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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 58, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise increases skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which may contribute to the onset of muscular fatigue and impair athletic performance. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as MitoQ, which contains a ubiquinone moiety and is targeted to mitochondria through the addition of a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation, are becoming popular amongst active individuals as they are designed to accumulate within mitochondria and may provide targeted protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, the effect of MitoQ supplementation on cycling performance is currently unknown. Here, we investigate whether MitoQ supplementation can improve cycling performance measured as time to complete an 8 km time trial. METHOD: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 middle-aged (age: 44 ± 4 years) recreationally trained (VO2peak: 58.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg- 1·min- 1, distance cycled per week during 6 months prior to study enrollment: 158.3 ± 58.4 km) male cyclists completed 45 min cycling at 70% VO2peak followed by an 8 km time trial after 28 days of supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg·day- 1) and a placebo. Free F2-isoprostanes were measured in plasma samples collected at rest, after 45 min cycling at 70% VO2peak and after completion of the time trial. Respiratory gases and measures of rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also collected. RESULTS: Mean completion time for the time trial was 1.3% faster with MitoQ (12.91 ± 0.94 min) compared to placebo (13.09 ± 0.95 min, p = 0.04, 95% CI [0.05, 2.64], d = 0.2). There was no difference in RPE during the time trial between conditions (p = 0.82) despite there being a 4.4% increase in average power output during the time trial following MitoQ supplementation compared to placebo (placebo; 270 ± 51 W, MitoQ; 280 ± 53 W, p = 0.04, 95% CI [0.49, 8.22], d = 0.2). Plasma F2-isoprostanes were lower on completion of the time trial following MitoQ supplementation (35.89 ± 13.6 pg·ml- 1) compared to placebo (44.7 ± 16.9 pg·ml- 1 p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that MitoQ supplementation may be an effective nutritional strategy to attenuate exercise-induced increases in oxidative damage to lipids and improve cycling performance.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , F2-Isoprostanos/sangue , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/metabolismo , Esforço Físico/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Placebos/metabolismo , Placebos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444564

RESUMO

During operational activities, military personnel face extremely demanding circumstances, which when combined lead to severe fatigue, influencing both their well-being and performance. Physical exertion is the main condition leading to fatigue, and its continuous tracking would help prevent its effects. This review aimed to investigate the up-to-date progress on non-invasive physiological monitoring to evaluate situations of physical exertion as a pre-condition to fatigue in military populations, and determine the potential associations between physiological responses and fatigue, which can later result in decision-making indicators to prevent health-related consequences. Adhering to the PRISMA Statement, four databases (Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and PubMed) were used for a literature search based on combinations of keywords. The eligibility criteria focused on studies monitoring physiological variables through non-invasive objective measurements, with these measurements being developed in military field, combat, or training conditions. The review process led to the inclusion of 20 studies. The findings established the importance of multivariable assessments in a real-life context to accurately characterise the effects of military practices. A tendency for examining heart rate variables, thermal responses, and actigraphy measurements was also identified. The objectives and experimental protocols were diverse, but the effectiveness of non-invasive measurements in identifying the most fatigue-inducing periods was demonstrated. Nevertheless, no assessment system for standardised application was presented. Future work may include the development of assessment methods to translate physiological recordings into actionable information in real-time and mitigate the effects of fatigue on soldiers' performance accurately.


Assuntos
Militares , Fadiga , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Esforço Físico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360184

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of training using loads from a repetition maximum value (%1RM) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elderly women. Methods: Twenty-five elderly women (60-75 years old) were randomly assigned to a group that trained using loads determined by 1RM test (G%; n = 12) or to a group that trained using loads determined by RPE (GPE; n = 13). Elderly women trained for 12 weeks using five exercises performed with 2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions. Loads progressed from 45% to 75% of 1RM (G%) and from 13 to 18 from Rating Perceived Exertion of Borg Scale (GPE). The outcome measures, 1RM and maximum repetitions (RMs with 70% 1RM), were assessed before, between and after training programs. Results: Increased 1RM value and RMs were observed in both groups (20-42%, p < 0.001 and 56-76%, p < 0.001, respectively, for %G; and 17-56%, p < 0.001 and 47-106%, p < 0.001, respectively, for GPE), without differences between them. Conclusions: Prescribing loads using the RPE and 1RM might be similarly effective for training elderly women in order to promote strength gains. As a practical application, RPE could be an additional method to determine training loads. In spite of the promising results of the present study, it is not possible to state that the use of RPE is effective in monitoring loads during sub maximal strength training in elderly and more research must be carried out to confirm it.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Percepção , Esforço Físico , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 222, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362372

