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1.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(4): 333-338, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831990

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the application value of artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system for TBS report in cervical cancer screening. Methods: A total of 16 317 clinical samples and related data of cervical liquid-based thin-layer cell smears, which were obtained from July 2020 to September 2020, were collected from Southern Hospital, Guangzhou Huayin Medical Inspection Center, Shenzhen Bao'an People's Hospital(Group) and Changsha Yuan'an Biotechnology Co., Ltd. The TBS report artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system of cervical liquid-based thin-layer cytology jointly developed by Southern Medical University and Guangzhou F. Q. PATHOTECH Co., Ltd. based on deep learning convolution neural network was used to diagnose all clinical samples. The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of both artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system and cytologists using artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system were analyzed based on the evaluation standard(2014 TBS). The time spent by the two methods was also compared. Results: The sensitivity of artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system in predicting cervical intraepithelial lesions and other lesions (including endometrial cells detected in women over 45 years old and infectious lesions) under different production methods, different cytoplasmic staining and different scanning instruments was 92.90% and 83.55% respectively, and the specificity of negative samples was 87.02%, while that of cytologists using artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system was 99.34%, 97.79% and 99.10%, respectively. Moreover, cytologists using artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system could save about 6 times of reading time than manual. Conclusions: Artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system for TBS report of cervical liquid-based thin-layer cytology has the advantages of high sensitivity, high specificity and strong generalization. Cytologists can significantly improve the accuracy and work efficiency of reading smears by using artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Inteligência Artificial , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal
2.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(4): 353-357, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831994

RESUMO

Objective: To propose a method of cervical cytology screening based on deep convolutional neural network and compare it with the diagnosis of cytologists. Method: The deep segmentation network was used to extract 618 333 regions of interest (ROI) from 5, 516 cytological pathological images. Combined with the experience of physicians, the deep classification network with the ability to analyze ROI was trained. The classification results were used to construct features, and the decision model was used to complete the classification of cytopathological images. Results: The sensitivity and specificity were 89.72%, 58.48%, 33.95% and 95.94% respectively. Among the smears derived from four different preparation methods, this algorithm had the best effect on natural fallout with a sensitivity of 91.10%, specificity of 69.32%, positive predictive rate of 41.41%, and negative predictive rate of 97.03%. Conclusion: Deep convolutional neural network image recognition technology can be applied to cervical cytology screening.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esfregaço Vaginal
4.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 114-120, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631883

