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1.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 114-120, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631883

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) diagnosed by cervical tissue sampling in postmenopausal women. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 2 013 patients with HSIL diagnosed by cervical tissue sampling under colposcopy and treated by cervical conization at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2017 to November 2018, to compare the difference of patients' clinical features, HPV test, liquid-based thin-layer cytology (TCT), performance of colposcopy and biopsy pathology, pathology after cervical conization between 439 postmenopausal patients and 1 574 pre-menopausal patients. Results: (1) Clinical features: the proportion of contact bleeding showed no significant difference between postmenopausal patients and pre-menopausal patients [4.3% (19/439) vs 6.4% (101/1 574); χ²=2.672, P=0.102]. Among the patients with contact bleeding, the proportion of cervical cancer after cervical cone resection was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [10/19 vs 22.8% (23/101); χ²=7.157, P=0.007]. Among the patients found by routine screening, the proportion of cervical cancer after cervical cone resection was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [9.0% (38/420) vs 4.3% (63/1 473); χ²=14.726, P<0.01]. The proportion of smooth cervix was higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [63.6% (279/439) vs 35.5% (558/1 574); χ²=111.601, P<0.01]. (2) High-risk HPV infection: there was no significant difference in the high-risk HPV positive rate between the postmenopausal group and the pre-menopausal group [92.0% (404/439) vs 94.4% (1 486/1 574); χ²=3.394, P=0.065]; the HPV 16 infection was the most common type, but there was no significant difference in the HPV 16 infection rate between the two groups [65.8% (289/439) vs 68.0% (1 070/1 574); χ²=0.722, P=0.395]. (3) TCT test: TCT test results included negative for intraepithelial lesion and malignancy (NILM), atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade lesion (ASC-H), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), HSIL, compared with the different results of TCT examination, there were not statistically significant difference between postmenopausal and pre-menopausal patients (all P>0.05). (4) The performance of colposcopy: the proportion of insufficient colposcopy and the proportion of cervical type Ⅲ conversion area were higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [87.5% (384/439) vs 32.5% (511/1 574), P<0.01; 80.0% (351/439) vs 21.9% (344/1 574), P<0.01]. The proportion and positive rate of endocervical curettage (ECC) in postmenopausal patients were higher than those in pre-menopausal patients [35.3% (155/439) vs 20.4% (322/1 574), P<0.01; 67.7% (105/155) vs 53.1% (171/322), P=0.003]. The proportion of lesions involving the vaginal wall was higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [5.9% (26/439) vs 1.0% (16/1 574); χ²=40.443, P<0.01]. There was a positive correlation between vaginal wall lesions and cervical lesions in postmenopausal patients (r=0.660, P<0.01). (5) Postoperative pathology: the positive rate of margin and the proportion of pathological escalation after cervical conization were significantly higher in postmenopausal patients compared with pre-menopausal patients [14.6% (64/439) vs 4.8% (75/1 574), 10.9% (48/439) vs 5.5% (86/1 574); P<0.01]. Conclusions: Colposcopy in postmenopausal women is often inadequate, and the cervix is mostly type Ⅲ transformation zone. The lesion in postmenopausal women is more likely to involve the cervical canal and vaginal wall. Clinical attention should be paid to cervical tube curettage and comprehensive examination of the vaginal wall. The high rate of positive margins and a high proportion of pathological upgrading after cervical conization in postmenopausal patients requires further active intervention.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Colposcopia/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
2.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1361-1365, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted cervical cancer screening services. Assuming increases to screening capacity are unrealistic, we propose two recovery strategies: one extends the screening interval by 6 months for all and the other extends the interval by 36/60 months, but only for women who have already missed being screened. METHODS: Using routine statistics from England we estimate the number of women affected by delays to screening. We used published research to estimate the proportion of screening age women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and progression rates to cancer. Under two recovery scenarios, we estimate the impact of COVID-19 on cervical cancer over one screening cycle (3 years at ages 25-49 and 5 years at ages 50-64 years). The duration of disruption in both scenarios is 6 months. In the first scenario, 10.7 million women have their screening interval extended by 6 months. In the second, 1.5 million women (those due to be screened during the disruption) miss one screening cycle, but most women have no delay. RESULTS: Both scenarios result in similar numbers of excess cervical cancers: 630 vs. 632 (both 4.3 per 100,000 women in the population). However, the scenario in which some women miss one screening cycle creates inequalities-they would have much higher rates of excess cancer: 41.5 per 100,000 delayed for screened women compared to those with a 6-month delay (5.9 per 100,000). CONCLUSION: To ensure equity for those affected by COVID-19 related screening delays additional screening capacity will need to be paired with prioritising the screening of overdue women.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , /epidemiologia , Colposcopia/métodos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Gravidez , /patogenicidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
3.
