compared to the untreated sample. When the two drugs were administered together using 5 µg/ml α-Mangostin, the IC50 of Doxorubicin referred to cell viability decreased six-fold and the RALDH activity was further reduced. In conclusion, the combined administration of Doxorubicin and α-Mangostin provoked a significant cytotoxicity and a remarkable inhibition of RALDH activity in MCF-7 tumor spheroids, suggesting that these drugs could be effective in reducing cell stemness in luminal breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células MCF-7 , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Xantonas/administração & dosagem
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1867(4): 118642, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923533

RESUMO

Claudin-2 (CLDN2), a tight junctional protein, is involved in the chemoresistance in spheroid culture models of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. However, there is no chemical which can improve the sensitivity to anticancer drugs. So far, we reported that DFYSP, a short peptide which mimics the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CLDN2, decreases CLDN2 expression in A549 cells, but the concentration is relatively high. Here, we found that the effects of VPDSM and DSMKF are stronger than that of DFYSP. Both VPDSM and DSMKF decreased the protein levels of CLDN2 without affecting the mRNA levels of CLDN2. The peptide-induced decrease in CLDN2 expression was suppressed by monodansylcadaverine (MDC), a clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) inhibitor, and chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor. CLDN2 was colocalized with ZO-1, an adapter protein, in tight junctions (TJs) under control conditions, whereas it disappeared from the TJs in the peptide-treated cells. Quartz crystal microbalance assay showed that both peptides can bind to recombinant CLDN2 protein. Both peptides increased permeability to paracellular transport marker lucifer yellow. In three-dimensional spheroid culture models, both peptides enhanced the sensitivity to doxorubicin, a cytotoxic anticancer drug, which was inhibited by MDC. We suggest that VPDSM and DSMKF enhance the chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs in aggregated adenocarcinoma cells mediated by the CDE pathway and lysosomal degradation of CLDN2 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. VPDSM and DSMKF, which mimic the ECL2 of CLDN2, may become novel adjuvant therapeutic drugs for lung adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Claudinas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Claudinas/genética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
20.
Nanotechnology ; 31(18): 185102, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952056

RESUMO

Current conventional mono and combination therapeutic strategies often fail to target breast cancer tissue effectively due to tumor heterogeneity comprising cancer stem cells (CSCs) and bulk tumor cells. This is further associated with drug toxicity and resistivity in the long run. A nanomedicine platform incorporating combination anti-cancer treatment might overcome these challenges and generate synergistic anti-cancer effects and also reduce drug toxicity. GANT61 and curcumin were co-delivered via polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for the first time to elicit enhanced anti-tumor activity against heterogeneous breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We adopted the single-emulsion-solvent evaporation method for the preparation of the therapeutic NPs. The GANT61-curcumin PLGA NPs were characterized for their size, shape and chemical properties, and anti-cancer cell studies were undertaken for the plausible explanation of our hypothesis. The synthesized GANT61-curcumin PLGA NPs had a spherical, smooth surface morphology, and an average size of 347.4 d. nm. The NPs induced cytotoxic effects in breast cancer cells at a mid-minimal dosage followed by cell death via autophagy and apoptosis, reduction in their target protein expression along with compromising the self-renewal property of CSCs as revealed by their in vitro cell studies. The dual-drug NPs thus provide a novel perspective on aiding existing anti-cancer nanomedicine therapies to target a heterogeneous tumor mass effectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/ultraestrutura , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Eletricidade Estática
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