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) diagnosed by cervical tissue sampling in postmenopausal women. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 2 013 patients with HSIL diagnosed by cervical tissue sampling under colposcopy and treated by cervical conization at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2017 to November 2018, to compare the difference of patients' clinical features, HPV test, liquid-based thin-layer cytology (TCT), performance of colposcopy and biopsy pathology, pathology after cervical conization between 439 postmenopausal patients and 1 574 pre-menopausal patients. Results: (1) Clinical features: the proportion of contact bleeding showed no significant difference between postmenopausal patients and pre-menopausal patients [4.3% (19/439) vs 6.4% (101/1 574); χ²=2.672, P=0.102]. Among the patients with contact bleeding, the proportion of cervical cancer after cervical cone resection was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [10/19 vs 22.8% (23/101); χ²=7.157, P=0.007]. Among the patients found by routine screening, the proportion of cervical cancer after cervical cone resection was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [9.0% (38/420) vs 4.3% (63/1 473); χ²=14.726, P<0.01]. The proportion of smooth cervix was higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [63.6% (279/439) vs 35.5% (558/1 574); χ²=111.601, P<0.01]. (2) High-risk HPV infection: there was no significant difference in the high-risk HPV positive rate between the postmenopausal group and the pre-menopausal group [92.0% (404/439) vs 94.4% (1 486/1 574); χ²=3.394, P=0.065]; the HPV 16 infection was the most common type, but there was no significant difference in the HPV 16 infection rate between the two groups [65.8% (289/439) vs 68.0% (1 070/1 574); χ²=0.722, P=0.395]. (3) TCT test: TCT test results included negative for intraepithelial lesion and malignancy (NILM), atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade lesion (ASC-H), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), HSIL, compared with the different results of TCT examination, there were not statistically significant difference between postmenopausal and pre-menopausal patients (all P>0.05). (4) The performance of colposcopy: the proportion of insufficient colposcopy and the proportion of cervical type Ⅲ conversion area were higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [87.5% (384/439) vs 32.5% (511/1 574), P<0.01; 80.0% (351/439) vs 21.9% (344/1 574), P<0.01]. The proportion and positive rate of endocervical curettage (ECC) in postmenopausal patients were higher than those in pre-menopausal patients [35.3% (155/439) vs 20.4% (322/1 574), P<0.01; 67.7% (105/155) vs 53.1% (171/322), P=0.003]. The proportion of lesions involving the vaginal wall was higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [5.9% (26/439) vs 1.0% (16/1 574); χ²=40.443, P<0.01]. There was a positive correlation between vaginal wall lesions and cervical lesions in postmenopausal patients (r=0.660, P<0.01). (5) Postoperative pathology: the positive rate of margin and the proportion of pathological escalation after cervical conization were significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [14.6% (64/439) vs 4.8% (75/1 574), 10.9% (48/439) vs 5.5% (86/1 574); P<0.01]. Conclusions: Colposcopy in postmenopausal women is often inadequate, and the cervix is mostly type Ⅲ transformation zone. The lesion in postmenopausal women is more likely to involve the cervical canal and vaginal wall. Clinical attention should be paid to cervical tube curettage and comprehensive examination of the vaginal wall. The high rate of positive margins and a high proportion of pathological upgrading after cervical conization in postmenopausal patients requires further active intervention.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Colposcopia/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
5.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(3): 394-402, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as the primary cervical cancer screening method is implemented in several countries. We report data from the first round of a large Danish pilot implementation of HPV-based screening. Our aim was to compare colposcopy referrals, detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer, and positive predictive value (PPV) of colposcopy referral in HPV vs cytology-based screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 2017 to October 2018, women aged 30-59 years attending cervical cancer screening in the uptake area of the Department of Pathology, Vejle Hospital, Region of Southern Denmark were screened by primary HPV testing (n = 16 067) or primary cytology (n = 23 981) depending on municipality of residence. In the HPV group, women with HPV16/18, or other high-risk HPV types and abnormal cytology, were referred to immediate colposcopy. Women with other high-risk HPV types and normal cytology were invited for repeat screening with HPV test and cytology after 12 months. From a nationwide pathology register, we obtained information on screening results and subsequent histological diagnoses during up to 2.9 years after the first screen. PPVs included diagnoses within 1 year after referral. RESULTS: In the HPV group, 3.7% were referred to immediate colposcopy and 2.8% were referred at the 12-month repeat screening. The total referral to colposcopy was higher in the HPV (6.6%) than cytology group (2.1%) (age-adjusted relative referral = 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.75-3.38). The detection of CIN3+ was higher in the HPV (1.5%) than the cytology group (0.8%) (age-adjusted relative detection = 1.88, 95% CI 1.56-2.28). The probability of CIN3+ among women referred to colposcopy (= PPV) was lower in the HPV (21.1%; 95% CI 18.7%-23.7%) than the cytology group (34.6%; 95% CI 30.7%-38.9%). In the HPV group, the PPV was lower among women referred at repeat screening (12.1%) than among women referred immediately (27.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with cytology-based screening, HPV-based screening provided a 90% increased CIN3+ detection at the cost of a threefold increase in colposcopy referrals, when considering complete data from the prevalence round. Our findings support implementation of HPV-based screening in Denmark, but modifications of screening algorithms may be warranted to decrease unnecessary colposcopy referrals.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Técnicas Citológicas , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
6.
APMIS ; 129(4): 195-203, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445208

