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1.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 302-307, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468580

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the presence of beta-lactamase- (bla) producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital effluent samples from two level II and III hospitals in Lima, Peru. The resistance profile of the isolated bacteria was identified and characterized using the MicroScan system for 18 antimicrobials, and the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (blaCTX-M ,bla SHV bla TEM ,bla PER) and carbapenemases (bla KPC ,bla NDM ,bla VIM ,bla IMP) resistance genes was determined by conventional PCR. Thirty-two isolates were identified (20 Enterobacteriaceae and 12 gram-negative bacteria). All the isolated bacteria showed multidrug resistance. ESBL (bla TEM) and carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaIMP) genes were found in samples from the hospitals that we evaluated. The release of these microorganisms to public areas and the lack of treatment of the hospital effluents could be an important public health problem.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Esgotos/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Hospitais , Humanos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , beta-Lactamases/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5398, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518545

RESUMO

As one of the largest biotechnological applications, activated sludge (AS) systems in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) harbor enormous viruses, with 10-1,000-fold higher concentrations than in natural environments. However, the compositional variation and host-connections of AS viruses remain poorly explored. Here, we report a catalogue of ~50,000 prokaryotic viruses from six WWTPs, increasing the number of described viral species of AS by 23-fold, and showing the very high viral diversity which is largely unknown (98.4-99.6% of total viral contigs). Most viral genera are represented in more than one AS system with 53 identified across all. Viral infection widely spans 8 archaeal and 58 bacterial phyla, linking viruses with aerobic/anaerobic heterotrophs, and other functional microorganisms controlling nitrogen/phosphorous removal. Notably, Mycobacterium, notorious for causing AS foaming, is associated with 402 viral genera. Our findings expand the current AS virus catalogue and provide reference for the phage treatment to control undesired microorganisms in WWTPs.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Células Procarióticas/virologia , Esgotos/virologia , Viroma/genética , Vírus/genética , Purificação da Água/métodos , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/virologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/virologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Genes Virais/genética , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Células Procarióticas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5481, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531395

RESUMO

A fundamental question in community ecology is the role of predator-prey interactions in food-web stability and species coexistence. Although microbial microcosms offer powerful systems to investigate it, interrogating the environment is much more arduous. Here, we show in a 1-year survey that the obligate predators Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) can regulate prey populations, possibly in a density-dependent manner, in the naturally complex, species-rich environments of wastewater treatment plants. Abundant as well as rarer prey populations are affected, leading to an oscillating predatory landscape shifting at various temporal scales in which the total population remains stable. Shifts, along with differential prey range, explain co-existence of the numerous predators through niche partitioning. We validate these sequence-based findings using single-cell sorting combined with fluorescent hybridization and community sequencing. Our approach should be applicable for deciphering community interactions in other systems.


Assuntos
Bdellovibrio/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bdellovibrio/classificação , Bdellovibrio/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410902

RESUMO

A novel, aerobic nitrogen-fixing methylotrophic bacterium, strain 29kT, was enriched and isolated from sludge generated during wastewater treatment at a paper mill in Baikal, Russian Federation. Cells were Gram-stain-variable. The cell wall was of the negative Gram-type. Cells were curved oval rod-shaped, 0.5-0.7×1.7-3.4 µm and formed yellow-coloured colonies. Cells tended to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of methyl alcohol as the sole carbon source. Cells were non-motile, non-spore-forming and contained retractile (polyphosphate) and lipid (poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate) bodies. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C18:1 ω7, C19:0 cyclo and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 67.95 mol%. Strain 29kT was able to grow at 4-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.0) and at salinities of 0-0.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0% NaCl). Catalase and oxidase were positive. Strain 29kT could grow chemolithoautotrophically in mineral media under an atmosphere of H2, O2 and CO2 as well as chemoorganoheterotrophically on methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol and various organic acids. The carbohydrate utilization spectrum is limited by glucose and raffinose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the newly isolated strain was a member of the genus Xanthobacter with Xanthobacter autotrophicus 7cT (99.9% similarity) and Xanthobacter viscosus 7dT (99.4 % similarity) as closest relatives among species with validly published names. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of 92.7 and 44.9%, respectively, of the 29kT to the genome of the most closely related species, X. autotrophicus 7cT, were below the species cutoffs. Based on genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Xanthobacter oligotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is 29kT (=KCTC 72777T=VKM B-3453T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Esgotos , Xanthobacter , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esgotos/microbiologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química , Xanthobacter/classificação , Xanthobacter/isolamento & purificação
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443401