BJOG ; 128(1): 97-100, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is present in the vaginal secretions of both reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: A single tertiary, university-affiliated medical centre in Israel. Time period, 1 June 2020 through to 31 July 2020. POPULATION: Women who were hospitalised in a single tertiary medical centre, who were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by a nasopharyngeal RT-PCR test. METHODS: Women were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by a nasopharyngeal RT-PCR test. Vaginal RT-PCR swabs were obtained from all study participants after a proper cleansing of the perineum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal RT-PCR swabs. RESULTS: Vaginal and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 35 women, aged 21-93 years. Twenty-one women (60%) were in their reproductive years, of whom, five were in their third trimester of pregnancy. Most of the participants (57%) were healthy without any underlying medical conditions. Of the 35 patients sampled, 2 (5.7%) had a positive vaginal RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, one was premenopausal and the other was a postmenopausal woman. Both women had mild disease. CONCLUSION: Our findings contradict most previous reports, which did not detect the presence of viral colonisation in the vagina. Although passage through the birth canal exposes neonates to the vaginal polymicrobial flora, an acquisition of pathogens does not necessarily mandate neonatal infection or clinical disease. Nevertheless, when delivering the infant of a woman with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, a clinician should consider the possibility of vaginal colonisation, even if it is uncommon. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: When delivering the infant of a woman with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, a clinician should consider the possibility of vaginal colonisation.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Vagina/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , /epidemiologia , /métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(10): 708-715, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120484

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluation of the clinical value of the BioPerfectus multiplex real time (BMRT)-HPV for cervical cancer screening. Methods: Physician-collected specimens of 1 495 women who were positive of Cobas 4800 HPV (Cobas-HPV), HPV genotyping based on SEQ uencing (SEQ-HPV), and (or) cytology ≥low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in the primary screening of Chinese Multiple-center Screening Trial (CHIMUST), and 2 990 women selected from those who were negative of primary screening in the same project through nested control randomization with age-matching were tested for BMRT-HPV, which reported type-specific viral loads/10 000 cells in each specimen. With comparing to Cobas-HPV results and taking cervical histopathological diagnosis as the endpoint, the concordance of high-risk (HR)-HPV subtypes among the three assays was explored ,and the sensitivity and specificity of BMRT-HPV for cervical cancer screening were evaluated. Results: (1) The overall agreenment of HR-HPV subtypes between BMRT-HPV and Cobas-HPV, or SEQ-HPV test sample was 94.8%, 94.4%, with Kappa values 0.827, 0.814. (2) The sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Ⅱ+ of BMRT-HPV, Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV were 92.62%, 94.26%, 93.44% and 84.67%, 83.25%, 82.76%, respectively. There were no significant difference in sensitivity among the three HPV assays (all P>0.05), but the specificity of BMRT-HPV for CIN Ⅱ+ was higher than those of Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (P<0.01). The sensitivity for CIN Ⅲ+ of three HPV assays were all 100.00%, and the specificity for CIN Ⅲ+ of BMRT-HPV was higher than those of Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (83.40% vs 81.95%, 83.40% vs 81.50%; P<0.01). The number of pathological examinations of colposcopy for cervical biopsy detected in 1 case of CIN Ⅱ+ or CIN Ⅲ+ in BMRT-HPV was less than those in Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (P<0.01). When using HPV 16/18 + cytology ≥atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS) to triage HPV positive women among three assays, there was no different in the sensitivities of detecting CIN Ⅱ+ and CIN Ⅲ+ (P>0.05). The specificity BMRT-HPV was slightly higher than those in Cobas-HPV or SEQ-HPV (all P<0.05), and the colposcopy referral rate was lower than those in Cobas-HPV and SEQ-HPV (all P<0.05). Conclusions: BMRT-HPV is as sensitive as Cobas-HPV or SEQ-HPV for primary cervical cancer screening, and has higher specificity. Therefore it could be used as a primary screening method for cervical cancer, which is worthy of clinical application.