RESUMO

In the high-income countries, the amount of cervical adenocarcinomas is on the rise. The pap smear sampling has a low sensitivity and a low specificity for endocervical malignancies, and there are only a few cytomorphological features, that are specifically associated with glandular atypia. In this study, 298 pap smears of 60 patients with endocervical adenocarcinoma or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and 30 patients with high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in histology were reviewed. The pap smear type (screening/clinical), the HPV status and the time from sampling to the histological confirmation of diagnosis were recorded for each case. Despite that no cytomorphological features could be associated with adenocarcinoma statistically, 70% of the pap smears were initially correctly diagnosed as an endocervical glandular lesion. Palisading cell borders, nuclear pleomorphism and the lack of single atypical cells present simultaneously were found to be associated with adenocarcinoma and AIS with the corresponding ORs of 5.89 (95% CI 1.96-17.70), 3.71 (95% CI 1.14-12.02) and 10.76 (95% CI 1.20-59.50). This combination of features was seen in smears taken up to 5 years before the histological diagnosis. Of all our screening samples, 10.9% were HPV-positive. There were no HPV-negative samples among patients with adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
BJOG ; 128(1): 97-100, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is present in the vaginal secretions of both reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: A single tertiary, university-affiliated medical centre in Israel. Time period, 1 June 2020 through to 31 July 2020. POPULATION: Women who were hospitalised in a single tertiary medical centre, who were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by a nasopharyngeal RT-PCR test. METHODS: Women were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by a nasopharyngeal RT-PCR test. Vaginal RT-PCR swabs were obtained from all study participants after a proper cleansing of the perineum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal RT-PCR swabs. RESULTS: Vaginal and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 35 women, aged 21-93 years. Twenty-one women (60%) were in their reproductive years, of whom, five were in their third trimester of pregnancy. Most of the participants (57%) were healthy without any underlying medical conditions. Of the 35 patients sampled, 2 (5.7%) had a positive vaginal RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, one was premenopausal and the other was a postmenopausal woman. Both women had mild disease. CONCLUSION: Our findings contradict most previous reports, which did not detect the presence of viral colonisation in the vagina. Although passage through the birth canal exposes neonates to the vaginal polymicrobial flora, an acquisition of pathogens does not necessarily mandate neonatal infection or clinical disease. Nevertheless, when delivering the infant of a woman with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, a clinician should consider the possibility of vaginal colonisation, even if it is uncommon. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: When delivering the infant of a woman with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, a clinician should consider the possibility of vaginal colonisation.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Vagina/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , /epidemiologia , /métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 368.e1-368.e8, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, more than half of cervical cancers occur in women who are inadequately screened. Interventions to improve access to cervical cancer preventive care is critical to reduce health inequities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the need for cervical cancer screening among women seeking assistance with basic needs and to assess best approaches to facilitate Papanicolaou test referral. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of low-income female callers to 2-1-1 Missouri, a helpline for local health and social services. The need for cervical cancer screening was assessed. Callers were randomized to 1 of 3 arms, each providing a Papanicolaou test referral: verbal referral only, verbal referral and tailored print reminder, or verbal referral and navigator. The primary outcome was contacting a Papanicolaou test referral 1 month following intervention. Student t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze significant differences in continuous variables, whereas Fisher exact or χ2 tests were used for categorical variables. We stratified by number of unmet basic needs (0-1 vs ≥2) and compared success of contacting a Papanicolaou test referral among study groups (verbal referral vs tailored reminder vs navigator) using the Fisher exact test and χ2 test, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for nonadherence for Papanicolaou test at baseline and at 1 month follow-up, adjusting for race and ethnicity, age, insurance status, self-rated health, smoking, and study group. RESULTS: Among 932 female callers, 250 (26.8%) needed cervical cancer screening. The frequency of unmet basic needs was high, the most common being lack of money for unexpected expenses (91.2%) and necessities, such as food, shelter, and clothing (73.2%). Among those needing a Papanicolaou test, 211 women received screening referrals. Women in the navigator group (21 of 71, 29.6%) reported higher rates of contacting a Papanicolaou test referral than those exposed to verbal referral only (11/73, 15.1%) or verbal referral and tailored print reminder (9/67, 13.4%) (P=.03). Among 176 women with ≥2 unmet needs who received a Papanicolaou test referral, the provision of a navigator remained associated with contacting the referral (navigator [33.9%] vs verbal referral [17.2%] vs tailored reminder [10.2%]; P=.005). Assignment to the navigator group (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.5) and nonwhite race (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.8) were independent predictors of contacting a Papanicolaou test referral. CONCLUSION: Low-income women seeking assistance with basic needs often lack cervical cancer screening. Health navigators triple the likelihood that women will make contact with Papanicolaou test services, but most 2-1-1 callers still fail to schedule Papanicolaou testing despite assistance from navigators. Interventions beyond health navigators are needed to reduce cervical cancer disparities.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pobreza , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri , Cooperação do Paciente , Navegação de Pacientes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
9.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-081080, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147043

RESUMO

Introdução: A Gardnerella vaginalis facilita a infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV). Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre anormalidades citológicas e presença de Gardnerella vaginalis nos esfregaços cervicovaginais encaminhados ao Laboratório Clínico da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) estratificadas por faixa etária. Método: Estudo transversal realizado no LAC/PUC Goiás entre janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2015. Para análises estatísticas, a variável idade foi categorizada em ≤39 anos e >40 anos, utilizando o programa IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 2.0, 2011®) para o teste de qui-quadrado (X²), com intervalo de confiança de 95% e valor p<0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 4.558 exames citopatológicos, a maioria com presença de Lactobacillus spp. (46,97%). A prevalência dos agentes patogênicos foi a Gardnerella vaginalis (79,6%), seguida de Candida spp. (16,8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (2,2%), Herpes simplex (0,4 %) e Chlamydia trachomatis (0,1%). As anormalidades citológicas foram observadas em 9,1%, sendo atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 2,57%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 1,78%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) 3,52%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1,08%, atypical endocervical cells, favor neoplastic (AGC-NEO) 0,22% e carcinoma 0,02%. Houve uma associação significante entre anormalidades citológicas graves e mulheres ≥40 anos, OR 3,01 (IC 95% 2,0-4,58) (p<0,0001). Mulheres ≤40 anos mostraram significância à presença de Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0,0004). Conclusão: Uma elevada prevalência de Gardnerella vaginalis foi encontrada associada com as anormalidades citológicas, principalmente em mulheres sexualmente ativas.


