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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992687

RESUMO

Rules determine how team sport matches occur. Match-induced fatigue is specific to each sport, and may be associated with injury incidence. For example, the injury rate in soccer is distinctly higher during matches than in training sessions. Understanding the differences between team sports rules might be useful for enhancing rules (e.g., safer sport). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the rule-induced physical demands between soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball, focusing on substitution rules. Data from the elite team sports' rules (e.g., absolute and relative court dimensions; the number of players, substitutions allowed, total game time, time-outs) were collected, including the changes due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in soccer substitutions, and comparisons were performed. The data showed that soccer has higher rule-induced physical demands: e.g., substantially lower substitution rate, higher dimensions in absolute (eight to fifteen times), and relative (four to eight times) values. Simulations also showed that soccer has extremely large differences, even considering COVID-19 substitution changes (from three to up to five). We conclude that elite soccer has remarkably higher overall rule-induced physical demands than elite futsal, basketball and handball, and increasing soccer substitutions permanently (e.g., unlimited) might mitigate overall soccer demands.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esforço Físico , Futebol/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4026, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788604

RESUMO

Physical fatigue crucially influences our decisions to partake in effortful action. However, there is a limited understanding of how fatigue impacts effort-based decision-making at the level of brain and behavior. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to record markers of brain activity while human participants engage in uncertain choices for prospective physical effort, before and after bouts of exertion. Using computational modeling of choice behavior we find that fatiguing exertions cause participants to increase their subjective cost of effort, compared to a baseline/rested state. We describe a mechanism by which signals related to motor cortical state in premotor cortex influence effort value computations, instantiated by insula, thereby increasing an individual's subjective valuation of prospective physical effort while fatigued. Our findings provide a neurobiological account of how information about bodily state modulates decisions to engage in physical activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 135-141, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841195

RESUMO

Rehabilitation ifluences of adaptive physical exercises are based on interrelation of impellent and vegetative functions. In particular at corrective picked up physical exercises according to functionalities of an organism, muscular activity causes positive changes in work of internal bodies. The purpose of our experiment was to study the role of physical exertion in the process of comparative restoration of impaired homeostasis of individuals with limited abilities (Down syndrome), along with drug therapies; establishing the form and power of physical impact. Ahile compezing data of control group, we can conclude, that the complex adaptive exercises and correctly choosen power of physical load, with the accounting of time, causes comparative rehabilitation of cardio-vascular and respiratory systems for people with congenital aberration of genes, aluch is very important for their vital activity, from our point of view, which is taking us to genomes innate, abrogated people social rehabilitat: on determinate problems.


Assuntos
Coração , Esforço Físico , Humanos , Exame Físico , Sistema Respiratório
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745112

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to quantify training loads (TL) of high intensity sessions through original methods (TRIMP; session-RPE; Work-Endurance-Recovery) and their updated alternatives (TRIMPcumulative; RPEalone; New-WER). Ten endurance athletes were requested to perform five sessions until exhaustion. Session 1 composed by a 800m maximal performance and four intermittent sessions performed at the 800m velocity, three sessions with 400m of interval length and work:recovery ratios of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 and one with 200m intervals and 1:1. Total TL were quantified from the sessions' beginning to the cool-down period and an intermediate TL (TL800) was calculated when 800m running was accumulated within the sessions. At the end of the sessions high and similar RPE were reported (effect size, η2 = 0.12), while, at the intermediate 800m distance, the higher interval distances and work:recovery ratios the higher the RPE (η2 = 0.88). Our results show marked differences in sessions' total TL between original (e.g., lowest TL for the 800m and highest for the 200m-1:1 sessions) and alternative methods (RPEalone and New-WER; similar TL for each session). Differences appear in TL800 notably between TRIMP and other methods which are negatively correlated. All TL report light to moderate correlations between original methods and their alternatives, original methods are strongly correlated together, as observed for alternative methods. Differences in TL quantification between original and alternative methods underline that they are not interchangeable. Because of high exercise volume influence, original methods markedly enhance TL of sessions with higher exercise volumes although these presented the easiest interval distances and work-recovery ratios. Alternative methods based on exhaustion level (New-WER) and exertion (RPEalone) provided a new and promising point of view of TL quantification where exhaustion determines the highest TL whatever the exercise. This remains to be tested with more extended populations submitted to wider ranges of exercises.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adolescente , Atletas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico , Corrida , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748826