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
5.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 211, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most cost-effectiveness analyses in the context of cervical cancer prevention involve the use of mathematical models to simulate HPV infection, cervical disease and prevention strategies. However, it is common for professionals who would need to perform these analyses to not be familiar with the models. This work introduces the Online Cost-Effectiveness ANalysis tool, featuring an easy-to-use web interface providing health professionals, researchers and decision makers involved in cervical cancer prevention programmes with a useful instrument to conduct complex cost-effectiveness analyses, which are becoming an essential tool as an approach for supporting decision-making that involves important trade-offs. RESULTS: The users can run cost-effectiveness evaluations of cervical cancer prevention strategies without deep knowledge of the underlying mathematical model or any programming language, obtaining the most relevant costs and health outcomes in a user-friendly format. The results provided by the tool are consistent with the existing literature. CONCLUSIONS: Having such a tool will be an asset to the cervical cancer prevention community, providing researchers with an easy-to-use instrument to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
6.
Acta Cytol ; 64(6): 597-606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) offers a comprehensive range of External Quality Assurance programs for all disciplines of pathology and is committed to delivering programs to advance outcomes in patient care and promote excellence in laboratory diagnostic and technical proficiency. Proficiency testing in cytopreparatory techniques became available for formal enrolment in 2018. The 2019 technical program focused on the demonstration of a laboratory to troubleshoot problems encountered during staining and processing. The exercise provided a peer comparison of a laboratory's ability to (1) identify the problem viewed from a digital image and (2) describe the troubleshooting steps to rectify the problem using assessment guidelines. METHODS: Ten troubleshooting exercises including whole-slide z-stacked virtual images, a reference slide, and an online Result Entry questionnaire were provided. Common staining and processing problems were demonstrated in these exercises. Multiple-choice responses were made available to participants for each case with 1 response requiring submission. Participants were then allowed free text to describe how they would rectify the problem. RESULTS: Of the 72 participants who participated, 62 participants (86%) achieved a satisfactory assessment, 6 participants (8%) received a borderline assessment, and 4 participants (6%) received an unsatisfactory assessment. The average mark obtained was 32.7 out of a total of 45 marks, which equates to a satisfactory assessment. The highest mark obtained for this survey was 42.5. CONCLUSIONS: Quality cytopathology preparatory techniques are integral to mitigating the risk of diagnostic error. The digital pathology platform allowed homogeneity of samples for all participants and appeared to be a satisfactory mode for demonstrating the technical problems to participants. Laboratories participating in this survey showed good performance in identifying processing and staining problems on virtual images and working through the troubleshooting steps. The exercise also identified a method for troubleshooting formalin vapour-affected slides using citrate buffer which may be useful for laboratories following in-house validation.