RESUMO

The dinitrotoluene isomers 2,4 and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT) represent highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds used in explosive manufacturing and in commercial production of polyurethane foam. Bioremediation, the use of microbes to degrade residual DNT in industry wastewaters, represents a promising, low cost and environmentally friendly alternative technology to landfilling. In the present study, the effect of different bioremediation strategies on the degradation of DNT in a microcosm-based study was evaluated. Biostimulation of the indigenous microbial community with sulphur phosphate (2.3 g/kg sludge) enhanced DNT transformation (82% transformation, from 300 g/L at Day 0 to 55 g/L in week 6) compared to natural attenuation over the same period at 25 °C. The indigenous microbial activity was found to be capable of transforming the contaminant, with around 70% transformation of DNT occurring over the microcosm study. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that while the original bacterial community was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (30%), the addition of sulphur phosphate significantly increased the abundance of Betaproteobacteria by the end of the biostimulation treatment, with the bacterial community dominated by Burkholderia (46%) followed by Rhodanobacter, Acidovorax and Pseudomonas. In summary, the results suggest biostimulation as a treatment choice for the remediation of dinitrotoluenes and explosives waste.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Substâncias Explosivas/toxicidade , Microbiota/genética , Esgotos/microbiologia , Burkholderia/química , Burkholderia/genética , Burkholderia/isolamento & purificação , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Dinitrobenzenos/química , Dinitrobenzenos/toxicidade , Substâncias Explosivas/química , Humanos , Pseudomonas/química , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241591

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterial strain (Y6T) was isolated from a sewage sludge sample collected from a fisheries processing factory in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, PR China. The growth range of NaCl concentration was 0-6.0 % (w/v), with an optimum at 3.0 % (w/v). The temperature range for growth was 10-42 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was pH 7.0-10.0, with an optimum at pH 9.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Y6T belonged to the genus Nocardioides and showed the highest sequence similarity of 97.8 % to Nocardioides jishulii dk3136T. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain Y6T and the reference strains were 76.9-81.2 % and 20.6-23.6 %, respectively. Chemotaxonomic analysis indicated that the sole respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4) and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1 ω9c. The polar lipid profile was composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified aminolipids and five unidentified lipids. The peptidoglycan was ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic features, strain Y6T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Nocardioides malaquae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y6T (=KCTC 49504T=MCCC 1K04765T).


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Nocardioides/classificação , Filogenia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Nocardioides/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15556, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330993

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants produce hundreds of million tons of sewage sludge every year all over the world. Vermicomposting is well established worldwide and has been successful at processing sewage sludge, which can contribute to alleviate the severe environmental problems caused by its disposal. Here, we utilized 16S and ITS rRNA high-throughput sequencing to characterize bacterial and fungal community composition and structure during the gut- and cast-associated processes (GAP and CAP, respectively) of vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Bacterial and fungal communities of earthworm casts were mainly composed of microbial taxa not found in the sewage sludge; thus most of the bacterial (96%) and fungal (91%) taxa in the sewage sludge were eliminated during vermicomposting, mainly through the GAP. Upon completion of GAP and during CAP, modified microbial communities undergo a succession process leading to more diverse microbiotas than those found in sewage sludge. Consequently, bacterial and fungal community composition changed significantly during vermicomposting. Vermicomposting of sewage resulted in a stable and rich microbial community with potential biostimulant properties that may aid plant growth. Our results support the use of vermicompost derived from sewage sludge for sustainable agricultural practices, if heavy metals or other pollutants are under legislation limits or adequately treated.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos/genética , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(8): 138, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278536

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are characterized by low construction cost, convenient maintenance and management, and environmentally friendly features. They have emerged as promising technologies for decentralized sewage treatment across rural areas. Source separation of black water and gray water can facilitate sewage recycling and reuse of reclaimed water, reduce the size of treatment facilities, and lower infrastructure investment and operating cost. This is consistent with the concept of sustainable development. However, black water contains high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, and the denitrification capacity of CWs is not excellent due to insufficient carbon source. Therefore, application of CWs for black water treatment faces challenges. This article provides a review on the progress in CWs for treatment of the sewage with high-influent nitrogen load, with emphasis on the commonly used strengthening means and the role of plants in nitrogen removal via CWs. The current issues of rural sewage treatment with high-influent nitrogen load by CWs are also assessed. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed for the optimization of CWs-enhanced denitrification strategies.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Esgotos/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086804