RESUMO

Endurance physical exercise is accompanied by subjective perceptions of exertion (reported perceived exertion, RPE), emotional valence, and arousal. These constructs have been hypothesized to serve as the basis for the exerciser to make decisions regarding when to stop, how to regulate pace, and whether or not to exercise again. In dual physical-cognitive tasks, the mental (executive) workload generated by the cognitive task has been shown to influence these perceptions, in ways that could also influence exercise-related decisions. In the present work, we intend to replicate and extend previous findings that manipulating the amount of executive load imposed by a mental task, performed concomitantly with a submaximal cycling session, influenced emotional states but not perceived exertion. Participants (experienced triathletes) were asked to perform a submaximal cycling task in two conditions with different executive demands (a two-back version of the n-back task vs. oddball) but equated in external physical load. Results showed that the higher executive load condition elicited more arousal and less positive valence than the lower load condition. However, both conditions did not differ in RPE. This experimental dissociation suggests that perceived exertion and its emotional correlates are not interchangeable, which opens the possibility that they could play different roles in exercise-related decision-making.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785289

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate and compare the effects of preferred music on anaerobic threshold determination in an incremental running test, as well the physiological responses and perceived exertion at this intensity, in physically active men and women. Additionally, by using area under the curve (AUC) analysis of the parameters of interest during the graded test, we studied the effects of music at two physiological moments-before and after anaerobic threshold intensity (iAT)-in men and women. Twenty (men = 10; women = 10) healthy and active participants completed four visits to the laboratory. The first and second sessions were used for sample characterization. In the third and fourth sessions, participants performed an incremental running test (started at 7 km.h-1 with increments of 1 km.h-1 at each 3-minute stage) under preferred music and non-music conditions. Blood lactate ([Lac]), heart rate (HR), and perceived exertion were measured by two scales (RPEBorg and the estimation of time limit ‒ ETL) during all tests, and the total time of effort (TT) was considered as performance. Individual curves of the "intensity vs blood lactate" analyzed by the bissegmentation method provide the iAT and the AUC of [Lac], HR, RPEBorg, and ETL before and after the iAT attainment were calculated. The iAT for men (non-music: 11.5±0.9km.h-1 vs music: 11.6±1.1km.h-1) and women (non-music: 9.8±0.7km.h-1 vs music: 9.7±0.7km.h-1) was not affected by music, and for both sexes, there was no difference between non-music and music conditions in all variables obtained at iAT. The AUC of all variables were not affected by music before the iAT attainment. However, [Lac], HR, and RPEBorg presented higher values of AUC after iAT for the female group with preferred music. This may be due to the fact that 70% of women have increased TT under music conditions. Overall, preferred music did not affect the iAT determination in an incremental running test. However, some physiological responses and perceived exertion after iAT of female subjects seems to be influenced by preferred music.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio , Música , Corrida , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Resistência Física , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3555, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678082