Assuntos
Laboratórios/normas , Teste de Papanicolaou/normas , Patologia Clínica/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233986, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: China carries a heavy burden of cervical cancer and has an alarmingly low cervical cancer screening rate. In order to achieve the goal of cervical cancer elimination, there is an urgent need for suitable methods and strategies in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 9972 woman who received cervical cancer screening services of National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 8 project counties participated in this study. TruScreen, HPV test and LBC test were performed in all participants. A total of 1945women had one or more than one positive or abnormal screening results of the above three screening tests subsequently received colposcopy. The detection rate of CIN2+ between the three tests were compared. RESULTS: No matter what kind of screening method is used, the CIN2+ detection rate in the eastern regions was much higher than that in the central and western regions. The total detection rate of CIN2+ in HPV group was highest (0.73%), following in LBC group (0.44%) and TS group (0.31%). There was statistically significant difference in the total detection rate of CIN2+ between TS and HPV groups, LBC and HPV groups, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the total detection rate of CIN2+ between TS and LBC screening groups. Moreover, except for the eastern regions, there was no statistical difference in the detection rate of CIN2+ between TS group and the other two groups in central and western regions. CONCLUSION: If it can meet the requirements of the laboratory and personnel, HPV test seems to be the preferred method for cervical cancer screening in rural areas of China. The characteristics of minimal training requirements, simple operation, real-time results obtained without the collection of cervical cell samples and the help of laboratory equipment and cytologists of TS make it ideal for cervical cancer screening in low-resource regions.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Colposcopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
8.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(3): 649-655, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488400

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical pre-malignancies in the cervical cytology of female renal transplant recipients (RTR) and compare to immunocompetent patients. METHODS: A prospective case-control study of 165 RTR (cases) and 372 immunocompetent women (controls) was carried out from May 2015 to August 2016. The participants completed a questionnaire with demographic characteristics, habits, reproductive history, and information about the renal transplant. Cervical cytology samples were collected at their visit for cervical cancer screening. Relevant medical history was obtained from medical records and previous cervical cytology results were retrieved: from the time of kidney transplantation to the beginning of this study for RTR and all collected throughout life for controls. RESULTS: The mean age was similar between groups (42.6 ± 11.4 vs. 41.8.2 ± 11.1 years, p = 0.447). Considering cervical cytology collected since the kidney transplant, RTR had three times higher rates of abnormal cervical cytology test (24.8% of RTR vs. 6.3% for controls), and the abnormalities were more frequent (p < 0.001) for low squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (n = 23, 13.9%) and high squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (n = 9, 5.5%). Cervical cytology collected during the study had normal results in 152 RTR (92.1%) vs. 326 controls (93.9%) (p > 0.05). When the altered results were broken down, a higher frequency of LSIL could be seen in RTR (3.6% vs 0.0%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: RTR had significantly higher rates of cervical cytology abnormalities comparing to the control group and most of it was composed of LSIL.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Colo do Útero/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Vagina/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Cytol ; 64(6): 539-546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer screening is an important tool in public health. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been performed at the studied hospital for 7 years. The present study compares the performance of 2 LBC techniques with conventional cytology. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to verify the sensitivity for the detection of neoplastic and preneoplastic epithelial atypia, as well as the positive predictive value of the 3 methodologies. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 24,529 cases and evaluated the conventional cytology, ThinPrep®, and BD SurePath® performance categorizing the results according to the Bethesda system. We also compared the level of unsatisfactory samples, the presence of elements from the squamocolumnar junction, and the detection of pathogenic microorganisms. RESULTS: ThinPrep® (1.43%) showed superior sensitivity over BD SurePath® (0.91%) and conventional cytology (0.71%) in terms of the detection of high-grade lesions; however, in terms of squamous atypia as a whole (ASC-US+), BD SurePath® (6.44%) proved to be more sensitive than conventional cytology (5.28%) and ThinPrep® (3.73%). CONCLUSIONS: The results show the advantage of implementing LBC in routine screening for cervical lesions. In this study, BD SurePath® achieved the overall best performance considering the studied variables.