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1.
; Fiocruz.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47331

RESUMO

Considerando que evidências científicas recentes mostram que o novo coronavírus é excretado em fezes, o projeto utiliza a análise de amostras de esgotos como um instrumento de vigilância, permitindo identificar regiões com presença de casos da doença, mesmo os ainda não notificados no sistema de saúde


Assuntos
Esgotos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Manejo de Espécimes , Vigilância Sanitária , Fezes/virologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110301, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058167

RESUMO

A large amount of organic fertilizer application could be accompanied by soil contamination caused by trace heavy metals. A field experiment was carried out in this study to examine the accumulation and availability of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by rice under continuous application of chicken manure, pig manure and sewage sludge. Results showed that after four years of chicken manure, pig manure and sewage sludge application, the soil Cu accumulation rates were 0.15-1.17 mg kg-1 yr-1, 1.01-4.22 mg kg-1 yr-1 and 0.13-1.15 mg kg-1 yr-1, respectively; Zn accumulation rates were 0.54-5.46 mg kg-1 yr-1, 1.51-9.65 mg kg-1 yr-1 and 1.13-10.47 mg kg-1 yr-1, respectively. Compared to the control, the chicken- and pig manure treatments significantly decreased the DTPA-extractable Cu, but increased the DTPA-extractable Zn in soils; thus decreased the Cu contents in rice grain by 2.2-40.6% and increased the grain Zn by 2.6-30.9%, respectively, with increasing application rates and number of years. The addition of sewage sludge significantly increased bioavailability of Zn in soil and its accumulation in rice, while had limited effect on Cu bioavailability. Results suggested that the continuous application of organic fertilizer with elevated Cu and Zn contents at high application rates can induce their accumulation in soil and affect their bioavailability differently.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacocinética , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Galinhas , Cobre/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Esterco/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos , Zinco/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126212, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088459

RESUMO

The ecological risk of heavy metals (HM) resulting from the use of sewage sludge compost (SSC) as an amendment to flower garden soil (FGS) and to abandoned phosphate mine soil (APMS) influenced by acid rain were simulated in lysimeter trials and the potential ecological risk index (PERI) was evaluated with minor modifications. The use of SSC indeed increased the mobility and release of HMs in FGS and APMS under conditions of acid rain. The leaching dynamics of HMs was found to be influenced by Fe/Al oxides and organic matter (OM) in the soil. The application of SSC as a fertilizer to barren APMS dramatically decreased the mobility of Cr, Cu and Pb by 51-56% due to their retention by particulate organic matter, while the leaching of As, Cd and Ni was increased as the result of competition with OM for available Fe/Al oxides (As) and proton-metal exchange reactions that occurred in HM-OM complexes (Cd and Ni). The ecological risk of FGS and APMS resulting from HM migration was actually low (PERI = 0.07-0.12), but the increased potential ecological risk resulting from the use of SSC were estimated to be moderate (a 16.0-33.5% increase in PERI for SSC-amended FGS) or high (a 140% increase in PERI for SSC-amended APMS). Ni, Cd and Cu were identified as the three main HMs responsible for increasing the ecological risk in soil which was mainly composed of fine-grained particles, whereas Cd and As were key ecological risks HMs in soil that was mainly composed of coarse-grained particles.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , China , Compostagem , Fertilizantes , Fosfatos , Esgotos/análise , Solo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109410, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731967

RESUMO

Enzymatic reactions refer to organic reactions catalyzed by enzymes. This review aims to enrich the documentation relative to enzymatic reactions occurring during the anaerobic degradation of residual organic substances with emphasis on the structures of organic compounds and reaction mechanisms. This allows to understand the displacement of electrons between electron-rich and electron-poor entities to form new bonds in products. The detailed mechanisms of enzymatic reactions relative to the production of biomethane have not yet been reviewed in the scientific literature. Hence, this review is novel and timely since it discusses the chemical behavior or reactivity of different functional groups, thereby allowing to better understand the enzymatic catalysis in the transformations of residual proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids into biomethane and fertilizers. Such understanding allows to improve the overall biomethanation efficiency in industrial applications.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Enzimas/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese , Esgotos/análise , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Catálise
5.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105257, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675572