Introduction:Gardnerella vaginalis facilitates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Objective: To verify the association between cytological abnormalities and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis in cervicovaginal smears sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) stratified by age range. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out at LAC/PUC Goiás from January 2013 to December 2015. For statistical analysis, the variable age was categorized as ≤39 years and >40 years, using the IBM SPSS Statistics program (Version 2.0, 2011®) for the chi-square test (X²), with a 95% confidence interval and p<0.05. Results:4,558 cytopathological exams were analyzed, most of them with the presence of Lactobacillus spp (46.97%). The prevalence of pathogens was Gardnerella vaginalis (79.6%), followed by Candida spp. (16.8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (2.2%), Herpes simplex (0.4%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (0.1%). Cytological abnormalities were observed in 9.1%, being atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 2.57%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 1.78%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) 3.52%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1.08%, atypical endocervical cells, neoplastic favor (AGC-NEO) 0.22% and carcinoma 0.02%. There was a significant association between severe cytological abnormalities and women >40 years old OR 3.01 (95% CI 2.0-4.58) (p<0.0001). Women ≤40 years old showed the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0.0004). Conclusion:A high prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis was found and its association with cytological abnormalities, especially in sexually active women.


Introducción:Gardnerella vaginalis facilita la infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Objetivo: Verificar la asociación entre anormalidades citológicas y la presencia de Gardnerella vaginalis en frotis cervicovaginales enviadas al Laboratorio Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) estratificadas por grupo de edad. Método: Estudio transversal realizado en LAC/PUC Goiás desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2015. Para el análisis estadístico, la edad variable se clasificó como ≤39 años y >40 años, utilizando el programa IBM SPSS Statistics (Versión 2.0, 2011®) para la prueba de chi-cuadrado (X²), con un intervalo de confianza del 95% y p <0,05. Resultados: Se analizaron 4.558 exámenes citopatológicos. La prevalencia de Lactobacillusspp. con 46,97%. Los patógenos como Gardnerella vaginalis fueron 79,6%, Candidaspp. 16,8%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2,2%, Herpes simplex 0,4%, y Chlamydia trachomatis 0,1%. Se observaron anormalidades citológicas en 9,1%, con células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASC-US) 2,57%, lesión intraepitelial escamosa de bajo grado (LSIL) 1,78%, células escamosas atípicas de significación indeterminada no pueden excluir lesión intraepitelial (ASC-H) 3,52%, lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado (HSIL) 1,08%, células endocervicales atípicas, favor neoplásico (AGC-NEO) 0,22% y carcinoma 0,02%. Hubo una asociación significativa entre anormalidades citológicas severas y mujeres >40 años OR 3,01 (IC 95% 2,0-4,58) (p<0,0001). Las mujeres ≤40 años mostraron la presencia de Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0,0004). Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de Gardnerella vaginalis y su asociación con anomalías citológicas, especialmente en mujeres sexualmente activas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Esfregaço Vaginal , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Vaginose Bacteriana/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Teste de Papanicolaou , Estudos Transversais
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(12): 2135-2140, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378829