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/mortalidade , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto , Brasil , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping and cytology have been recommended for colposcopy triage, but it is unclear which combinations of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and cytology with various thresholds provide clinically useful information for the triage after primary HPV screening on self-collected samples. METHOD: Chinese Multi-site Screening Trial (CHIMUST) database focused on self-collected samples was reviewed using the results of Cobas4800 HPV assay. Absolute risks of each genotype for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse/ 3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) were calculated. Triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse cytology was used as the comparator, and diagnostic accuracy for paired comparisons between algorithms was obtained using McNemar's test. RESULTS: A total of 10, 498 women were included, the overall prevalence of hrHPV, HPV16, HPV18, and Other hrHPV genotypes were 13.7%, 2.4%, 0.8%, and 10.5%, respectively. HPV16-positive women had the highest absolute risk among various genotypes for CIN2+/CIN3+ whether in normal or abnormal cytology (ASCUS or worse) and among all age groups. When compared with the comparator, combining HPV16 positivity and/or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse yielded higher specificity (97.7% vs. 97.0%, p<0.0001), similar sensitivity (90.7% vs. 96.3%, p = 0.256) for detection of CIN3+, and a decrease in colposcopy referral rate from 3.5% to 2.7%, similar results were found for CIN2+. Positivity for HPV16 and/or (ASCUS or worse), and positivity for (HPV16 and/or HPV18) and/or (ASCUS or worse) achieved favorable sensitivity compared with the comparator (80.6% and 81.3% vs. 70.1% respectively for CIN2+, p<0.0001; both 96.3% vs. 96.3% for CIN3+, p = 1.000), these algorithms would reduce the colposcopy referral rate to 5.0% and 5.6% respectively, compared with 13.7% of that for HPV alone. CONCLUSIONS: Triage of HPV-positive women on self-collected samples by combining HPV16 or HPV16/18 genotyping with different thresholds of cytology could provide tradeoffs in sensitivity for detecting cervical lesions and colposcopy referral rates, and tailor management in various circumstances of clinical practice.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Triagem/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colo do Útero/citologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Colposcopia/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
11.
Acta Cytol ; 64(5): 486-491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to find out whether ThinPrep Integrated Imager (Hologic Inc.) screening is non-inferior to manual screening in the detection of cervical lesion. STUDY DESIGN: For a total of 4,011 ThinPrep Pap test specimens stained by ThinPrep staining, manual screening (Manual arm) and ThinPrep Integrated Imager screening (Imager arm) were performed so as not to be screened by the same cytotechnologist, and the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cervical lesion were compared using McNemar's test. RESULTS: The sensitivity to detect CIN1 or more squamous cell abnormalities or glandular abnormalities was 91.67% (= 374/408, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.44-94.08%) for the Manual arm and 92.40% (= 377/408, 95% CI: 89.28-94.70%) for the Imager arm, and the specificity was 88.87% (= 3,113/3,503, 95% CI: 87.77-89.88%) for the Manual arm and 89.55% (= 3,137/3,503, 95% CI: 88.48-90.54%) for the Imager arm. The differences in sensitivity and in specificity, respectively, were 0.74% (95% CI: -3.14-4.61%, McNemar's test, p = 0.8041) and 0.69% (95% CI: -0.13-1.50%, McNemar's test, p = 0.1125). About the equality of sensitivity and specificity between the 2 methods, 95% CIs of the difference between sensitivity and specificity are in the clinical equivalence range of ±5%, so the Imager arm is non-inferior to the Manual arm. CONCLUSION: The Imager arm was confirmed to have an equivalent and non-inferior capacity in the detection of cervical lesions compared with the Manual arm, suggesting that its practical application in cervical cytology tests is highly possible.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(3): 381-386, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2014 Bethesda System (TBS 2014) guidelines for reporting cervical cytology revised the age for reporting benign endometrial cells (BECs) from 40 years or older to age 45 years or older. We evaluated this change and further investigated if extending the reporting age to 50 years or older may be acceptable. METHODS: We reviewed cases with BECs reported on Papanicolaou tests in women age 40 years or older and 45 years or older before and after implementation of TBS 2014. Follow-up endometrial biopsy/curettage results were categorized as benign, endometrial hyperplasia with or without atypia, or malignant. Hyperplasia and malignant follow-up were considered clinically significant. Clinical data were documented. Results were compared for women age 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and 50 years or older. RESULTS: Follow-up in 15 (100%) women age 40 to 44 years was benign. In women age 45 to 49 years, 61 (96.8%) had benign follow-up, one (1.6%) had atypical hyperplasia, and one (1.6%) had malignant follow-up. In women age 50 years or older, 57 (86.5%) had benign follow-up, four (6%) had malignant follow-up, and seven (7.5%) had atypical or nonatypical hyperplasia. There was a significant difference in follow-up between the age groups of 40 to 49 and 50 or older (P = .023). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the TBS 2014 revision was justified. Our data suggest that age 50 years or older rather than age 45 years or older may be an acceptable cutoff for reporting BECs.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/patologia , Hiperplasia Endometrial/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(7): 971-979, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212991

RESUMO

Background: We compared women's acceptability of urine and cervico-vaginal sample self-collection for high-risk (oncogenic) human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing and assessed whether acceptability varied across racial/ethnic groups. Methods: As part of a test accuracy study of urine-based hrHPV testing, we recruited a convenience sample of women 25-65 years of age at two colposcopy clinics in North Carolina between November 2016 and January 2019. After self-collection of urine and cervico-vaginal samples, women completed a questionnaire on the acceptability of the sample collection methods. We coded open-ended questions inductively. All results are presented stratified by racial/ethnic group. Results: We included 410 women (119 Hispanic, 115 non-Hispanic Black, 154 non-Hispanic White, and 22 women with other racial identities). Most women (79%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 76%-83%) had positive feelings about urine-based hrHPV testing. Women generally preferred urine (78%, 95% CI = 74%-82%) over cervico-vaginal self-collection (18%, 95% CI = 14%-22%), but the degree differed by racial/ethnic group, increasing from 75% in non-Hispanic Black to 82% in Hispanic women (p = 0.011). Most women reported at least one positive aspect of urine (89%) and cervico-vaginal self-collection (85%) for hrHPV testing with the most common positive aspect being easy sample collection, although 16% of women were concerned about performing the cervico-vaginal self-collection correctly. Conclusions: Self-collection for hrHPV-based cervical cancer screening is highly acceptable to women across different racial/ethnic groups in the United States, and most women in our study would be more likely to attend future cervical cancer screening appointments if screening were urine based. Urine-based hrHPV testing is a promising approach to improve cervical cancer screening coverage.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/etnologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Urinálise/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vagina/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Colposcopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/urina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoexame/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Vagina/patologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053648

RESUMO

Until 2018, cervical cancer screening in France was an unorganized individual screening, with the exception of some pilot programs in some territories. We aimed to assess, before the implementation of organized cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine introduction in the vaccination schedule in 2018, (i) the individual cervical cancer screening coverage, (ii) the management of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and (iii) the related costs. We used the Système National des Données de Santé (SNDS) (Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires [EGB] and Programme de Médicalisation des systèmes d'information [PMSI]) to assess the cervical screening coverage rate in France between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2014, and to describe diagnostic investigations and therapeutic management of SIL in 2013. After extrapolation to the general population, a total of 10,847,814 women underwent at least one smear test over the 3-year study period, corresponding to a coverage rate of 52.4% of the women aged 25 to 64 included. In 2013, 126,095 women underwent HPV test, 327,444 women underwent colposcopy, and 9,653 underwent endocervical curettage; 31,863 had conization and 12,162 had laser ablation. Besides, 34,067 women experienced hospital stays related to management of SIL; 25,368 (74.5%) had high-grade lesions (HSIL) and 7,388 (21.7%) low-grade lesions (LSIL). Conization was the most frequent in-hospital therapeutic procedure: 89.5% (22,704) of women with an in-hospital procedure for HSIL and 64.7% (4,781) for LSIL. Mean cost of smear test, colposcopy and HPV tests were around 50€. Total cost for hospital stays in 2013 was estimated at M41€, or a mean cost of 1,211€ per woman; 76% were due to stays with HSIL. This study highlights the low coverage rate of individual cervical cancer screening and a high burden related to SIL management.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/economia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Colposcopia/economia , Conização , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/economia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
16.
