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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3464, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103493

RESUMO

Right-sided (proximal) colorectal cancer (CRC) has a poor prognosis and a distinct mutational profile, characterized by oncogenic BRAF mutations and aberrations in mismatch repair and TGFß signalling. Here, we describe a mouse model of right-sided colon cancer driven by oncogenic BRAF and loss of epithelial TGFß-receptor signalling. The proximal colonic tumours that develop in this model exhibit a foetal-like progenitor phenotype (Ly6a/Sca1+) and, importantly, lack expression of Lgr5 and its associated intestinal stem cell signature. These features are recapitulated in human BRAF-mutant, right-sided CRCs and represent fundamental differences between left- and right-sided disease. Microbial-driven inflammation supports the initiation and progression of these tumours with foetal-like characteristics, consistent with their predilection for the microbe-rich right colon and their antibiotic sensitivity. While MAPK-pathway activating mutations drive this foetal-like signature via ERK-dependent activation of the transcriptional coactivator YAP, the same foetal-like transcriptional programs are also initiated by inflammation in a MAPK-independent manner. Importantly, in both contexts, epithelial TGFß-receptor signalling is instrumental in suppressing the tumorigenic potential of these foetal-like progenitor cells.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feto/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2255: 77-86, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033096

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro systems closely resemble tissue microenvironments and provide predictive models for studying cytotoxic drug responses. The ability to capture the kinetic profiles of such responses in a dynamic and noninvasive way can further advance the utility of 3D cell cultures. Here, we describe the use of a luminescent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) toxicity assay for monitoring time- and dose-dependent effects of drug treatment in 3D cancer spheroids. HCT116 spheroids formed in 96-well ultralow attachment plates were treated with increasing drug concentrations. Medium samples were collected at different timepoints, frozen, stored, and analyzed at the end of experiments using the luminescent LDH-Glo™ Assay. High assay sensitivity and low volume sampling enabled drug-induced toxicity profiling in a time- and dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Digitonina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2274: 367-384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050486

RESUMO

Advanced multipurpose cell imaging systems along with integrated rapid quantitation software can enhance and expedite cancer cell culture studies in a variety of applications. Though accurate cell culture studies are an important and necessary component of nearly all cancer biomarker detection and therapy studies, the methods we currently use are of low-throughput, time consuming, and lack accuracy. Hence, it is important to improve several features of the assays to increase the accuracy of their quantitative outputs in most studies. In general, we perform cell culture analysis semimanually by counting a small aliquot of suspended cells using a hemocytometer or viewing a small area of cells on a plate using a bright-field microscope, and then extrapolate the counts or observations to estimate the values for the total numbers of cells. The fundamental problem with this process lies in using techniques, such as extrapolation, which inherently introduces intrasample variability while collecting the cells by enzymatic trypsinization for these assays that are affecting cell growth and other downstream assessments. Fluorescence (FL) microscopy-based assays are also used to image and count cells for various applications, including cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, cell death, transfection efficiency, protein expression, stem cell properties, colony formation, cytotoxicity, drug dose-response, and treatment efficacy studies. These methods are not optimal for many researches, as they require real-time visualization under a microscope plus manual analysis to determine the final results. Owing to long exposure times for cells under fluorescent light of a microscope, the cells may be exposed to suboptimal conditions that affect cell growth, and with occasional photobleaching of the expressed FL probes. Alternatively, the use of cell imaging systems that integrate both advanced bright-field and FL imaging for cell counting and quantification can be useful. In this protocol, we discuss the advantages of a high-throughput cell imaging system using a whole-plate imaging format when used in various bioimaging studies by highlighting a few applications of the system. The system is designed to fundamentally improve the accuracy and time of cell culture analysis while also allowing us to perform the assay without trypsinization, thus avoiding the need to replicate multiple wells for monitoring cell growth over time.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Software , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2257-2275, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-therapeutic analysis of three-dimensional spheroid cultures of primary tumour samples is a promising approach of assessing susceptibility to potential treatment. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT serine/threonine kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signalling pathway is frequently activated in colorectal cancer (CRC). In previous work, we showed combined inhibition of AKT and mTOR to be highly synergistic in cell lines from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma in vitro as well as in vivo in murine xenograft tumour models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient-derived xenograft colorectal carcinoma cell lines HROC80 T1 M1, HROC147 T0 M1, HROC147Met, HROC277 T0 M1 and HROC277Met2 were treated with AKT inhibitor MK2206, mTOR inhibitor RAD001 or the combination of both drugs. The sensitivity of these cell lines to inhibition was evaluated by calculation of combinatory indices after bromodeoxyuridine assays and analysis of the respective pathways by western blotting. Furthermore, the dual inhibition of AKT and mTOR was confirmed in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Additionally, primary CRC samples of four patients were embedded in a three-dimensional matrix and the sensitivity of these samples was analyzed by measurement of the spheroid area. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that combined treatment with MK2206 and RAD001 resulted in strong synergistic effects on growth of several primary CRC cell lines and reduced the growth of a patient-derived CRC xenograft in a xenotransplantation mouse model in vivo. Interestingly, the response to treatment varied between cell lines derived from the primary lesion and a liver metastasis of the same patient. In addition, combined treatment with AKT and mTOR inhibitors resulted in a synergistic inhibition of tumouroid growth in all four of the primary patient samples, analyzed in a three-dimensional spheroid model in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that combined treatment with AKT and mTOR inhibitors exhibits synergistic effects on proliferation of cell lines and primary tumour cells from patients with CRC and may be a promising approach for the treatment of CRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2498, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941777