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, vaginal micro-environmental disorder with cervical lesion. Methods: A total of 1 019 women including 623 with normal cervical (NC), 303 with low-grade cervical lesion (CIN Ⅰ) and 93 with high-grade cervical lesion (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ) were enrolled in this study from the communities in Shanxi province, China. Case-control method was adopted, with NC as the control group and CIN as the case group. Related information was collected including demographic characteristics and relevant factors related to cervical lesions. HPV genotypes were detected by flow-through hybridization technology. Vaginal pH was detected by the pH test paper. Vaginal H(2)O(2) was detected by the combined detection kit of aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Vaginal cleanliness was detected by smear method. Results: Data from the unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that HPV infection (CINⅠ: aOR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.01-1.90; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: aOR=11.74, 95%CI: 6.96-19.80), H(2)O(2) (CINⅠ: aOR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.47-2.98; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: aOR=4.12, 95%CI: 2.01-8.43), cleanliness (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ: aOR=2.62, 95%CI: 1.65-4.14), and composite indicators (CINⅠ: aOR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.24-2.25; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: aOR=4.24, 95%CI: 2.30-7.81) all had increased the risk of cervical lesion and the trend on the severity (P<0.001) of cervical lesions. Additionally, we observed a synergic effect between HPV infection and vaginal micro-environmental composite indicator in CINⅡ/Ⅲ. With or without HPV infection, the ORs value of CINⅠ caused by vaginal micro-environment disorder remained close. Conclusions: Results from our study revealed that vaginal micro-environmental composite indicator could increase the risk for cervical lesion, in particular with the high-grade ones which all posed stronger risks when combined with HPV infection. However, the role of vaginal micro-environment disorder in the occurrence of CIN Ⅰ should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Microambiente Tumoral , Vagina , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
11.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(12): 1768-1775, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of cervical microecology in late reproductive-age women with cervical lesions and explore new methods for preventing cervical lesions. METHODS: Cervical smears were obtained from a total of 147 women of late reproductive age, including 24 with high-risk HPV infection (HR-HPV), 27 with low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL), 36 with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL), 35 with cervical cancer (CC) and 25 healthy women. llumina MiSeq sequencing of V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to characterize the vaginal microbiota of the women. OTUs analysis of the valid data was performed, and the α-diversity (Chao1, Simpson's Index and Shannon Index) and ß-diversity (T-test, weighted UniFrac ß diversity, and MetaStat analysis) were evaluated. RESULTS: Dilution curve and species accumulation boxplot validated the quality of the samples. OTUs analysis of the 5 groups demonstrated that cervical bacterial genus consisted primarily of Lactobacillus, Garrotella and Prussiella. With the aggravation of the lesions, the expression abundance of Lactobacillus was decreased, and Gardnerella and Prussiella were increased. The Chao1, Simpson and Shannon indexex showed no significant difference. T test indicated that 9 to 15 genera from 4 groups showed significant difference from the healthy control group. In all but the LSIL group, Lactobacillus (P1-2=0.025, P1-3=0.025, P1-4 < 0.001), Gardiner (P1-2=0.01, P1-3=0.001, P1-4 < 0.001), and Pruella (P1-2=0.047, P1-3=0.023, P1-4=0.048) showed the highest abundance in the cervical smears. The abundance of Gardiner (P1-3=0.021), Ignatius (P1-3=0.015) and Streptococcus (P1-3=0.041) was the highest in women with LSIL as compared with healthy women. In all the 5 groups, MetaStat analysis showed that lactobacillus (P1-4=0.025), gardnella (P1-2=0.004, P1-4=0.002, P1-5=0.001) and proctella (P3-5=0.005) had the highest abundance in the cervical flora. CONCLUSIONS: The abundance of Lactobacillus, Gardnella and Proctella is the highest in cervical bacteria at the genus level and may vary with disease progression. The α-diversity does not differ significantly, suggesting that apart from pathological factors, physiological factors also contribute to the difference in α-diversity. Women with LSIL have the most similar cervical flora to healthy women, which is consistent with the prognosis of the disease and confirms that the expression of cervical microecology is related to disease prognosis and may serve as a biological indicator for favoralble prognosis.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esfregaço Vaginal
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379209

RESUMO

Using the claims data of one million insured residents in Taiwan from 1996-2013, this study identified 12,126 women in an urban city (Taichung) and 7229 women in a rural county (Yunlin), aged 20 and above. We compared Papanicolaou (Pap) test uses and cervical cancer detection rates between urban and rural women. Results showed that the Pap screening rate was slightly higher in rural women than in urban women (86.1 vs. 81.3 percent). The cervical cancer incidence was much greater for women without Pap test than women with the test (35.8 vs. 9.00 per 1000 in rural women and 20.3 vs. 7.00 per 1000 in urban women). Nested case-control analysis showed that Pap test receivers had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.25-0.51) to be diagnosed with cervical cancer as compared to those who did not receive the test. The rural women had an adjusted OR of 1.46 (95% CI = 1.03-2.06) to be diagnosed with cervical cancer as compared to urban women. In conclusion, women in rural area are at higher cancer risk than city women. Women who do not undergo Pap tests deserve timely intervention of Pap test to prevent the onset of cancer, particularly in rural women with low income.


Assuntos
População Rural , População Urbana , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
13.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(11): 784-790, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228350