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant acute morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is now a growing recognition of the longer-term sequelae of this infection, termed "long COVID". However, little is known about this condition. Here, we describe a distinct phenotype seen in a subset of patients with long COVID who have reduced exercise tolerance as measured by the 6 min walk test. They are associated with significant exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life and poor functional status. However, surprisingly, they do not appear to have any major pulmonary function abnormalities or increased burden of neurologic, musculoskeletal or fatigue symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360425

RESUMO

This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study examined the effect of induced painful sensation (via acute Beta Alanine (B-ALA) ingestion) on Love and Care of Nature (LCN), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) during outdoor exercise. Twenty participants volunteered on consecutive days to complete a 0.8 km (0.5 mi) up-hill hike after consuming either B-ALA (6.4 g) or placebo. Immediately after consumption participants answered LCN, RPE, and MPQ questionnaires, immersed in a natural environment for 45 min, and then completed a hike as quickly as possible without running. No difference in HR (p = 0.846), or RPE (p = 0.606) were observed between treatments. Total MPQ scores increased with consumption of B-ALA (p = 0.001). An increased LCN score was observed following exercise regardless of condition (p = 0.035). The results demonstrate that acute B-ALA supplementation is effective in increasing perceived pain sensations. The results also demonstrate an increase in LCN in the presence of increased perceptions of pain sensations during exercise.


Assuntos
Imersão , Esforço Físico , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Dor , Percepção da Dor , beta-Alanina
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431484

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Merigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. External and internal load measures during preseason training in men collegiate soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021-Collegiate athletes are exposed to high volume loads during preseason training. Monitoring training load can inform training and recovery periods. Therefore, the purpose was to examine changes in and bidirectional relationship between external and internal load metrics in men collegiate soccer athletes (n = 20; age, 20 ± 1 year). Internal load measures of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), and self-assessment wellness and ratings of perceived exertion scales were collected daily. External load measures of total distance, player load, high-speed distance, high inertial movement analysis, and repeated high-intensity efforts were collected in each training session using global positioning system/global navigation satellite system technology. A 1-way analysis of variance determined weekly changes in external load, physiological, hormonal, and subjective self-assessment measures of internal load. Bidirectional prediction of external load markers and self-assessment measures on physiological and hormonal markers of internal load were assessed by hierarchical linear regression models (p < 0.05). External load measures, C, energy, sleep, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) decreased (p < 0.01), whereas T, T:C ratio, anger, depression, and vigor increased (p < 0.01) from week 1 to week 2. Morning C positively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); T:C ratio negatively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); and morning HRV negatively predicted post-training RPE (p = 0.031). Despite reduced hormonal stress and external load across weeks, negative perceptions of fatigue increased, suggesting fatigue patterns may have a delayed response. Load may have a more belated, chronic effect on perceptions of fatigue, whereas hormonal changes may be more immediate and sensitive to change. Practitioners may wish to use a variety of external and internal load measures to understand athletes' stress responses to training.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202762

RESUMO

Mental fatigue can impart negative effects on subsequent physical performance, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. This study examined whether mental fatigue confers negative carryover effects on the performance of a set of biceps curls, while also investigating physiological and psychological mechanisms proposed to explain the predicted effect. A randomized, cross-over design was employed. On visit 1, participants (N = 10) performed a barbell biceps curl one-repetition maximum (1RM) test. On visits 2-3, participants performed 20 biceps curls at 50% of their 1RM, followed by their respective 10 min experimental manipulation (high vs. low cognitive exertion) and then a second set of biceps curls to exhaustion. Ratings of perceived exertion and electromyography of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, upper trapezius, thoracic erector spinae and lumbar erector spinae were recorded during the physical task. The total number of repetitions completed was similar across the conditions. Results also failed to show between-condition differences for muscle activation and perceptions of exertion. Future research is needed to build an adequate knowledge base to determine whether there is an effect of mental fatigue on dynamic resistance-based task performance and, if so, identify the mechanisms explaining how and why.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Eletromiografia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Fadiga Mental , Músculo Esquelético , Esforço Físico
9.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(180): 20210387, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283943