RESUMO

Hydrothermal liquefaction of sewage sludge to produce bio-oil and hydro-char unavoidably results in the production of high-strength organic wastewater (HTLWW). However, anaerobic digestion (AD) of HTLWW generally has low conversion efficiency due to the presence of complex and refractory organics. The present study showed that granular activated carbon (GAC) promoted the AD of HTLWW in continuous experiments, resulting in the higher methane yield (259 mL/g COD) compared to control experiment (202 mL/g COD). It was found that GAC increased the activities of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The molecular transformation of organics in HTLWW was further analyzed. It was shown GAC promoted the degradation of soluble microbial by-products, fulvic- and humic-like substances as revealed by 3-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) analysis. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that GAC resulted in the higher degradation of N-heterocyclic compounds, acids and aromatic compounds and less production of new organic species. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) analysis also showed that GAC promoted the degradation of nitrogenous organics. In addition, it was shown that GAC improved the removal of less oxidized, higher nitrogen content, and higher double bond equivalent (DBE) organic compounds. Microbial analysis showed that GAC not only increased the microbial concentration, but also enriched more syntrophic bacteria (e.g., Syntrophorhabdus and Synergistes), which were capable of degrading a wide range of different organics including nitrogenous and aromatic organics. Furthermore, profound effects on the methanogens and the enrichment of Methanothrix instead of Methanosarcina were observed. Overall, the present study revealed the molecular transformation and microbial mechanism in the AD of HTLWW with the presence of GAC.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal/química , Esgotos/análise , Anaerobiose , Humanos , Temperatura , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 745, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720860

RESUMO

Many water quality monitoring programs quantify Escherichia coli, an indicator of fecal contamination and potential sewage pollution. However, interpretation of E. coli data can be complex due to abiotic factors that influence its growth and mortality. The goal of this study was to quantify the variability of E. coli in a river and assess the impact of that variability on water quality monitoring study design and sewage pollution source identification. Over 1900 samples were collected and analyzed from 2007 to 2017 in the Norwalk River in Connecticut. Sixty-six percent of the samples collected during weekly to monthly monitoring had E. coli concentrations below 200 CFU/100 mL, indicating that elevated bacteria concentrations were captured infrequently. Patterns observed during daily sampling indicated that the randomization of sampling days within a week may support the identification of pollution sources driven by human behavioral patterns. Spatial autocorrelation in bacteria concentrations was not observed between sites, indicating that the sample locations were not spaced sufficiently close together to be redundant for monitoring. On finer spatial scales however, detection of a known pollution source was found to be challenging at even short distances downstream, with less than 25% of the original source concentration detected at 10 m downstream and less than 10% by 1000 m downstream, suggesting that a high density of study sites may be needed to detect potential sources. These findings can be used to better understand the natural variability of this important indicator organism in freshwater systems, and inform more efficient and effective monitoring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias , Connecticut , Fezes/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Humanos , Rios/microbiologia , Esgotos/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Água
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1083: 19-40, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493808

RESUMO

Several analytical approaches have been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants (EPs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in environmental matrices. This paper reviews the sample preparation and instrumental methods proposed in the last few years (2012-2018) to assess PPCPs in sewage sludge. Three main steps are examined: extraction, clean-up and analysis. Sample preparation is critical as target compounds are normally found at low concentrations in complex matrices. Most procedures include sewage sludge pretreatment mostly through ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) although other novel techniques such as QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) or MSPD (matrix solid-phase dispersion) have been also employed. In one report, no differences in extraction efficiency were detected among the most commonly used extraction techniques such as ultrasound, microwave and pressurized liquid. Clean-up usually involves a conventional method such as solid phase extraction (SPE). This step is needed to appreciably reduce matrix suppression, and is followed by an instrumental analysis using techniques of preference such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC), mostly coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). A fully automated on-line system that includes extraction, chromatographic separation, and mass spectrometry in one-stage is here presented as a novel way of determining PPCPs in sewage sludge. This review also discusses the advantages and limitations of the different techniques used. Miniaturizing analytical techniques and the use of novel solid and liquid phase materials are emerging as efficient options that fulfill the principles of so-called "green chemistry".