RESUMO

Cancers of unknown primary (CUPs), featuring metastatic dissemination in the absence of a primary tumor, are a biological enigma and a fatal disease. We propose that CUPs are a distinct, yet unrecognized, pathological entity originating from stem-like cells endowed with peculiar and shared properties. These cells can be isolated in vitro (agnospheres) and propagated in vivo by serial transplantation, displaying high tumorigenicity. After subcutaneous engraftment, agnospheres recapitulate the CUP phenotype, by spontaneously and quickly disseminating, and forming widespread established metastases. Regardless of different genetic backgrounds, agnospheres invariably display cell-autonomous proliferation and self-renewal, mostly relying on unrestrained activation of the MAP kinase/MYC axis, which confers sensitivity to MEK inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Such sensitivity is associated with a transcriptomic signature predicting that more than 70% of CUP patients could be eligible to MEK inhibition. These data shed light on CUP biology and unveil an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805656

RESUMO

17ß-estradiol (E2) exerts its physiological effects through the estrogen receptor α (i.e., ERα). The E2:ERα signaling allows the regulation of cell proliferation. Indeed, E2 sustains the progression of ERα positive (ERα+) breast cancers (BCs). The presence of ERα at the BC diagnosis drives their therapeutic treatment with the endocrine therapy (ET), which restrains BC progression. Nonetheless, many patients develop metastatic BCs (MBC) for which a treatment is not available. Consequently, the actual challenge is to complement the drugs available to fight ERα+ primary and MBC. Here we exploited a novel anti-estrogen discovery platform to identify new Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs inhibiting E2:ERα signaling to cell proliferation in cellular models of primary and MBC cells. We report that the anti-fungal drugs clotrimazole (Clo) and fenticonazole (Fenti) induce ERα degradation and prevent ERα transcriptional signaling and proliferation in cells modeling primary and metastatic BC. The anti-proliferative effects of Clo and Fenti occur also in 3D cancer models (i.e., tumor spheroids) and in a synergic manner with the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors palbociclib and abemaciclib. Therefore, Clo and Fenti behave as "anti-estrogens"-like drugs. Remarkably, the present "anti-estrogen" discovery platform represents a valuable method to rapidly identify bioactive compounds with anti-estrogenic activity.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Clotrimazol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Aprovação de Drogas , Descoberta de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Estradiol/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809553

RESUMO

A high platelet count is associated with a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer (OvCa). Despite good clinical responses with platinating agents in combination with taxanes, numerous OvCa patients relapse due to chemotherapy resistance. Here, we report that treatment of OvCa cells A2780, OVCAR5 and MDAH with releasate from activated platelets (PR) promoted multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) formation. These OvCa-MCTSs had increased percentages of CD133+ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)+ cells, bona fide markers of OvCa cancer stem cells (CSCs). PR increased OVCAR5- and MDAH-MCTS viability and decreased the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of paclitaxel, cisplatin and carboplatin. PR increased the volume of spontaneously formed OVCAR8-MCTSs and counteracted their size reduction due to cisplatin, carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment. PR promoted the survival of ALDH+ and CD133+ OvCa cells during cisplatin, carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment. In conclusion, molecules and growth factors released by activated platelets (EGF, PDGF, TGF-ß, IGF and CCL5) may protect tumor cells from chemotherapy by promoting the expansion of ALDH+ and CD133+ OvCa-CSCs, favoring drug resistance and tumor relapse.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922336