RESUMO

Economists have known for centuries that to understand an individual's decisions, we must consider not only the objective value of the goal at stake, but its subjective value as well. However, achieving that goal ultimately requires expenditure of effort. Surprisingly, despite the ubiquitous role of effort in decision-making and movement, we currently do not understand how effort is subjectively valued in daily movements. Part of the difficulty arises from the lack of an objective measure of effort. Here, we use a physiological approach to address this knowledge gap. We quantified objective effort costs by measuring metabolic cost via expired gas analysis as participants performed a reaching task against increasing resistance. We then used neuroeconomic methods to quantify each individual's subjective valuation of effort. Rather than the diminishing sensitivity observed in reward valuation, effort was valued objectively, on average. This is significantly less than the near-quadratic sensitivity to effort observed previously in force-based motor tasks. Moreover, there was significant inter-individual variability with many participants undervaluing or overvaluing effort. These findings demonstrate that in contrast with monetary decisions in which subjective value exhibits diminishing marginal returns, effort costs are valued more objectively in low-effort reaching movements common in daily life.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Esforço Físico , Humanos , Movimento , Recompensa
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202472

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyze the behavior of players in a standard small-sided game (SSG) according to the role played (offensive (OF), defensive (DF), and wildcard (W)) and its relationship with physical demands (PHYD), technical performance (TP), and internal load (RPE). A total of 24 young highly trained male soccer players (under 16: n = 12; under 19: n = 12) participated. During the SSG, the players alternated the three roles (OF, DF, and W). The duration of each repetition was 4 min with a passive rest of 3 min between them. Furthermore, it emphasized the high demand in all defensive parameters. In addition, DF roles showed higher values in PHYD and RPE, followed by the OF roles, and finally by the W roles. A complementary, positive moderate correlation was found between PHYD and RPE in the U16 dataset (r = 0.45, p < 0.006). Very large positive correlations were also found between PHYD and RPE in the U19 and merged dataset (r = 0.78, p < 0.001 and r = 0.46, p < 0.63, respectively). This information could be useful for coaches in order to structure the roles in SSGs and control training load.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Análise de Dados , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Rotação , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209610

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: During intense training periods, there is a high need to monitor the external and especially the internal training load in order to fine-tune the training process and to avoid overreaching or overtraining. However, data on stress reactions, especially of biomarkers, to high training loads in children and youth are rare. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the training load of youth athletes during a training camp using a multilevel approach. Materials and Methods: Six trained youth male cyclists performed a 7-day preseason training camp. To investigate the internal training load, every morning, minimally invasive "point-of-care testing" (POCT) devices were used to analyze the following biomarkers: creatine kinase (CK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (Alb), bilirubin (Bil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total protein (TP). Additionally, data of training load measures (HR: heart rate, RPE: rating of perceived exertion, sRPE: session-RPE, TRIMP: training impulse, intensity (RPE:HR), and load (sRPE:TRIMP) ratios), self-perception (person's perceived physical state, questionnaires on muscle soreness, and sleep quality), and measures of the autonomic nervous system (resting heart rate, heart rate variability) were collected. Two days before and after the training camp, subjects performed performance tests (Graded Exercise Test, Wingate Anaerobic Test, Counter Movement Jump). Results: Primarily, the biomarkers CK, BUN, and Alb, as well as the self-perception showed moderate to large load-dependent reactions during the 7-day training camp. The biomarkers returned to baseline values two days after the last training session. Power output at lactate threshold showed a small increase, and no changes were found for other performance parameters. Conclusions: The study suggests that a multilevel approach is suitable to quantify the internal training load and that different parameters can be used to control the training process. The biomarkers CK, BUN, and Alb are suitable for objectively quantifying the internal training load. The self-perception provides additional subjective information about the internal training load.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esforço Físico , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209663