RESUMO

Interoceptive feedback transmitted via the vagus nerve plays a vital role in motivation by tuning actions according to physiological needs. Whereas vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reinforces actions in animals, motivational effects elicited by VNS in humans are still largely elusive. Here, we applied non-invasive transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) on the left or right ear while participants exerted effort to earn rewards using a randomized cross-over design (vs. sham). In line with preclinical studies, acute taVNS enhances invigoration of effort, and stimulation on the left side primarily facilitates invigoration for food rewards. In contrast, we do not find conclusive evidence that acute taVNS affects effort maintenance or wanting ratings. Collectively, our results suggest that taVNS enhances reward-seeking by boosting invigoration, not effort maintenance and that the stimulation side affects generalization beyond food reward. Thus, taVNS may enhance the pursuit of prospective rewards which may pave avenues to treat motivational deficiencies.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Cross-Over , Orelha/inervação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(5): 696-704, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate within-player effect, between-player effect, and individual response of external training load from player tracking devices on session rating of perceived exertion training load (sRPE-TL) in elite football players. METHODS: The authors collected sRPE-TL from 18 outfield players in 21 training sessions. Total distance, high-speed running distance (>14.4 m/s), very high-speed running distance (>19.8 m/s), PlayerLoad™, PlayerLoad2D™, and high-intensity events (HIE > 1.5, HIE > 2.5, and HIE > 3.5 m/s) were extracted from the tracking devices. The authors modeled within-player and between-player effects of single external load variables on sRPE-TL, and multiple levels of variability, using a linear mixed model. The effect of 2 SDs of external load on sRPE-TL was evaluated with magnitude-based inferences. RESULTS: Total distance, PlayerLoad™, PlayerLoad2D™, and HIE > 1.5 had most likely substantial within-player effects on sRPE-TL (100%-106%, very large effect sizes). Moreover, the authors observed likely substantial between-player effects (12%-19%, small to moderate effect sizes) from the majority of the external load variables and likely to very likely substantial individual responses of PlayerLoad™, high-speed running distance, very high-speed running distance, and HIE > 1.5 (19%-30% coefficient of variation, moderate to large effect sizes). Finally, sRPE-TL showed large to very large between-session variability with all external load variables. CONCLUSIONS: External load variables with low intensity-thresholds had the strongest relationship with sRPE-TL. Furthermore, the between-player effect of external load and the individual response to external load advocate for monitoring sRPE-TL in addition to external load. Finally, the large between-session variability in sRPE-TL demonstrates that substantial amounts of sRPE-TL in training sessions are not explained by single external load variables.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(4): 29-31, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610843

RESUMO

Background: Heat-related illnesses includes a range of manifestation starting from minor illness like heat rashes/ heat cramps to more complicated illness like heat exhaustion and the most severe heat stroke. Often derangements in biochemical parameters including metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, electrolytes, transminitis and renal dysfunction are noticed in patients with heat stroke. Objective: The present study was an attempt to compare the clinical and changes in biochemical parameters in exertional heat exhaustion and heat stroke patients among cadets from a military training centre admitted to an Armed forces hospital in South India. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out as a cross sectional comparative study among patients with heat exhaustion (n=30) and heat stroke (n=30) in a tertiary level Armed forces hospital located in Chennai. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Clinical and biochemical parameters of the study participants were examined. Statistical analysis: Means and proportions were calculated for continuous and categorical variables respectively. Difference in proportions were tested using chi square test and a p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On examination most the patients had tachycardia, blood pressure and respiratory rate in normal ranges. Most of the patients were found having elevated liver enzymes (>90%). Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality. Other abnormal biochemical parameters noted were hypokalemia and deranged renal parameters. Higher proportion of patients with heat stroke were found to have tachycardia, transaminitis and abnormal electrolyte and biochemical parameters as compared to those with heat exhaustion. Conclusion: Tachycardia, transaminitis and hyponatremia was widely observed in patients with heat related illness and these changes occur at higher rates in patients in heat stroke as compared to heat exhaustion.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Militares , Esforço Físico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia
10.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(7): 608-612, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600900
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645890