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the value of p16INK4a detected by p16INK4a immunostaining as a new generation of cervical cytology for primary screening and secondary screening in population-based cervical cancer screening, and in improving cytological diagnosis. Methods: Between 2016 and 2018, 5 747 non-pregnant women aged 25-65 years with sexual history were recruited and underwent cervical cancer screening via high-risk (HR)-HPV/liquid-based cytological test (LCT) test in Shenzhen and surrounding areas. All slides were immuno-stained using p16INK4a technology, among them, 902 cases were offered p16INK4a detection during primary screening, and the remaining 4 845 cases were called-back by the virtue of abnormal HR-HPV and LCT results for p16INK4a staining. Participants with complete LCT examination, HR-HPV test, p16INK4a staining and histopathological examination results were included in this study. The performance of p16INK4a in primary and secondary screening, and in assisting cytology to detect high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Ⅱ or Ⅲ] or worse [HSIL (CIN Ⅱ)+ or HSIL (CIN Ⅲ)+] were analyzed. Results: (1) One-thousand and ninety-seven cases with complete data of p16INK4a and histology were included. Pathological diagnosis: 995 cases of normal cervix, 37 cases of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 64 cases of HSIL and one case of cervical cancer were found. Among them, 65 cases of HSIL (CIN Ⅱ)+ and 34 cases of HSIL (CIN Ⅲ)+ were detected. The positive rate of p16INK4a in HSIL (CIN Ⅱ)+ was higher than that in CINⅠ or normal pathology (89.2% vs 10.2%; P<0.01). (2) p16INK4a as primary screening for HSIL (CIN Ⅱ)+ or HSIL (CIN Ⅲ)+ was equally sensitive to primary HR-HPV screening (89.2% vs 95.4%, 94.1% vs 94.1%; P>0.05), but more specific than HR-HPV screening (89.8% vs 82.5%, 87.7% vs 80.2%; P<0.05). p16INK4a was equally sensitive and similarly specific to cytology (≥LSIL; P>0.05). (3) The specificity of LCT adjunctive p16INK4a for detecting HSIL (CIN Ⅱ)+ or HSIL (CIN Ⅲ)+ were higher than that of LCT alone or adjunctive HR-HPV (P<0.01), while the sensitivity were similar (P>0.05). (4) p16INK4a staining as secondary screening: p16INK4a was significantly more specific (94.1% vs 89.7%, 91.9% vs 87.4%; P<0.01) and comparably sensitive (84.6% vs 90.8%, 88.2% vs 91.2%; P>0.05) to cytology for triaging primary HR-HPV screening. HPV 16/18 to colposcopy and triage other HR-HPV with p16INK4a was equally sensitive (88.2% vs 94.1%; P=0.500) and more specific (88.3% vs 83.0%; P<0.01) than HPV 16/18 to colposcopy and triage other HR-HPV with LCT≥ atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), and the referral rate decreased (14.0% vs 19.4%; P=0.005). Conclusions: For primary screening, p16INK4a is equally specific to cytology and equally sensitive to HR-HPV screening. p16INK4a alone could be an efficient triage after primary HR-HPV screening. In addition, p16INK4a immunostaining could be used as an ancillary tool to cervical cytological diagnosis, and improves its accuracy in cervical cancer screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/análise , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/imunologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/metabolismo , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/fisiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
14.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(10): 708-715, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120484

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluation of the clinical value of the BioPerfectus multiplex real time (BMRT)-HPV for cervical cancer screening. Methods: Physician-collected specimens of 1 495 women who were positive of Cobas 4800 HPV (Cobas-HPV), HPV genotyping based on SEQ uencing (SEQ-HPV), and (or) cytology ≥low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in the primary screening of Chinese Multiple-center Screening Trial (CHIMUST), and 2 990 women selected from those who were negative of primary screening in the same project through nested control randomization with age-matching were tested for BMRT-HPV, which reported type-specific viral loads/10 000 cells in each specimen. With comparing to Cobas-HPV results and taking cervical histopathological diagnosis as the endpoint, the concordance of high-risk (HR)-HPV subtypes among the three assays was explored ,and the sensitivity and specificity of BMRT-HPV for cervical cancer screening were evaluated. Results: (1) The overall agreenment of HR-HPV subtypes between BMRT-HPV and Cobas-HPV, or SEQ-HPV test sample was 94.8%, 94.4%, with Kappa values 0.827, 0.814. (2) The sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Ⅱ+ of BMRT-HPV, Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV were 92.62%, 94.26%, 93.44% and 84.67%, 83.25%, 82.76%, respectively. There were no significant difference in sensitivity among the three HPV assays (all P>0.05), but the specificity of BMRT-HPV for CIN Ⅱ+ was higher than those of Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (P<0.01). The sensitivity for CIN Ⅲ+ of three HPV assays were all 100.00%, and the specificity for CIN Ⅲ+ of BMRT-HPV was higher than those of Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (83.40% vs 81.95%, 83.40% vs 81.50%; P<0.01). The number of pathological examinations of colposcopy for cervical biopsy detected in 1 case of CIN Ⅱ+ or CIN Ⅲ+ in BMRT-HPV was less than those in Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (P<0.01). When using HPV 16/18 + cytology ≥atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS) to triage HPV positive women among three assays, there was no different in the sensitivities of detecting CIN Ⅱ+ and CIN Ⅲ+ (P>0.05). The specificity BMRT-HPV was slightly higher than those in Cobas-HPV or SEQ-HPV (all P<0.05), and the colposcopy referral rate was lower than those in Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (all P<0.05). Conclusions: BMRT-HPV is as sensitive as Cobas-HPV or SEQ-HPV for primary cervical cancer screening, and has higher specificity. Therefore it could be used as a primary screening method for cervical cancer, which is worthy of clinical application.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
15.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 211, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most cost-effectiveness analyses in the context of cervical cancer prevention involve the use of mathematical models to simulate HPV infection, cervical disease and prevention strategies. However, it is common for professionals who would need to perform these analyses to not be familiar with the models. This work introduces the Online Cost-Effectiveness ANalysis tool, featuring an easy-to-use web interface providing health professionals, researchers and decision makers involved in cervical cancer prevention programmes with a useful instrument to conduct complex cost-effectiveness analyses, which are becoming an essential tool as an approach for supporting decision-making that involves important trade-offs. RESULTS: The users can run cost-effectiveness evaluations of cervical cancer prevention strategies without deep knowledge of the underlying mathematical model or any programming language, obtaining the most relevant costs and health outcomes in a user-friendly format. The results provided by the tool are consistent with the existing literature. CONCLUSIONS: Having such a tool will be an asset to the cervical cancer prevention community, providing researchers with an easy-to-use instrument to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867315