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cosméticos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/tendências
8.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527388

RESUMO

A large amount of phosphorus was found in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge used in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), so the role of EPS and extracellular phosphorus in EBPR should not be neglected. The composition and properties of tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) were significantly different, and it was necessary to study the adsorption performance of EPS through the fractionating of activated sludge into LB-EPS, TB-EPS and microbial cells. In this study, the adsorption performance of LB-EPS and TB-EPS for phosphate was explored by extracting LB-EPS and TB-EPS via sonication and cation exchange resin (CER), respectively. The results indicated that the sonication-CER method was an efficient and reliable extraction method for EPS with a synergistic effect. The performance of EPS in the adsorption/complexing of phosphate was excellent because of its abundant functional groups. Specifically, the type and content of metal elements and functional groups in TB-EPS were much greater than those in LB-EPS, which led to the key role of TB-EPS in the adsorption/complexing of phosphate. Finally, a metabolic model for EBPR with consideration of the adsorption performance of LB-EPS and TB-EPS was proposed.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Fósforo/química , Esgotos/análise , Esgotos/química , Adsorção , Fracionamento Químico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33363-33372, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522397

RESUMO

Most sulfonamides, widely used around the world, are excreted via feces and urine along with their metabolites in humans and animals. Therefore, understanding the potential removal pathway of sulfonamides and their metabolites in wastewater treatment systems is of importance. The occurrence and fate of four sulfonamides and their acetyl metabolites in wastewater and sludge in a biological aerated filter in Xiamen city were evaluated. Six of the target compounds were detected in wastewater, but only parent compounds were detected in sludge. The highest concentration in wastewater was acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (Ac-SMZ) with a concentration of 75.2 ng/L. Removal efficiency and mass load in wastewater treatment systems were calculated. In terms of the overall removal efficiency, they ranged from 24.4 to 100%. The removal efficiencies of sulfamerazine (SM1), sulfamethazine (SM2), and sulfadiazine (SD) were up to 100% while N-acetyl sulfamerazine (Ac-SM1) showed the lowest removal efficiency. Biodegradation was the dominant remove pathway according to the mass balance analysis while SD and SM2 were sludge adsorption. The results can provide an insight into the fate of target sulfonamides in BAF systems and provide data to assess their potential ecological risks.


Assuntos
Sulfonamidas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Humanos , Esgotos/análise , Sulfadiazina , Sulfametazina , Águas Residuárias/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110558, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542605

RESUMO

The marine environment is constantly being impacted by anthropogenic activities. Nowadays, microplastics (MPs) representing one of the most deleterious material among of all substances and material from anthropogenic origin. The Microplastics (MPs) are particles smaller than 5 mm. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, type and colour of microplastics in the bottom sediments of the continental Shelf of Rio de Janeiro State. This area is strongly impacted due to its location in front of one of the most polluted coastal bays in the Brazilian Coastline. It receives untreated sewage from an Ipanema Beach submarine emissary and also a great amount of sediments dredged from Rio de Janeiro Harbour, which strongly influences the distribution of MPs in the area. The analyses detected the presence of MP in 100% of the samples, composed mainly by secondary microplastics, and almost 50% were fibers, followed by plastic films, plastic fragments and pellets. Based on the nature of the sources of the MP, a great variety of colours was shown, dominated by four main colours: blue, white, transparent, and black, this pattern could potentially increase their bioavailability due to resemblance to prey items, especially to visual raptorial species.


Assuntos
Baías/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Esgotos/análise
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31685-31698, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485936

RESUMO

Suspended sediments (SSs) were examined regarding the content of fatty acids (FAs) to associate them with sources of soil entry into the river. The source of organic matter was traced through fatty acid distribution, as well as erosion. Also, TOC, TN, and TOC/NT were used to support the results of FAs. For this, a tropical river was chosen to understand the main source of input considering the level of land occupation along the river. The Barigui river, in southern Brazil, was segmented in four distinct areas regarding the soil occupation (P1, P2, P3, and P4). Nine sampling campaigns were conducted from Nov/2014 to Nov/2015 using a time-integrated sampler. Site P1 has the lowest level of urbanization and showed the lowest concentration of FAs (16.35 µg-1). In contrast, site P4, the most urbanized, showed the highest content of fatty acids, including those associated with erosion, 378.53 µg g-1, specifically those with long chains. The mean concentrations of the saturated fatty acids (FAs) was 283.40 µg g-1, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was 79.46 µg g-1, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was 15.66 µg g-1. Twenty-seven fatty acids were examined, nevertheless C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1ω9 prevailed in all samples. Generally, those acids indicate sewage inputs. Statics analyses were used to find the relation between the source of organic matter (autochthonous, allochthones, and anthropogenic) and FAs. Finally, the input of organic matter is associated with land occupation, which can be distinguished by FA distribution.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Esgotos/análise , Brasil , Ácidos Graxos/química , Rios , Urbanização
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31786-31792, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485946