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer with a long latency period and dismal prognosis. Recently, tazemetostat (EPZ-6438), an inhibitor of the histone methyltransferase EZH2, has entered clinical trials due to the antiproliferative effects reported on MPM cells. However, the direct and indirect effects of epigenetic reprogramming on the tumor microenvironment are hitherto unexplored. To investigate the impact of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) on MPM cell responsiveness to tazemetostat, we developed a three-dimensional MPM spheroid model that recapitulates in vitro, both monocytes' recruitment in tumors and their functional differentiation toward a TAM-like phenotype (Mo-TAMs). Along with an increased expression of genes for monocyte chemoattractants, inhibitory immune checkpoints, immunosuppressive and M2-like molecules, Mo-TAMs promote tumor cell proliferation and spreading. Prolonged treatment of MPM spheroids with tazemetostat enhances both the recruitment of Mo-TAMs and the expression of their protumor phenotype. Therefore, Mo-TAMs profoundly suppress the antiproliferative effects due to EZH2 inhibition in MPM cells. Overall, our findings indicate that TAMs are a driving force for MPM growth, progression, and resistance to tazemetostat; therefore, strategies of TAM depletion might be evaluated to improve the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological inhibition of EZH2.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Mesotelioma/patologia , Monócitos/patologia , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843937

RESUMO

In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models, such as organoids and spheroids, are valuable tools for many applications including development and disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine. To fully exploit these models, it is crucial to study them at cellular and subcellular levels. However, characterizing such in vitro 3D cell culture models can be technically challenging and requires specific expertise to perform effective analyses. Here, this paper provides detailed, robust, and complementary protocols to perform staining and subcellular resolution imaging of fixed in vitro 3D cell culture models ranging from 100 µm to several millimeters. These protocols are applicable to a wide variety of organoids and spheroids that differ in their cell-of-origin, morphology, and culture conditions. From 3D structure harvesting to image analysis, these protocols can be completed within 4-5 days. Briefly, 3D structures are collected, fixed, and can then be processed either through paraffin-embedding and histological/immunohistochemical staining, or directly immunolabeled and prepared for optical clearing and 3D reconstruction (200 µm depth) by confocal microscopy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Organoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925065

RESUMO

Hormone-specific anticancer drugs for breast cancer treatment can cause serious side effects. Thus, treatment with natural compounds has been considered a better approach as this minimizes side effects and has multiple targets. 6-Gingerol is an active polyphenol in ginger with various modalities, including anticancer activity, although its mechanism of action remains unknown. Increases in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to DNA damage and the induction of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanism, leading to cell cycle arrest apoptosis and tumorsphere suppression. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes tumor growth by stimulating signaling of downstream targets that in turn activates tumor protein 53 (p53) to promote apoptosis. Here we assessed the effect of 6-gingerol treatment on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. 6-Gingerol induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS that elevated DDR through ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and p53 activation. 6-Gingerol also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis by mediating the BAX/BCL-2 ratio and release of cytochrome c. It also exhibited a suppression ability of tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells. EGFR/Src/STAT3 signaling was also determined to be responsible for p53 activation and that 6-gingerol induced p53-dependent intrinsic apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Therefore, 6-gingerol may be used as a candidate drug against hormone-dependent breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Catecóis/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Gengibre/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
11.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720119