RESUMO

Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and about 90% of cervical cancer can be reduced by regular screening. The Pap smear has been well in place as a primary cervical screening method since 1950s; however, coverage is still not optimal. This study explored the feasibility of HPV self-sampling in two under-screened population groups in Hong Kong (HK): never screened and not regularly screened females, to estimate the uptake rate and preference rate in the future. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to explore the acceptability and feasibility of HPV self-sampling in two age groups: aged 25-35 and aged ≥45, which were reported as the highest proportion of the under-screened population in HK between 2017 and 2018. The study invited eligible women from an HPV study cohort to perform HPV self-sampling at home by themselves. The number of specimens returned from participants was recorded and used to determine the feasibility of HPV self-sampling in the community. The participants were asked to fill in the questionnaires before and after HPV self-sampling to indicate their attitudes, acceptability, and future preference for HPV self-sampling as an acceptable alternative primary cervical cancer screening method. Results: A total of 177 subjects participated in the present study and have achieved a good overall uptake rate of 73% (129/177) who returned the self-collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV testing. Among the under-screened population, there was a higher response rate in aged ≥45 than those aged 25-35. The findings also revealed that women who were under-screened, including those who have never been screened, were more likely to prefer HPV self-sampling than those who had regular screening. This study found that the acceptability of HPV self-sampling was fairly positive among the respondents. The findings also indicated that HPV self-sampling was not only beneficial to enhance their health awareness but also to promote the cervical cancer screening uptake rate, especially among the under-screened or never screened populations. Conclusions: HPV self-sampling would be a solution to overcome the perceived barriers in clinician-based screening. The findings also indicated that it could be feasible to use as an alternative primary cervical cancer screening.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Preferência do Paciente , Autocuidado , Manejo de Espécimes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Saúde da Mulher
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most common female reproductive cancer after breast cancer with 84% of the cases in developing countries. A high uptake of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening, and early diagnosis leads to a reduction of incidence and mortality rates. Yet uptake of screening is low in Sub-Saharan Africa and there is an increasing number of women presenting for treatment with advanced disease. Nine women in their twenties die from cervical cancer in Kenya every day. This paper presents the biopsychosocial risk factors that impact on cervical cancer knowledge among Kenyan women aged 15 to 24 years. The findings will highlight opportunities for early interventions to prevent the worrying prediction of an exponential increase by 50% of cervical cancer incidences in the younger age group by 2034. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) was analysed using complex sample logistic regression to assess biopsychosocial risk factors of knowledge of cervical cancer among young women aged 15 to 24 years (n = 5398). FINDINGS: Close to one third of the participants were unaware of cervical cancer with no difference between participants aged 15-19 years (n = 2716) and those aged 20-24 years (n = 2691) (OR = 1; CI = 0.69-1.45). Social predisposing factors, such as lack of education; poverty; living further from a health facility; or never having taken a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test, were significantly associated with lack of awareness of cervical cancer (p<0.001). Young women who did not know where to obtain condoms had an OR of 2.12 (CI 1.72-2.61) for being unaware of cervical cancer. Psychological risk factors, such as low self-efficacy about seeking medical help, and an inability to refuse unsafe sex with husband or partner, perpetuated the low level of awareness about cervical cancer (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of young women in Kenya are unaware of cervical cancer which is associated with a variety of social and psychological factors. We argue that the high prevalence of cervical cancer and poor screening rates will continue to prevail among older women if issues that affect young women's awareness of cervical cancer are not addressed. Given that the Kenyan youth are exposed to HPV due to early sexual encounters and a high prevalence of HIV, targeted interventions are urgently needed to increase the uptake of HPV vaccination and screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Parceiros Sexuais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2633-2640, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812092