Acta Cytol ; 64(4): 332-343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world. A raised incidence and mortality parallel a low participation rate in screening, namely screening in poor countries and among specific populations of developed countries. Cervical or vaginal self-sampling may increase adherence to screening due to its low costs and elevated sensibility and specificity. Our main goal was to compare self-sampling with physician sampling and to evaluate the participation rate of women formerly non-adherent to cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: We identified relevant studies from PubMed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled the following criteria: women aged between 16 and 80 years, poor and developed countries that use self-sampling, women with a low participation rate in screening and studies published since 2013. After fully reading the articles, data were extracted to an Excel sheet to -display all relevant information in an organized manner. -Results: We identified 18 studies, which altogether enrolled 22,118 women. Self-sampling and physician sampling are quite similar regarding the HPV detection rate. Women have a low participation rate mainly because of limited access to health services, religious and culture beliefs, and lack of time due to several demanding tasks in daily life. Self-sampling shows a significant increase in acceptability and preference compared to physician sampling. CONCLUSION: Self-sampling is a reliable method to involve women in opportunistic or organized screening programs for cervical cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
17.
Virol J ; 17(1): 8, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959186

RESUMO

The separation of exfoliated cells from the brushes used during cervico-vaginal smears is difficult, a problem which may affect the quality of ribonucleic acid (RNA) extracted. We compared the results of RNA extraction from cervico-vaginal cytology samples according to the type of tubes, preservative solutions, and storage temperature. The samples included exfoliated cervico-vaginal cytological specimens from patients with human papilloma virus 16, positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer. Exfoliated cells were obtained by shaking a brush in a conventional rigid vial tube or squeezing the brush in a soft vial tube. RNA quantity and quality were compared between the two tubes. The concentration and purity of RNA (A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios) was compared amongst five groups: Group 1, standard frozen storage; Group 2-4, RNA stabilization reagents with room temperature [RNAlater RNA Stabilization Reagent, RNAprotect cell Reagent and AllProtect Tissue Reagent]; and Group 5, Surepath Preservative fluid. To demonstrate the utility of the extracted RNA for PCR-based cDNA synthesis, GAPDH and E6 were targeted and gel band densities of GAPDH and E6 were measured. The median RNA concentration was significantly higher in the soft tubes compared with the rigid tubes (100.2 vs. 7.1 ng/µL, p = 0.0209). The purity of the RNA was higher in soft vial tubes than in rigid vials, as measured by A260/280 and A260/230 ratios. The RNA concentration, purity, and GAPDH density of groups 1, 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those of groups 4 and 5. Moreover, E6 density of group 1 and 2 was significantly higher than that of group 3, 4 and 5. The use of soft tubes enhanced the mRNA quantity and quality in cervico-vaginal cytology. The products of mRNA extraction using RNAlater RNA Stabilization Reagent and RNAprotect Cell Reagent at room temperature were comparable to those obtained by conventional frozen storage. Our protocol improved the yield and quality of RNA and might produce better results for molecular analysis in cervico-vaginal cytology.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/virologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Vagina/citologia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/complicações , Colo do Útero/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Vagina/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
18.