RESUMO

In this study, the properties of unstable and stable flocs were investigated under the steady operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composition, surface charge, and hydrophobicity of unstable and stable flocs were examined and compared. Interfacial interactions of the membrane with unstable flocs, unstable flocs themselves, and unstable and stable flocs were assessed using the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) models. Cake layer resistance was found to contribute more than 80% of total resistance under steady operating conditions. Compared with stable flocs, unstable flocs possessed a higher level of EPS, more diverse protein, more negative charge, weaker hydrophobicity, and higher fouling potential. Thermodynamic analyses showed that unstable flocs had a higher adhesive strength (- 63.4 mJ/m2) with the membrane, lower self-cohesive strength (- 18.3 mJ/m2), and higher cohesive strength (- 54.3 mJ/m2) with stable flocs. Therefore, some unstable flocs remained on the membrane surface to form the cake layer due to their poor cohesion strength.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Termodinâmica
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31667-31674, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485949

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the concentration of two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in soil and plant. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was used as a test vegetable in a pot experiment. Five spiked concentrations of both the metals along with sewage water were used as treatments. The analyses of the metals were determined in two cuttings. The results showed significant effect of treatments on the concentration of the two metals in soil and plant. The concentrations of As recorded were higher in 1st spinach cutting and reduced in the second harvest. However, comparing the two metal concentrations, it was found that As was absorbed greater as compared with Hg. Analyzing the plant growth parameter, it was found that metal stress has significantly influenced the plant growth. In sewage water pots, As was significantly higher than Hg. The transfer factor from soil to plant showed higher As in plants at lower concentration, but at higher As levels, the transfer rate declined, while Hg showed it was completely inverse. Positive correlation was found between soil applied metal concentration and plant uptake. It may be concluded from the above results that spinach is a good accumulator of heavy metals and has shown significant result of both As and Hg accumulation in plant. The concentration increased with the increasing concentration in soil.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/química , Solo , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 572, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420782

RESUMO

The surface water hydrochemistry of the Syr Darya River in Kazakhstan was investigated at 39 locations to analyze regional hydrochemical characteristics and evaluate the irrigation suitability of the studied regions. The cations in the surface water are mainly Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, while the anions are mainly SO42-. The main hydrochemical type is Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. From the perspective of natural factors, the hydrochemical characteristics in the study area are derived from the dual effects of rock weathering and evaporation-concentration; however, the influence of anthropogenic factors include industrial and agricultural production near the river and the inflow of urban domestic sewage on the hydrochemical characteristic is also present. The irrigation suitability evaluation of the surface water based on SAR, Na% and KI showed that the majority of the water is suitable for irrigation, and from the TDS content analysis, 71.43% of the samples are in a critical state, indicating that the influence of TDS concentration on irrigation suitability cannot be ignored. The results have practical significance for maintaining the sustainable use of water resources in the Syr Darya River.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Cazaquistão , Esgotos/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 461-470, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422434

RESUMO

Land application is suggested to be the most economical sludge disposal method but is also a potential source of bisphenol analogs (BPs) to the environment. In this study, BP concentrations in sewage sludge from Henan province ranged from 15.1 to 2237 ng g-1 dw. BPA was dominant with mean concentration of 140 ng g-1 dw, followed by BPS (mean 43.4 ng g-1 dw), BPF (mean 7.98 ng g-1 dw), BPAF (mean 1.04 ng g-1 dw), BPAP (mean 0.88 ng g-1 dw), BPB (mean 0.38 ng g-1 dw), and BPZ (mean 0.33 ng g-1 dw). Apart from BPB, no significant correlations were found between BPs and wastewater treatment plants characteristics, probably because adsorption does not play a major role in the removal of BPs. The estimated total emission flux of BPs from sludge-amended soils are approximately 62.7 kg year-1. BPA is the largest contributor with emission flux of 45.3 kg year-1. Hazard quotient values for BPs in sludge-amended soils are 3-6 orders of magnitude lower than 1 with total 17ß-estradiol equivalents ranging from 0.33 to 26.8 pg g-1 E2EQ dw. Overall, although being partially replaced by other analogs, BPA is still widely used in Henan province.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 542, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385044