RESUMO

Glioblastomas (GBMs), grade IV malignant gliomas, are one of the deadliest types of human cancer because of their aggressive characteristics. Despite significant advances in the genetics of these tumors, how GBM cells invade the healthy brain parenchyma is not well understood. Notably, it has been shown that GBM cells invade the peritumoral space via different routes; the main interest of this paper is the route along white matter tracts (WMTs). The interactions of tumor cells with the peritumoral nervous cell components are not well characterized. Herein, a method has been described that evaluates the impact of neurons on GBM cell invasion. This paper presents an advanced co-culture in vitro assay that mimics WMT invasion by analyzing the migration of GBM stem-like cells on neurons. The behavior of GBM cells in the presence of neurons is monitored by using an automated tracking procedure with open-source and free-access software. This method is useful for many applications, in particular, for functional and mechanistic studies as well as for analyzing the effects of pharmacological agents that can block GBM cell migration on neurons.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Movimento Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rastreamento de Células , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Laminina/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2265: 185-199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704715

RESUMO

Sphere assays are widely used in vitro techniques to enrich and evaluate the stem-like cell behavior of both normal and cancer cells. Utilizing three-dimensional in vitro sphere culture conditions provide a better representation of tumor growth in vivo than the more common monolayer cultures. We describe how to perform primary and secondary sphere assays, used for the enrichment and self-renewability studies of melanoma/melanocyte stem-like cells. Spheres are generated by growing melanoma cells at low density in nonadherent conditions with stem cell media. We provide protocols for preparing inexpensive and versatile polyHEMA-coated plates, setting up primary and secondary sphere assays in almost any tissue culture format and quantification methods using standard inverted microscopy. Our protocol is easily adaptable to laboratories with basic cell culture capabilities, without the need for expensive fluidic instruments.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Melanoma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2269: 37-47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687670

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation is a critical component of glioblastoma (GBM) therapy. Recent data have implicated glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) as determinants of GBM development, maintenance, and treatment response. Understanding the response of GSCs to radiation should thus provide insight into the development of improved GBM treatment strategies. Towards this end, in vitro techniques for the analysis of GSC radiosensitivity are an essential starting point. One such method, the clonogenic survival assay has been adapted to assessing the intrinsic radiosensitivity of GSCs and is described here. As an alternative method, the limiting dilution assay is presented for defining the radiosensitivity of GSC lines that do not form colonies or only grow as neurospheres. In addition to these cellular strategies, we describe γH2AX foci analysis, which provides a surrogate marker for radiosensitivity at the molecular level. Taken together, the in vitro methods presented here provide tools for defining intrinsic radiosensitivity of GSCs and for testing agents that may enhance GBM radioresponse.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Loci Gênicos , Glioblastoma , Histonas , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Tolerância a Radiação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2269: 49-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687671

RESUMO

In solid tumors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recognized to establish complex intercommunication networks with cancer cells and to significantly influence their invasion and metastasis potential. Such bidirectional interplay occurs between both tissue resident/tumor-associated MSCs (TA-MSCs) and also tumor infiltrating MSCs (TM-MSCs) that migrate from distant sites such as the bone marrow. Interestingly, malignant cells interactions with MSCs in the tumor microenvironment extends beyond conventional exchanges of signaling factors and extracellular vesicles, including unconventional direct exchanges of intracellular components, or cancer cells cannibalism of MSCs. In the context of 3D in vitro tumor models, cell tracking assays making use of cell-labeling probes such as membrane penetrating dyes, can be leveraged to shed light on these events, and allow researchers to analyze overtime cell-to-cell spatial distribution, fusion, internal organization, and changes in co-cultured populations ratios. Herein, we describe a high-throughput compatible method through which MSCs positioning and permanence within in vitro 3D multicellular tumor spheroid models (3D-MCTS) can be tracked overtime. Although we have focused on the interactions of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs) within heterotypic lung cancer A549 3D-MCTS, these procedures can be implemented for other 3D tumor spheroid models and types of cells, taking into consideration that optimization steps are undertaken.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 579-589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531802