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and its association with risk factors related to cervical lesions. We used 362 cervical samples from a transversal study to detect nineteen types from the high-risk HPV clade by highly sensitive PCR. Unexpectedly, we found a very high prevalence of HPV type 66 (32.8%), particularly in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. A significant association of HPV66 with previously sexually transmitted disease was observed (p < 0.05). Our results strongly suggest that HPV66 might be indicative of cervical lesions that will not progress to cancer. HPV genotyping by methods that grouped type 66 with other HR-HPV clade types should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 49(8): 806-811, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746547

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the possible influencing factors of false-negative diagnosis of cervical/vaginal liquid based cytology, and further improve the sensitivity of cervical/vaginal cytology. Methods: The results of cervical/vaginal cytology of outpatients and inpatients in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University First Hospital from July 2015 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. Cytological false-negative cases were defined as the patients whose cytological results showed no intraepithelial neoplasia and malignant (NILM), but whose biopsy was diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) 2 or above within 6 months of the diagnosis. The review of false-negative cytology smear was completed by two senior cytologists. Two-class logistic regression was used to evaluate the influence of age, location or number of lesion, and degree of lesion on the false-negative diagnosis of cytology. The reasons for the inconsistency of false-negative diagnosis were analyzed with the review results. Results: Among 1 009 cases of CIN2+ and VAIN2+ lesions, 180 cases (17.8%) showed NILM. After reviewing the smear, 123 cases (68.3%) were identified as NILM and 57 cases(31.7%) as abnormal. The false-negative rate was the highest (20.8%) in the patients with age≤30 years, and the risk was 8.85 times higher than the patients aged 31 to 60 years (P<0.001), 9.26 times than the patients aged≥60 years (P<0.001). The highest cytological false-negative rate was 50.0% for cervical polyps or intraductal lesions. The false-negative rate of vaginal wall or vaginal pedicle rupture was 13.0%; that of single cervical lesion was 22.3%; that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL) and adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix(AIS) was 13.7% and that of malignant lesions was 3.9%. The most common cell types in the reviewed abnormal cases were squamous cells in the middle surface layer (38.6%) and squamous cells in the outer bottom layer (24.6%). The abnormal cells in all smears was the most common distribution (59.7%), the number of abnormal cells in the smear was less than 10 (31.6%), nuclear enlargement and light staining were common (42.2%), and inflammatory lesions or keratotic changes in the background were most common (59.7%). Conclusions: Age of the patient, location or number of lesion, and degree of lesion are associated with false-negative diagnosis of cytology. Summarizing sampling experience and improving sampling skills will help reduce the occurrence of false-negative cases. Cytopathologists should examine slightly abnormal changes more carefully and learn how to further reduce the false-negative rate procactively.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Citodiagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esfregaço Vaginal
20.
Acta Cytol ; 64(6): 597-606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) offers a comprehensive range of External Quality Assurance programs for all disciplines of pathology and is committed to delivering programs to advance outcomes in patient care and promote excellence in laboratory diagnostic and technical proficiency. Proficiency testing in cytopreparatory techniques became available for formal enrolment in 2018. The 2019 technical program focused on the demonstration of a laboratory to troubleshoot problems encountered during staining and processing. The exercise provided a peer comparison of a laboratory's ability to (1) identify the problem viewed from a digital image and (2) describe the troubleshooting steps to rectify the problem using assessment guidelines. METHODS: Ten troubleshooting exercises including whole-slide z-stacked virtual images, a reference slide, and an online Result Entry questionnaire were provided. Common staining and processing problems were demonstrated in these exercises. Multiple-choice responses were made available to participants for each case with 1 response requiring submission. Participants were then allowed free text to describe how they would rectify the problem. RESULTS: Of the 72 participants who participated, 62 participants (86%) achieved a satisfactory assessment, 6 participants (8%) received a borderline assessment, and 4 participants (6%) received an unsatisfactory assessment. The average mark obtained was 32.7 out of a total of 45 marks, which equates to a satisfactory assessment. The highest mark obtained for this survey was 42.5. CONCLUSIONS: Quality cytopathology preparatory techniques are integral to mitigating the risk of diagnostic error. The digital pathology platform allowed homogeneity of samples for all participants and appeared to be a satisfactory mode for demonstrating the technical problems to participants. Laboratories participating in this survey showed good performance in identifying processing and staining problems on virtual images and working through the troubleshooting steps. The exercise also identified a method for troubleshooting formalin vapour-affected slides using citrate buffer which may be useful for laboratories following in-house validation.


Assuntos
Laboratórios/normas , Teste de Papanicolaou/normas , Patologia Clínica/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
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