RESUMO

Background: Due to the importance of energy efficiency and economy in endurance performance, it is important to know the influence of different paddling cadences on these variables in the stand-up paddleboarding (SUP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of paddling at different cadences on the energy efficiency, economy, and physiological variables of international SUP race competitors. Methods: Ten male paddlers (age 28.8 ± 11.0 years; height 175.4 ± 5.1 m; body mass 74.2 ± 9.4 kg) participating in international tests carried out two test sessions. In the first one, an incremental exercise test was conducted to assess maximal oxygen uptake and peak power output (PPO). On the second day, they underwent 3 trials of 8 min each at 75% of PPO reached in the first test session. Three cadences were carried out in different trials randomly assigned between 45-55 and 65 strokes-min-1 (spm). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate, perceived sense of exertion (RPE), gross efficiency, economy, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured in the middle (4-min) and the end (8-min) of each trial. Results: Economy (45.3 ± 5.7 KJ·l-1 at 45 spm vs. 38.1 ± 5.3 KJ·l-1 at 65 spm; p = 0.010) and gross efficiency (13.4 ± 2.3% at 45 spm vs. 11.0 ± 1.6% at 65 spm; p = 0.012) was higher during de 45 spm condition than 65 spm in the 8-min. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) presented a lower value at 4-min than at 8-min in 55 spm (4-min, 0.950 ± 0.065 vs. 8-min, 0.964 ± 0.053) and 65 spm cadences (4-min, 0.951 ± 0.030 vs. 8-min, 0.992 ± 0.047; p < 0.05). VO2, HR, lactate, and RPE were lower (p < 0.05) at 45 spm (VO2, 34.4 ± 6.0 mL·kg-1·min-1; HR, 161.2 ± 16.4 beats·min-1; lactate, 3.5 ± 1.0 mmol·l-1; RPE, 6.0 ± 2.1) than at 55 spm (VO2, 38.6 ± 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1; HR, 168.1 ± 15.1 beats·min-1; lactate, 4.2 ± 1.2 mmol·l-1; RPE, 6.9 ± 1.4) and 65 spm (VO2, 38.7 ± 5.9 mL·kg-1·min-1; HR, 170.7 ± 13.0 beats·min-1; 5.3 ± 1.8 mmol·l-1; RPE, 7.6 ± 1.4) at 8-min. Moreover, lactate and RPE at 65 spm was greater than 55 spm (p < 0.05) at 8-min. Conclusion: International male SUP paddlers were most efficient and economical when paddling at 45 spm vs. 55 or 65 spm, confirmed by lower RPE values, which may likely translate to faster paddling speed and greater endurance.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Esforço Físico , Esportes Aquáticos , Adulto , Eficiência , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Lactatos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E354-E362, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603260

RESUMO

Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been shown to reduce obesity and obesity-related complications, suggesting that factors that promote WAT browning may have applications in the development of therapeutic strategies for treating obesity. Here, we show that ablation of spinophilin (SPL), a ubiquitously expressed, multidomain scaffolding protein, increases metabolism and improves energy balance. Male and female SPL knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were fed a chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Body weight, hepatic steatosis, glucose and insulin tolerance, physical activity, and expression of browning genes in adipose tissues were measured and compared. Male SPL knockout (KO) mice fed a chow diet were significantly leaner, had lower body weights, and exhibited better glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity than wild-type (WT) littermate controls. When fed an HFD, SPL KO mice were protected from increased body fat, weight gain, hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Physical activity of SPL KO mice was markedly increased compared with WT controls. Furthermore, expression of the brown adipocyte marker, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), and the mitochondrial activity markers, cd137 and c-idea, were significantly increased in visceral WAT (vWAT) of SPL KO mice, suggesting that SPL knockout protected the mice from HFD-induced obesity and its metabolic complications, at least in part, by promoting the browning of white adipocytes in vWAT. Our data identify a critical role of SPL in regulating glucose homeostasis, obesity, and adipocyte browning. These results suggest SPL may serve as a drug target for obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
13.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(3): R315-R322, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697652