RESUMO

Purpose: Breast cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer in women. Curcumin showed therapeutic potential against breast cancer, but applying that by itself does not lead to the associated health benefits due to its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. Moreover, poor water solubility of curcumin causes accumulation of a high concentration of curcumin and so decrease its permeability to the cell. Many strategies are employed to reduce curcumin metabolism such as adjuvants and designing novel delivery systems. Therefore, in this study sodium alginate and chitosan were used to synthesize the hydrogels that are known as biocompatible, hydrophilic and low toxic drug delivery systems. Also, folic acid was used to link to chitosan in order to actively targetfolate receptors on the cells. Methods: Chitosan-ß-cyclodextrin-TPP-Folic acid/alginate nanoparticles were synthesized and then curcumin was loaded on them. Interaction between the constituents of the particles was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Morphological structures of samples were studied by FE-SEM. Release profile of curcumin was determined by dialysis membrane. The cytotoxic test was done on the Kerman male breast cancer (KMBC-10) cell line by using MTT assay. The viability of cells was detected by fluorescent staining. Gene expression was investigated by real-time PCR. Results: The encapsulation of curcumin into nano-particles showed an almost spherical shape and an average particle size of 155 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity investigation was indicated as dose-respond reaction against cancer breast cells after 24 h incubation. On the other hand, in vitro cell uptake study revealed active targeting of CUR-NPs into spheroids. Besides, CXCR 4 expression was detected about 30-fold less than curcumin alone. The CUR-NPs inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in spheroid human breast cancer cells. Conclusion: Our results showed the potential of NPs as an effective candidate for curcumin delivery to the target tumor spheroids that confirmed the creatable role of folate receptors.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Quitosana/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Nanosferas/química , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fluorescência , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Nanosferas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522508

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia (CC) presents itself as a syndrome with multiple manifestations, causing a marked multi-organ metabolic imbalance. Recently, cachectic wasting has been proposed to be stimulated by several inflammatory mediators, which may disrupt the integrative physiology of adipose tissues and other tissues such as the brain and muscle. In this scenario, the tumor can survive at the host's expense. In recent clinical research, the intensity of depletion of the different fat deposits has been negatively correlated with the patient's survival outcome. Studies have also shown that various metabolic disorders can alter white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling, especially in the early stages of cachexia development. WAT dysfunction resulting from tissue remodeling is a contributor to overall cachexia, with the main modifications in WAT consisting of morpho-functional changes, increased adipocyte lipolysis, accumulation of immune cells, reduction of adipogenesis, changes in progenitor cell population, and the increase of "niches" containing beige/brite cells. To study the various facets of cachexia-induced WAT remodeling, particularly the changes progenitor cells and beige remodeling, two-dimensional (2D) culture has been the first option for in vitro studies. However, this approach does not adequately summarize WAT complexity. Improved assays for the reconstruction of functional AT ex vivo help the comprehension of physiological interactions between the distinct cell populations. This protocol describes an efficient three-dimensional (3D) printing tissue culture system based on magnetic nanoparticles. The protocol is optimized for investigating WAT remodeling induced by cachexia induced factors (CIFs). The results show that a 3D culture is an appropriate tool for studying WAT modeling ex vivo and may be useful for functional screens to identify bioactive molecules for individual adipose cell populations applications and aid the discovery of WAT-based cell anticachectic therapy.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Caquexia/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
17.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554962

RESUMO

Colorectal cancers are characterized by heterogeneity and a hierarchical organization comprising a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) responsible for tumor development, maintenance, and resistance to drugs. A better understanding of CSC properties for their specific targeting is, therefore, a pre-requisite for effective therapy. However, there is a paucity of suitable preclinical models for in-depth investigations. Although in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cancer cell lines provide valuable insights into tumor biology, they do not replicate the phenotypic and genetic tumor heterogeneity. In contrast, three-dimensional (3D) models address and reproduce near-physiological cancer complexity and cell heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to design a robust and reproducible 3D culture system to study CSC biology. The present methodology describes the development and optimization of conditions to generate 3D spheroids, which are homogenous in size, from Caco2 colon adenocarcinoma cells, a model that can be used for long-term culture. Importantly, within the spheroids, the cells which were organized around lumen-like structures, were characterized by differential cell proliferation patterns and by the presence of CSCs expressing a panel of markers. These results provide the first proof-of-concept for the appropriateness of this 3D approach to study cell heterogeneity and CSC biology, including the response to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/patologia , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Coloração e Rotulagem
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 789-802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568906