RESUMO

The river Ganges, the National Heritage, and the lifeline of millions of Indians, unfortunately, ranked the second most polluted rivers of the world in 2017. This review reveals the current trends of the water quality of the Ganges assessed around 36 stretches during 2012-2016, to indicate an improvement around 6 (16.7%), deterioration around 14 (38.9%), and non-significant changes around 16 (44.4%) stretches. An increase in dissolved oxygen and a decrease in biochemical oxygen demand were observed at six stretches (Devprayag [S5], Rishikesh upstream [S7], Varanasi upstream [S19], Mokama upstream [S25], Mokama downstream [S26], and Munger [S27]). The total and fecal coliform contamination decreased at seven stretches (Rudraprayag [S2 and S3], Devprayag [S5 and S6], Rishikesh [S7], Varanasi upstream [S19], and Munger [S27]) due to improved hygienic conditions, but it increased subsequently at eight stretches (Haridwar [S8], Kanpur [S15], Raibareili [S16], Prayagraj [S17 and S18], Patna [S24], Berhampore [S30], and Serampore [S31]) due to improper defecation and mass bathing during 2007-2016. Dissolved oxygen level declined significantly, and biochemical oxygen demand increased (> 3 ppm), alarmingly at places receiving heavy untreated sewage water. The water quality of the Ganges was good up to Rishikesh, because of an undisrupted flow of the uncontaminated water from the higher altitudes (≥ 372 m) with higher forest cover, lower temperatures (< 21 °C), and higher dissolved oxygen (≥ 8.5 ppm) and due to the dissolution of antipathogenic chemical constituents of the medicinal herbs, pollutant degrading alkaline phosphatase, and bacteriophages. The present review is a systematic collection of data on river pollution, its scientific analyses, and its relationship with 6Ps (namely population, poverty, pollution, precipitation, plantation, and periodicity). Not only that, but the river water restoration measures have also suggested through the novel interlinked water working groups for implementing integrated water management strategies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Esgotos/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Oxigênio/análise
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 608-618, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426200

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and an abandoned coastal landfill as pathways for microplastics (MPs) input into the marine environment. MPs were first analyzed in raw sewage influent, sludge and effluent samples, and their fate was studied along a distance gradient from the WWTP in three matrices: surface water, sediments and wild mussels. All suspected MPs were characterized according to their polymer nature using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The investigated WWTP had an estimated daily discharge of 227 million MPs. MPs were found in all matrices with a decreasing abundance from the effluent. Strong MPs abundances (higher than those found near the WWTP effluent) were observed in the vicinity of the coastal landfill suggesting its importance as a MPs entry route into the marine coastal environment. Our study supports the idea that blue mussels are a promising sentinel species for MPs (<200 µm).


Assuntos
Plásticos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , França , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Mytilus/química , Esgotos/análise , Análise Espectral Raman , Águas Residuárias/química
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 794-800, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426221

RESUMO

Fifteen antibiotics, including seven sulfonamides (SAs); three macrolides (MLs); three quinolones (QNs); one lincosamide, lincomycin (LIN); and one tetracycline (TC), were detected in the surface water of the Xi'an section of the Weihe River by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The detection rates were 12.50-100%, and the detected concentrations were in the range of nd-270.60 ng/L. The average detected concentrations of the SAs, MLs, QNs, LIN and TC were 113.68, 111.79, 20.55, 23.81 and 25.66 ng/L, respectively. Among these, SAs and MLs were the dominant antibiotics detected in the Weihe River. Compared with those in other water bodies in China and abroad, the antibiotic residues in the Weihe River were at a moderate contamination level. The SAs concentration distribution followed upstream > midstream > downstream, while the MLs concentration distribution was midstream < downstream < upstream. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that domestic sewage, livestock discharge, and aquaculture and pharmaceutical wastewater are the main sources of antibiotic residues in the Weihe River. In addition, the detected ciprofloxacin (CFX), ofloxacin (OFX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) pose high ecological risk in the short and long term.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Indústria Farmacêutica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gado , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Esgotos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Águas Residuárias/química
19.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113037, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454567