RESUMO

During exhaustive ramp-incremental cycling tests, the incidence of O2 uptake (V̇o2) plateaus is low. To verify the attainment of maximum V̇o2 (V̇o2max), it is recommended that a trial at a power output (PO) corresponding to 110% of the ramp-derived peak (POpeak) is performed. It remains unclear whether verification trials set at this PO can be tolerated for long enough to allow attainment of V̇o2max. Eleven recreationally trained individuals performed five ramp tests of varying slope (5, 10, 15, 25, and 30 W/min), each followed, in series, by two verification trials: the first at 110% POpeak of the 25 W/min ramp and the second at 110% POpeak attained in the preceding ramp test. Exercise duration of the first verification trial was on average 81 ± 15 s (CV = 9 ± 3%) versus 162 ± 32, 121 ± 24, 103 ± 15, and 73 ± 10 s for the second verification trials at 110% of POpeak of the 5, 10, 15, and 30 W/min ramp tests, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with the highest V̇o2 recorded during ramp tests, V̇o2 from the subsequent verification trials was not different for the 5, 10, and 15 W/min ramp tests (P > 0.05) but was lower for the 25 and 30 W/min ramp tests (P < 0.05). Verification trials at 110% POpeak of rapidly incrementing ramp tests (i.e., 25 W/min) were not sustained for long enough to allow the attainment of V̇o2max. With commonly used rapidly incrementing ramp tests engendering exhaustion within 8-12 min, verification trials less than POpeak should be preferred as they can be sustained sufficiently long to allow the attainment of V̇o2max.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness often used to monitor changes in fitness during and after treatment in cancer patients. There is, however, limited knowledge in how criteria verifying [Formula: see text] work for patients newly diagnosed with cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of fulfillment of typical criteria verifying [Formula: see text] and to investigate the associations between the criteria and the test leader's evaluation whether a test was performed "to exhaustion". An additional aim was to establish new cut-points within the associated criteria. METHODS: From the Phys-Can randomized controlled trial, 535 patients (59 ±12 years) newly diagnosed with breast (79%), prostate (17%) or colorectal cancer (4%) performed an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a treadmill. The test was performed before starting (neo-)adjuvant treatment and an exercise intervention. Fulfillment of different cut-points within typical criteria verifying [Formula: see text] was described. The dependent key variables included in the initial bivariate analysis were achievement of a [Formula: see text] plateau, peak values for maximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), the patients' rating of perceived exertion on Borg's scale6-20 and peak breathing frequency (fR). A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to establish cut-points for variables associated with the test leader's evaluation. Last, a cross-validation of the cut-points found in the receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on a comparable sample of cancer patients (n = 80). RESULTS: The criteria RERpeak (<0.001), Borg's RPE (<0.001) and fR peak (p = 0.018) were associated with the test leader's evaluation of whether a test was defined as "to exhaustion". The cut-points that best predicted the test leader's evaluation were RER ≥ 1.14, RPE ≥ 18 and fR ≥ 40. Maximal heart rate and [Formula: see text] plateau was not associated with the test leader's evaluation. CONCLUSION: We recommend a focus on RER (in the range between ≥1.1 and ≥1.15) and RPE (≥17 or ≥18) in addition to the test leader's evaluation. Additionally, a fR peak of ≥40 breaths/min may be a cut-point to help the test leader evaluate the degree of exhaustion. However, more research is needed to verify our findings, and to investigate how these criteria will work within a population that are undergoing or finished with cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Oxigênio/análise , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1434-1443, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The benefits of aerobic exercise early after stroke are well known, but concerns about cardiovascular risk are a barrier to clinical implementation. Symptom-limited exercise testing with electrocardiography (ECG) is recommended but not always feasible. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of and corresponding exercise intensities at which ECG abnormalities occurred during submaximal exercise testing that would limit safe exercise prescription beyond those intensities. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of ECGs from 195 patients who completed submaximal exercise testing during stroke rehabilitation. A graded submaximal exercise test was conducted with a 5- or 12-lead ECG and was terminated on the basis of predetermined endpoint criteria (heart rate, perceived exertion, signs, or symptoms). ECGs were retrospectively reviewed for exercise-induced abnormalities and their associated heart rates. RESULTS: The peak heart rate achieved was 65.4% (SD = 10.5%) of the predicted maximum heart rate or 29.1% (SD = 15.5%) of the heart rate reserve (adjusted for beta-blocker medications). The test was terminated more often because of perceived exertion (93/195) than because of heart rate limits (60/195). Four patients (2.1%) exhibited exercise-induced horizontal or downsloping ST segment depression of ≥1 mm. Except for 1 patient, the heart rate at test termination was comparable with the heart rate associated with the onset of the ECG abnormality. CONCLUSION: A graded submaximal exercise test without ECG but with symptom monitoring and conservative heart rate and perceived exertion endpoints may facilitate safe exercise intensities early after stroke. Symptom-limited exercise testing with ECG is still recommended when progressing to higher intensity exercise. IMPACT: Concerns about cardiovascular risk are a barrier to physical therapists implementing aerobic exercise in stroke rehabilitation. This study showed that, in the absence of access to exercise testing with ECG, submaximal testing with conservative heart rate and perceived exertion endpoints and symptom monitoring can support physical therapists in the safe prescription of aerobic exercise early after stroke. LAY SUMMARY: It is recommended that people with stroke participate in aerobic exercise as early as possible during their rehabilitation. A submaximal exercise test with monitoring of heart rate, perceived exertion, blood pressure, and symptoms can support physical therapists in safely prescribing that exercise.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Georgian Med News ; (301): 120-125, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535575