RESUMO

The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the muscle-tendon interface and constitutes an integrated mechanical unit to force transmission. Joint immobilization promotes muscle atrophy via disuse, while physical exercise can be used as an adaptative stimulus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of the MTJ and their adaptations and the associated elements triggered with aquatic training after joint immobilization. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD), aquatic training (AT), immobilization (IM), and immobilization/aquatic training (IMAT) groups. The samples were processed to measure fiber area, nuclear fractal dimension, MTJ nuclear density, identification of telocytes, sarcomeres, and MTJ perimeter length. In the AT group, the maintenance of ultrastructure and elements in the MTJ region were observed; the IM group presented muscle atrophy effects with reduced MTJ perimeter; the IMAT group demonstrated that aquatic training after joint immobilization promotes benefits in the muscle fiber area and fractal dimension, in the MTJ region shows longer sarcomeres and MTJ perimeter. We identified the presence of telocytes in the MTJ region in all experimental groups. We concluded that aquatic training is an effective rehabilitation method after joint immobilization due to reduced muscle atrophy and regeneration effects on MTJ in rats.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Imobilização , Articulações , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Esforço Físico , Tendões/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Sarcômeros/ultraestrutura , Tendões/citologia , Tendões/ultraestrutura
13.
Phys Ther Sport ; 51: 36-44, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine how high-intensity physical exertion affects clinical measures of cervical spine (CSp), vestibular/ocular motor screen (VOMS), and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Sports Medicine Centre. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37 athletes consented to participate (22 rugby, 15 wrestling; 9 men, 28 women; median age = 19 years [range 17-23 years]). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures included tests of CSp (cervical flexor endurance, head perturbation test, cervical flexion rotation test and anterolateral strength), VOR (head thrust test and dynamic visual acuity [DVA]), and a quantified version of the VOMS. These metrics were assessed prior to and after completing the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test. Bland-Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were utilized to analyze the data using an alpha of p < 0.004. RESULTS: Cervical anterolateral strength (kg) was reduced post-exertion on the left (z = 3.87; p < 0.001), but not on the right between conditions (z = -1.49; p = 0.14). Athletes reported increased dizziness (z = -3.55; p = 0.004) and had reduced DVA following exertion (z = -2.78; p < 0.001). All other metrics were not significantly different following exertion (p > 0.011). CONCLUSION: Reduced performance on DVA, decreased left-anterolateral strength, and increased dizziness occurred following high-intensity exertion in varsity collision and combative athletes, which has implications for sideline screening for sport-related concussion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Vértebras Cervicais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sports Health ; 13(5): 463-470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While increased face mask use has helped reduce COVID-19 transmission, there have been concerns about its influence on thermoregulation during exercise in the heat, but consistent, evidence-based recommendations are lacking. HYPOTHESIS: No physiological differences would exist during low-to-moderate exercise intensity in the heat between trials with and without face masks, but perceptual sensations could vary. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2. METHODS: Twelve physically active participants (8 male, 4 female; age = 24 ± 3 years) completed 4 face mask trials and 1 control trial (no mask) in the heat (32.3°C ± 0.04°C; 54.4% ± 0.7% relative humidity [RH]). The protocol was 60 minutes of walking and jogging between 35% and 60% of relative VO2max. Rectal temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR), temperature and humidity inside and outside of the face mask (Tmicro_in, Tmicro_out, RHmicro_in, RHmicro_out) and perceptual variables (rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thirst sensation, fatigue level, and overall breathing discomfort) were monitored throughout all trials. RESULTS: Mean Trec and HR increased at 30- and 60-minute time points compared with 0-minute time points, but no difference existed between face mask trials and control trials (P > 0.05). Mean Tmicro_in, RHmicro_in, and humidity difference inside and outside of the face mask (ΔRHmicro) were significantly different between face mask trials (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in perceptual variables between face mask trials and control trials (P > 0.05), except overall breathing discomfort (P < 0.01). Higher RHmicro_in, RPE, and thermal sensation significantly predicted higher overall breathing discomfort (r2 = 0.418; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Face mask use during 60 minutes of low-to-moderate exercise intensity in the heat did not significantly affect Trec or HR. Although face mask use may affect overall breathing discomfort due to the changes in the face mask microenvironment, face mask use itself did not cause an increase in whole body thermal stress. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Face mask use is feasible and safe during exercise in the heat, at low-to-moderate exercise intensities, for physically active, healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Corrida Moderada/fisiologia , Máscaras , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensação Térmica , Trabalho Respiratório , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(7): 2472-2489, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121423

RESUMO

Purpose This study aims to investigate the effects of a 10-min vocal exertion task on voice and respiratory measures, to determine whether restorative strategies can mitigate these effects after cessation of exertion, and to assess whether these strategies continue to reduce these detrimental effects when vocal exertion is resumed. Method A prospective, repeated-measures design was used. On consecutive days, 20 participants (equal men and women) completed two vocal exertion tasks separated by 10 min of restoration strategies: vocal rest or controlled phonation (low-level tissue mobilization using straw phonation). Voice and respiratory data were collected at baseline, following the first exertion task, after restoration strategies, and after the second exertion task. Outcome measures included (a) vocal effort, (b) phonation threshold pressure, (c) maximum and minimum fundamental frequencies, (d) cepstral peak prominence of connected speech, (e) lung volume initiation and termination, (f) percent vital capacity expended per syllable, and (g) number of syllables per breath group. Results A worsening of phonation threshold pressure (p < .001), vocal effort (p < .001), and increase of minimum fundamental frequency (p = .007) were observed after vocal exertion. Lung volume initiation (p < .001) and lung volume termination (p < .001) increased. These changes were largely reversed by restoration strategies, but only controlled phonation prevented exertion-induced changes in respiratory kinematic measures on a subsequent vocal exertion task. Conclusions Exertion-induced voice changes occur rapidly and may be mitigated by either controlled phonation or vocal rest. Controlled phonation is recommended as a superior strategy due to evidence of a protective effect on a successive vocal exertion task.