RESUMO

Angola is one of the countries with a high rate of waterborne diseases, due to the scarcity and poor quality of water for human consumption. The watercourses are receptors of many effluents, mainly domestic sewage, due to a precarious or inexistent sanitation system and a small number of wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, this study aims: (i) to evaluate the water quality (physicochemical and microbiological parameters) of three Angolan rivers (Kwanza, Bengo and Dande) in locations where water is used as drinking water or abstracted for human consumption; (ii) to develop a new water quality index able to quantitatively express the water quality in those sites; and (iii) to assess the spatial distribution of water pollution through principal component analysis (PCA). Water quality assessment was performed by conducting four field surveys (campaigns I to IV); the first two campaigns took place in the dry season, while the last two ones took place in the rainy season. In the first two campaigns, the water quality was suitable to be treated for the production of drinking water, while in the last two campaigns, the water was unsuitable for that purpose (high levels of faecal coliforms were detected). The water quality index allowed to classify the water as generally excellent (campaigns I and II) and poor (campaigns III and IV). The rudimentary disinfection usually performed by individual water suppliers may improve the water quality, but it was not enough to achieve the parametric values required for human consumption in the rainy season (campaigns III and IV) except for Bengo sites. PCA identified sampling sites with the same water quality patterns, grouping into four groups (Kwanza sites) and two groups (Dande and Bengo sites). Therefore, the results of this study may support decision-makers as regards water supply management in the river stretches under study. The new developed Water Quality Index can support decision-makers in terms of water supply management, especially in countries with a high rate of waterborne diseases (e.g. Angola).


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Angola , Água Potável/química , Fezes/química , Humanos , Chuva , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Saneamento , Estações do Ano , Esgotos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água
20.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 129: 109353, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307573

RESUMO

A three catalytic domain multi-enzyme; a CE1 ferulic acid esterase, a GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase and a GH10 ß-d-1,4-xylanase was identified in a metagenome obtained from wastewater treatment sludge. The capability of the CE1-GH62-GH10 multi-enzyme to degrade arabinoxylan was investigated to examine the hypothesis that CE1-GH62-GH10 would degrade arabinoxylan more efficiently than the corresponding equimolar mix of the individual enzymes. CE1-GH62-GH10 efficiently catalyzed the production of xylopyranose, xylobiose, xylotriose, arabinofuranose and ferulic acid (FA) when incubated with insoluble wheat arabinoxylan (WAX-I) (kcat = 20.8 ± 2.6 s-1). Surprisingly, in an equimolar mix of the individual enzymes a similar kcat towards WAX-I was observed (kcat = 17.3 ± 3.8 s-1). Similarly, when assayed on complex plant biomass the activity was comparable between CE1-GH62-GH10 and an equimolar mix of the individual enzymes. This suggests that from a hydrolytic point of view a CE1-GH62-GH10 multi-enzyme is not an advantage. Determination of the melting temperatures for CE1-GH62-GH10 (71.0 ± 0.05 °C) and CE1 (69.9 ± 0.02), GH62 (65.7 ± 0.06) and GH10 (71 ± 0.05 °C) indicates that CE1 and GH62 are less stable as single domain enzymes. This conclusion was corroborated by the findings that CE1 lost ˜50% activity within 2 h, while GH62 retained ˜50% activity after 24 h, whereas CE1-GH62-GH10 and GH10 retained ˜50% activity for 72 h. GH62-GH10, when appended to each other, displayed a higher specificity constant (kcat/Km = 0.3 s-1 mg-1 ml) than the individual GH10 (kcat/Km = 0.12 s-1 ± 0.02 mg-1 ml) indicating a synergistic action between the two. Surprisingly, CE1-GH62, displayed a 2-fold lower kcat towards WAX-I than GH62, which might be due to the presence of a putative carbohydrate binding module appended to CE1 at the N-terminal. Both CE1 and CE1-GH62 released insignificant amounts of FA from WAX-I, but FA was released from WAX-I when both CE1 and GH10 were present, which might be due to GH10 releasing soluble oligosaccharides that CE1 can utilize as substrate. CE1 also displayed activity towards solubilized 5-O-trans-feruloyl-α-l-Araf (kcat = 36.35 s-1). This suggests that CE1 preferably acts on soluble oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Esterases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Xilanos/química , Domínio Catalítico , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Esgotos/análise , Especificidade por Substrato
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