RESUMO

The spread of antibiotic resistance is closely related with selective pressure in the environment. Wastewater from industrialized regions is characterized by higher concentrations of these pollutants than sewage from less industrialized areas. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants such as antibiotics and heavy metals (HMs), and to evaluate their impact on the spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial drugs in samples of wastewater, sewage sludge and river water in two regions with different levels of industrialization. The factors exerting selective pressure, which significantly contributed to the occurrence of the examined antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), were identified. The concentrations of selected gene copy numbers conferring resistance to four groups of antibiotics as well as class 1 and 2 integron-integrase genes were determined in the analyzed samples. The concentrations of six HMs and antibiotics corresponding to genes mediated resistance from 3 classes were determined. Based on network analysis, only some of the analyzed antibiotics correlated with ARGs, while HM levels were correlated with ARG concentrations, which can confirm the important role of HMs in promoting drug resistance. The samples from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located an industrialized region were characterized by higher HM contamination and a higher number of significant correlations between the analyzed variables than the samples collected from a WWTP located in a less industrialized region. These results indicated that treated wastewater released into the natural environment can pose a continuous threat to human health by transferring ARGs, antibiotics and HMs to the environment. These findings shed light on the impact of industrialization on antibiotic resistance dissemination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Água Doce/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Água Doce/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Integrases/genética , Integrons/genética , Limite de Detecção , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187887

RESUMO

The assembly of bacterial communities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is affected by immigration via wastewater streams, but the impact and extent of bacterial immigrants are still unknown. Here, we quantify the effect of immigration at the species level in 11 Danish full-scale activated sludge (AS) plants. All plants have different source communities but have very similar process design, defining the same overall environmental growth conditions. The AS community composition in each plant was strongly reflected by the corresponding influent wastewater (IWW) microbial composition. Most species in AS across the plants were detected and quantified in the corresponding IWW, allowing us to identify their fate in the AS: growing, disappearing, or surviving. Most of the abundant species in IWW disappeared in AS, so their presence in the AS biomass was only due to continuous mass-immigration. In AS, most of the abundant growing species were present in the IWW at very low abundances. We predicted the AS species abundances from their abundance in IWW by using a partial least square regression model. Some species in AS were predicted by their own abundance in IWW, while others by multiple species abundances. Detailed analyses of functional guilds revealed different prediction patterns for different species. We show, in contrast to the present understanding, that the AS microbial communities were strongly controlled by the IWW source community and could be quantitatively predicted by taking into account immigration. This highlights a need to revise the way we understand, design, and manage the microbial communities in WWTPs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(6): 101, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983510

RESUMO

The effluent from the textile industry is a complex mixture of recalcitrant molecules that can harm the environment and human health. Biological treatments are usually applied for this wastewater, particularly activated sludge, due to its high efficiency, and low implementation and operation costs. However, the activated sludge microbiome is rarely well-known. In general, activated sludges are composed of Acidobacteria, Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Proteobacteria, and Streptococcus, in which Bacillus and Pseudomonas are highlighted for bacterial dye degradation. Consequently, the process is not carried out under optimum conditions (treatment yield). Therefore, this review aims to contextualize the potential environmental impacts of azo dye-containing wastewater from the textile industry, including toxicity, activated sludge microbiome identification, in particular using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a novel, rapid and accurate strategy for the identification of activated sludge microbiome (potential to enhance treatment yield).


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Indústria Têxtil , Microbiologia da Água
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989122

RESUMO

This study is screened for naphthalene degrading strains from a heavily polluted area with high naphthalene concentration in the rainwater for the effective removal of naphthalene from rainwater. Recently, naphthalene biodegradation has been achieved in water. However, the influences of organics and inorganics in the rainwater on the biodegradation of naphthalene remains unclear. The naphthalene degrading strain Klebsiella sp. (WJ-1) was identified from sewage sludge. The effects of temperature, pH, inoculum size, and rotation speed on the degradation ability of WJ-1 were studied. The results showed that the naphthalene degradation rates of WJ-1 in rainwater were higher than those in aqueous solution at different experimental conditions. The optimal conditions were 30 °C, 10% inoculum size, pH 7.0, and a rotation speed of 150 rpm. The substances in rainwater might be important co-metabolites of naphthalene degradation. Based on intermediate metabolites detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), the naphthalene biodegradation pathway was identified, as being similar to the phthalic acid pathway. These results suggest WJ-1 as a good candidate for the efficient bioremediation of naphthalene from rainwater in heavily polluted areas.