RESUMO

Rehabilitation ifluences of adaptive physical exercises are based on interrelation of impellent and also vegetative and muscular functions. In particular at corrective picked up physical exercises according to functionalities of an organism muscular and vegetative system causes positive changes in work of internal bodies. The purpose of our experiment was to study the role of physical exertion in the process of comparative restoration of impaired homeostasis of individuals with limited abilities (Down syndrome), along with drug therapies; establishing the form and power of physical impact. Received data of researching and control group, allows conclude, that the complex adaptive exercises and correct by selected power of physical load, with the accounting of time, causes comparative rehabilitation of muscular and vegetative systems for people with congenital aberration of genes, which is very important for their vital activity, from our point of view.


Assuntos
Exame Físico , Esforço Físico , Exercício Físico , Homeostase , Humanos
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 736-743, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485779

RESUMO

Injuries of runners reduce the ability to train and hinder competing. Literature shows that the relation between potential risk factors and injuries are not definitive, limited, and inconsistent. In team sports, workload derivatives were identified as risk factors. However, there is an absence of literature in running on workload derivatives. This study used the workload derivatives acute workload, chronic workload, and acute: chronic workload ratios to investigate the relation between workload and injury risk in running. Twenty-three competitive runners kept a daily training log for 24 months. The runners reported training duration, training intensity and injuries. One-week (acute) and 4-week (chronic) workloads were calculated as the average of training duration multiplied by training intensity. The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined dividing the acute and chronic workloads. Results show that a fortnightly low increase of the acute:chronic workload ratio (0.10-0.78) led to an increased risk of sustaining an injury (p<0.001). Besides, a low increase of the acute:chronic workload ratio (0.05-0.62) between the second week and third week before an injury showed an association with increased injury risk (p=0.013). These findings demonstrate that the acute:chronic workload ratio relates to injury risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Corrida/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 759-765, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492734