Assuntos
Esforço Físico , Voz , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonação , Estudos Prospectivos , Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 793-799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine, 1) optimal structure of break periods to mitigate physiological heat strain during rugby league play (Stage 1); and ii) effectiveness of three different cooling strategies applied during breaks (Stage 2). DESIGN: Counter-balanced crossover design. METHODS: In 37 °C, 50% RH, 11 males completed six simulated 80-min (two 40-min halves) rugby league matches on a treadmill with different break structures: regular game (RG) (12-min halftime), 1-min or 3-min "quarter-time" breaks halfway through each half with a 12-min halftime break (R1C and R3C), a 20-min halftime break (EH), or 1-min or 3-min quarter-time breaks with a 20-min halftime break (E1C and E3C) [Stage 1]. Nine participants completed Stage 2, which assessed the application of either ice towels (ICE), an electric fan (FAN) or a misting fan (MST) during breaks in the E3C protocol which, in Stage 1, prevailed as the optimal break structure. RESULTS: Stage 1: Irrespective of quarter-time break duration, reductions in rectal temperature (-0.24 °C ±â€¯0.24) and heart rate (-61 ±â€¯10 bpm) during the halftime break were greater with a 20-min compared to a 12-min break (-0.08 ±â€¯0.13 °C, p = 0.005; -55 ±â€¯-9 bpm, p = 0.021). Stage 2: End-game rises in rectal temperature were smaller (p < 0.006) in MST (1.41 ±â€¯0.22 °C), FAN (1.55 ±â€¯0.36 °C) and ICE (1.60 ±â€¯0.21 °C) than in CON (1.80 ±â€¯0.39 °C). The end-halftime heart rate was lower (p < 0.001) in ICE (89 ±â€¯13 bpm), MST (90 ±â€¯10 bpm) and FAN (92 ±â€¯13 bpm) than in CON (99 ±â€¯18 bpm). CONCLUSIONS: Combining an extended halftime period and quarter-time breaks with MST application is the optimal cooling strategy for rugby league players in hot, humid conditions.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Crioterapia/métodos , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Gelo , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Descanso , Sensação Térmica , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 774-780, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of heat acclimation (HA) in the young (YEX) and elderly (EEX) following exercise-HA, and the elderly utilising post-exercise hot water immersion HA (EHWI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Twenty-six participants (YEX: n = 11 aged 22 ±â€¯2 years, EEX:n = 8 aged 68 ±â€¯3 years, EHWI: n = 7 aged 73 ±â€¯3 years) completed two pre-/post-tests, separated by five intervention days. YEX and EEX exercised in hot conditions to raise rectal temperature (Trec) ≥38.5 °C within 60 min, with this increase maintained for a further 60 min. EHWI completed 30 min of cycling in temperate conditions, then 30 min of HWI (40 °C), followed by 30 min seated blanket wrap. Pre- and post-testing comprised 30 min rest, followed by 30 min of cycling exercise (3.5 W·kg-1 Hprod), and a six-minute walk test (6MWT), all in 35 °C, 50% RH. RESULTS: The HA protocols did not elicit different mean heart rate (HR), Trec, and duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (p > 0.05) between YEX, EEX, and EHWI groups. Resting Trec, peak skin temperature, systolic and mean arterial pressure, perceived exertion and thermal sensation decreased, and 6MWT distance increased pre- to post-HA (p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. YEX also demonstrated a reduction in resting HR (p < 0.05). No change was observed in peak Trec or HR, vascular conductance, sweat rate, or thermal comfort in any group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of age or intervention, HA induced thermoregulatory, perceptual and exercise performance improvements. Both exercise-HA (EEX), and post-exercise HWI (EHWI) are considered viable interventions to prepare the elderly for heat stress.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Imersão , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Descanso , Temperatura Cutânea , Sudorese , Sensação Térmica , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 763-767, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175201