N Z Med J ; 133(1508): 72-84, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945044

RESUMO

AIM: Determine the impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on abnormal cervical cytology and histology rates in young New Zealand women. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study of women born 1990-1994, with a cervical cytology or histology recorded when aged 20-24 between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015. Data was obtained through linking the National Immunisation Register and National Cervical Screening Programme Register. RESULTS: N=104,313 women (376,402 person years of follow up) were included. The incidence of high-grade cytology was lower in vaccinated women (at least one dose prior to 18 years) than in unvaccinated women (8.5 vs 11.3 per 1,000 person years [p1000py], incidence rate ratio [IRR 0.75], 95% CI 0.70, 0.80, p<.001). The incidence of high-grade histology was lower in vaccinated women than in unvaccinated women (6.0 vs 8.7 p1000py, IRR 0.69, 95% CI 0.64, 0.75, p<.001). There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of high-grade histology between European and Maori women overall or after taking vaccination status into account. CONCLUSIONS: Receiving at least one dose of quadrivalent HPV vaccine prior to 18 years was associated with a 25% lower incidence of high-grade cytology and 31% lower incidence of high-grade histology in women aged 20-24 years.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(2): 138-144, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Liquid-based cytology has replaced conventional cytology in cervical cancer screening in many countries. However, a detailed comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology has not been reported in Japan. Therefore, the aim of the study is to evaluate efficacy of liquid-based cytology in Japan. METHODS: We first evaluated the prevalence of use of liquid-based cytology and then examined the efficacy of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for detecting CIN and the rate of unsatisfactory specimens using data from cancer screening collected by the Japanese Cancer Society from FY2011 to FY2014. A Poisson regression model with random effects analyses was used to classify histological outcomes and unsatisfactory specimens using liquid-based cytology compared to conventional cytology. RESULTS: A total of 3 815 131 women were analyzed in the study. The rate of liquid-based cytology increased from approximately 8% in FY2011 to 37% in FY2014. Compared to conventional cytology, the detection rates with liquid-based cytology were significantly higher (1.42 times) for CIN1+ [detection rate ratio (DRR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.48, P < 0.001] and CIN2+ (DRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.08-1.25, P < 0.001). Positive predictive value ratios of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were also significantly higher for liquid-based cytology than for conventional cytology. However, there was no significant difference between liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for detection rates and positive predictive values of CIN3+ and cancer. The rate of unsatisfactory specimens was significantly lower with liquid-based cytology compared to conventional cytology (DRR = 0.07, 95% CI 0.05-0.09, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In order to avoid the unsatisfactory specimens in cervical cancer screening, the results of this study did indicate that liquid-based cytology was more useful than conventional cytology in practical standpoints.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(3): 196-202, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808556

RESUMO

Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogens infecting both men and women worldwide. Unlike traditional methods such as microscopy and culture, nucleic acid amplification tests rapidly detect this agent, assisting in treatment. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and the Xpert TV assay were evaluated using 28 microscopy positive T. vaginalis samples and 125 microscopy negative samples from symptomatic females of reproductive age. The sensitivity of all tests was 100% and the specificity was 100%, 100%, and 99·2% for PCR, Xpert TV, and LAMP, respectively. The inter-rater reliability was excellent for PCR: Xpert TV (kappa-coefficient = 1) and good for LAMP assay: Xpert TV/PCR (kappa-coefficient = 0·98) and conventional PCR: LAMP (kappa-coefficient = 0·98). The study highlights the importance of PCR for screening T. vaginalis in women, particularly in laboratories where the Xpert-TV assay is not available or not affordable. The LAMP assay showed a lower positive predictive value which merits further evaluation. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen associated with considerable morbidity and risk of complications. Due to the limitations of traditional diagnostic modalities, three molecular assays were compared: conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Xpert TV assay, and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detecting T. vaginalis in symptomatic females. All tests had a sensitivity of 100% and the inter-rater reliability was excellent for PCR: Xpert TV, and good for LAMP assay: Xpert TV/PCR. The translational impact of this study lies in the possible use of conventional PCR and LAMP in laboratories where the Xpert TV assay is not available or not affordable.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética , Adulto , Bioensaio/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
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