RESUMO

Purpose: The aims of this study were to test the feasibility, targeting specificity and anticancer therapeutic efficacy of CendR motif tLyP-1 functionalized at the N-terminal of ferritin for paclitaxel (PTX) delivery. Methods: A tumor homing and penetrating peptide tLyP-1 was fused to the N-terminal of human H chain ferritin (HFtn) to generate a dual-targeting nanoparticle delivery system. PTX molecules were encapsulated into the HFtn nanocage using the disassembly/assembly method by adjusting pHs. Cellular uptake was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The MTT assay was used to test the cytotoxicity of various PTX-loaded NPs against MDA-MB-231 and SMMC-7721 tumor cells. The wound healing and cell migration assays were conducted to assess the inhibitory effect on cell motility and metastasis. The inhibition effect on the SMMC-7721 tumor spheroids was studied and penetration ability was evaluated by CLSM. The antitumor efficacy of PTX-loaded NPs was assessed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografted in female BALB/c nude mice. Results: Compared with HFtn-PTX, in vitro studies demonstrated that the tLyP-1-HFtn-PTX displayed enhanced intracellular delivery and better cytotoxicity and anti-invasion ability against both SMMC-7721 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The better penetrability and growth inhibitory effect on SMMC-7721 tumor spheroids were also testified. In vivo distribution and imaging demonstrated that the tLyP-1-HFtn-PTX NPs were selectively accumulated and penetrated at the tumor regions. Verified by the breast cancer cells model in BABL/c nude mice, tLyP-1-HFtn-PTX displayed higher in vivo therapeutic efficacy with lower systemic toxicity. Conclusion: Ferritin decorated with tumor-homing penetration peptide tLyP-1 at the N terminal could deliver PTX specifically inside the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis with better efficacy. The peptide tLyP-1 which is supposed to work only at the C terminus showed enhanced tumor tissue penetration and antitumor efficacy, demonstrating that it also worked at the N-terminal of HFtn.


Assuntos
Apoferritinas/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586705

RESUMO

The invasion of cancer cells from the primary tumor into the adjacent healthy tissues is an early step in metastasis. Invasive cancer cells pose a major clinical challenge because no efficient method exist for their elimination once their dissemination is underway. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating cancer cell invasion may lead to the development of novel potent therapies. Due to their physiological resemblance to tumors, spheroids embedded in collagen I have been extensively utilized by researchers to study the mechanisms governing cancer cell invasion into the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, this assay is limited by (1) a lack of control over the embedding of spheroids into the ECM; (2) high cost of collagen I and glass bottom dishes, (3) unreliable immunofluorescent labeling, due to the inefficient penetration of antibodies and fluorescent dyes and (4) time-consuming image processing and quantification of the data. To address these challenges, we optimized the three-dimensional (3D) spheroid protocol to image fluorescently labeled cancer cells embedded in collagen I, either using time-lapse videos or longitudinal imaging, and analyze cancer cell invasion. First, we describe the fabrication of a spheroid imaging device (SID) to embed spheroids reliably and in a minimal collagen I volume, reducing the assay cost. Next, we delineate the steps for robust fluorescence labeling of live and fixed spheroids. Finally, we offer an easy-to-use Fiji macro for image processing and data quantification. Altogether, this simple methodology provides a reliable and affordable platform to monitor cancer cell invasion in collagen I. Furthermore, this protocol can be easily modified to fit the users' needs.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagem Óptica , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colágeno/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Imunofluorescência , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Coloração e Rotulagem , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 546: 150-154, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582558

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the phenotypes of CD133-positive cells that were induced in a hypoxic microenvironment of spheroids formed using a glioblastoma cell line (T98G). Colony-formation assay showed that spheroid CD133-positive cells (SCPCs) were more resistant to X-rays and Temozolomide (TMZ) than spheroid CD133-negative cells (SCNCs) sorted from T98G spheroids. In contrast, the sensitivity to X-rays and TMZ was not different between hypoxic cells and normoxic cells of T98G spheroids in a colony-formation assay using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter-transfectants to monitor hypoxia. This result suggests that the difference in the sensitivity to X-rays and TMZ between SCPCs and SCNCs did not result from hypoxia. Transwell membrane assay indicated that the migration and inversion ability of SCPCs was higher than that of SCNCs. These results, including the findings obtained previously regarding nestin positivity in SCPCs, strongly suggest that SCPCs are cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells. Additionally, based on experiments of monolayer culture of T98G cells, it was shown that hypoxia or low pH culture condition is not sufficient for the induction of SCPCs. The three-dimensional cell structure might be a critical factor for SCPC induction.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Glioblastoma/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Citometria de Fluxo , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos da radiação , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Raios X
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