RESUMO

A combination of yoga and blood flow restriction, each of which elicits marked pressor responses, may further increase blood pressure and myocardial oxygen demand. To determine the impact of a combination of yoga and blood flow restriction on hemodynamic responses, twenty young healthy participants performed 20 yoga poses with/without blood flow restriction bands placed on both legs. At baseline, there were no significant differences in any of the variables between the blood flow restriction and non-blood flow restriction conditions. Blood pressure and heart rate increased in response to the various yoga poses (p<0.01) but were not different between the blood flow restriction and non-blood flow restriction conditions. Rate-pressure products, an index of myocardial oxygen demand, increased significantly during yoga exercises with no significant differences between the two conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was not different between the conditions. Blood lactate concentration was significantly greater after performing yoga with blood flow restriction bands (p=0.007). Cardio-ankle vascular index, an index of arterial stiffness, decreased similarly after yoga exercise in both conditions while flow-mediated dilation remained unchanged. In conclusion, the use of lower body blood flow restriction bands in combination with yoga did not result in additive or synergistic hemodynamic and pressor responses.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Coxa da Perna/irrigação sanguínea , Ioga , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Rigidez Vascular , Vasodilatação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 790-797, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599641

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of two supervised concurrent training interventions in breast cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue at baseline. Twenty-three female breast cancer survivors (50±8 years) were randomized to a high- (n=13) or a moderate-intensity (n=10) training program. Both interventions lasted 16 weeks and included the same resistance exercises, but the aerobic component was supervised and more intense in the former (i.e., rating of perceived exertion of 7-8 vs. 6 on a 1-10 scale for the high and moderate-intensity intervention, respectively). The primary endpoint was fatigue perception. Endpoints were assessed at baseline and after 16 weeks. The p-value for statistical significance was set at 0.004 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The high-intensity training program increased lower-limb muscle strength significantly (p=0.002) and tended to improve fatigue perception (p=0.006), waist circumference (p=0.013), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.028) and some quality of life items (p=0.011). Although the moderate-intensity training program did not provide such benefits in general (i.e., higher p-values for pre vs post-intervention comparisons), no significant differences were found between interventions (all p>0.004). Further research is needed to elucidate if the benefits provided by high-intensity concurrent training are superior to those elicited by moderate-intensity training in breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fadiga/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Treinamento de Resistência
20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H171-H182, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502377

RESUMO

The role of the ASIC1a in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in rats with simulated peripheral artery disease is unknown. This prompted us to determine whether ASIC1a plays a role in evoking the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in decerebrated rats with simulated peripheral artery disease. To simulate peripheral artery disease, we ligated the left femoral artery 72 h before the experiment. The right femoral artery was freely perfused and used as a control. To test our hypothesis, we measured the effect of injecting two ASIC1a blockers into the arterial supply of the triceps surae muscles with and without the femoral artery ligated on the reflex pressor responses to 1) static contraction of the triceps surae muscles, 2) calcaneal tendon stretch, and 3) intra-arterial injection of diprotonated phosphate (pH 6.0). We found that the ASIC1a blockers psalmotoxin-1 (200 ng/kg) and mambalgin-1 (6.5 µg/kg) decreased the pressor responses to static contraction as well as the peak pressor responses to injection of diprotonated phosphate when these responses were evoked from the freely perfused hindlimb. In contrast, ASIC1a blockers only decreased the peak pressor responses evoked by injection of diprotonated phosphate in the hindlimb circulation with simulated peripheral artery disease. This inhibitory effect was less than the one measured from the healthy hindlimb. Independently of the hindlimb of interest, ASIC1a blockers had no effect on the pressor responses to tendon stretch. Our results do not support the hypothesis that ASIC1a play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex arising from a hindlimb with simulated peripheral artery disease.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The role of ASIC1a in evoking the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex in peripheral artery disease is unknown. Using a within-rat experimental design, we found that the contribution of ASIC1a decreased in a rat model of peripheral artery disease. These results have key implications to help finding better treatments and improve morbidity, quality of life, and mortality in patients with peripheral artery disease.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/metabolismo , Contração Muscular , Doença Arterial Periférica/metabolismo , Esforço Físico , Reflexo , Bloqueadores do Canal Iônico Sensível a Ácido/farmacologia , Animais , Venenos Elapídicos/farmacologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Venenos de Aranha/farmacologia , Tendões/fisiopatologia
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