RESUMO

The objective was to compare the efficacy of three different heat acclimation protocols to improve exercise performance in the heat. Thirty four cyclists completed one of three 10-day interventions 1) 50-min cycling per day in 35 °C, 2) 50-min cycling per day wearing thermal clothing, and 3) 50-min cycling wearing thermal clothing plus 25 min hot water immersion per day. Pre- and post-intervention hemoglobin mass, intravascular volumes and core temperature were determined at rest. Heart rate, sweat rate, blood lactate concentration and core temperature were evaluated during 15-min submaximal and 30-min all-out cycling performance conducted in 35.2 ±â€¯0.1 °C and 61 ±â€¯1% relative humidity. There were no significant between-group differences in any of the determined variables. None of the interventions statistically altered any of the parameters investigated as part of the 15-min submaximal trial. However, following the intervention period, heat chamber, thermal clothing and thermal clothing + hot water immersion all improved 30-min all-out average power in the heat (9.5 ±â€¯3.8%, 9.5 ±â€¯3.6 and 9.9 ±â€¯5.2%, respectively, p < 0.001, F = 192.3). At termination of the 30-min all-out test, the increase in blood lactate concentration, rate of perceived exertion and sweat rate were not different between the three interventions. In conclusion, daily training sessions conducted either in ambient 35 °C, while wearing thermal clothing in temperate conditions or while wearing thermal clothing combined with hot water immersion are equally effective for improving exercise performance in the heat.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Vestuário , Temperatura Alta , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Volume Sanguíneo , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinometria , Humanos , Imersão , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Sudorese , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compare training load (TL) preceding a home versus away match in a top-class elite European team during the 2015-2016 season. METHODS: Twenty elite outfield soccer players with a mean ± SD age, height and body mass of 25.9 ± 4.6 years, 183.1 ± 6.6 cm and 78.6 ± 6.6 kg, respectively, participated in this study. Total distance covered, high-speed running distance (HSRD), average speed (AvS), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) multiplied by training duration (s-RPE) and Hooper index (HI) were collected. Data from 24 weeks were analyzed through match-day minus/plus approach (MD-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, MD + 1). RESULTS: All external TL variables indicated a decrease from MD-5 until MD-1 and then an increase to MD + 1 (p < 0.01). HI decreased from MD-5 to MD-1, but s-RPE increased until MD-3 and then decreased until MD + 1. When comparing TL data that preceded home matches versus away matches, for MD-5, HSRD and muscle soreness exhibited higher values when away match neared (p < 0.05). For MD-4 and MD-3, total distance, HSRD and AvS exhibited higher values closer to an away match than a home match (p < 0.05). For MD-1, total distances covered were higher closer to a home match than an away match (p < 0.01). For MD + 1, all HI items and AvS were higher when an away match was played (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms and provides evidence regarding the influence on internal and external TL data preceding home and away matches from a team that played in European competitions.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Humanos , Mialgia , Esforço Físico , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
20.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(9): 1753-1763, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960538

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of head pre-cooling on the 5-km time-trial performance of amateur runners in the heat. In a counterbalanced design, 15 male amateur runners (22.6 ± 3.5 y; VO2 max in heat 42.3 ± 4.4 mLO2 /kg/min) completed two 5-km time trials performed in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity). In one trial (HCOOL), participants underwent 20 min of head cooling in a temperate environment (23°C, 70% relative humidity) prior to exercise. In another trial (CON), exercise was preceded by 20 min of rest under the same temperature conditions. Exercise time was shorter in HCOOL (25 min and 36 s ± 3 min) compared to CON (27 ± 3 min; p = 0.02). Rectal temperature was reduced during the pre-exercise intervention in HCOOL (p < 0.001), but not in CON (p = 0.55). Relative changes in rectal temperature and mean head temperature were lower throughout HCOOL when compared with CON condition (p = 0.005 and p = 0.022, respectively). Mean skin temperature, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between HCOOL and CON conditions throughout exercise (p = 0.20, p = 0.52 and 0.31, respectively). Thermal comfort was lower in HCOOL condition in pre-exercise (p = 0.014) with no differences observed throughout exercise (p = 0.61). 5-km running performance in a hot environment was improved after a 20-min head cooling intervention, suggesting that this method may be practical as pre-cooling strategy and easily administered to both professional and amateur runners alike.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Reto/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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