Assuntos
Klebsiella/metabolismo , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Esgotos/microbiologia , Temperatura
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(6): 104, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037857

RESUMO

An iron reducing enrichment was obtained from sulfate reducing sludge and was evaluated on the capability of reducing Fe3+ coupled to acetate oxidation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Three molar ratios for acetate/Fe3+ were evaluated (2/16, 3.4/27 and 6.9/55 mM). The percentages of Fe3+ reduction were in a range of 80-90, 60-70 and 40-50% for the MFCs at closed circuit for the molar ratios of 2/16, 3.4/27 and 6.9/55 mM, respectively. Acetate consumption was in a range of 80-90% in all cases. The results obtained at closed circuit for current density were: 11.37 mA/m2, 4.5 mA/m2 and 7.37 mA/m2 for the molar ratios of 2/16, 3.4/27 and 6.9/55 mM, respectively. Some microorganisms that were isolated and identified in the MFCs were Azospira oryzae, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, Enterobacter bugandensis 247BMC, Citrobacter freundii ATCC8090 and Citrobacter murliniae CDC2970-59, these bacteria have been reported as exoelectrogens in MFC and in MFC involving metals removal but not all of them have been reported to utilize acetate as preferred substrate. The results demonstrate that the isolates can utilize acetate as the sole source of carbon and suggest that Fe3+ reduction was carried out by a combination of different mechanisms (direct contact and redox mediators) utilized by the bacteria identified in the MFC. Storage of the energy generated from the 2/16 mM MFC system arranged in a series of three demonstrated that it is possible to utilize the energy to charge a battery.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Ferro/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Oxirredução , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esgotos/microbiologia
14.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 140: 107821, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915342

RESUMO

Hydrodynamics has received considerable attention for application in improving microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, a method is proposed to calculate the effect of fluid flow on MFC current production from sewage wastewater. First, the effect of flow velocity in an up-flow channel was evaluated, where an air-core MFC was polarized with external resistance (Rext). When tested at a flow velocity ranging from 0 to 20 cm s-1, the MFC with the higher flow velocity produced more current. In sewage wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 76 mg L-1, the MFC polarized with 3 Ω of Rext, and a flow velocity of 20 cm s-1 had 5.4 times more current than the MFC operating in a no-flow environment. This magnitude decreased with higher Rext and COD values. The Michaelis-Menten equation, modified herein by integrating COD and flow velocity, demonstrated the production of current by MFC operating under different conditions of flow. Calculation of current by MFC in a virtual fluid suggested that the flow surrounding the MFC varied with the configuration and affected the current production.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Esgotos/microbiologia , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletrodos , Esgotos/química
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805783

RESUMO

In anaerobic bioreactors, the electrons produced during the oxidation of organic matter can potentially be used for the biological reduction of pharmaceuticals in wastewaters. Common electron transfer limitations benefit from the acceleration of reactions through utilization of redox mediators (RM). This work explores the potential of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) as RM on the anaerobic removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP). Pristine and tailored carbon nanotubes (CNT) were first tested for chemical reduction of CIP, and pristine CNT was found as the best material, so it was further utilized in biological anaerobic assays with anaerobic granular sludge (GS). In addition, magnetic CNT were prepared and also tested in biological assays, as they are easier to be recovered and reused. In biological tests with CNM, approximately 99% CIP removal was achieved, and the reaction rates increased ≈1.5-fold relatively to the control without CNM. In these experiments, CIP adsorption onto GS and CNM was above 90%. Despite, after applying three successive cycles of CIP addition, the catalytic properties of magnetic CNT were maintained while adsorption decreased to 29 ± 3.2%, as the result of CNM overload by CIP. The results suggest the combined occurrence of different mechanisms for CIP removal: adsorption on GS and/or CNM, and biological reduction or oxidation, which can be accelerated by the presence of CNM. After biological treatment with CNM, toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri was evaluated, resulting in ≈ 46% detoxification of CIP solution, showing the advantages of combining biological treatment with CNM for CIP removal.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacina/metabolismo , Elétrons , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Adsorção , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Aliivibrio fischeri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anaerobiose/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Ciprofloxacina/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Methanobacterium/metabolismo , Methanobrevibacter/metabolismo , Methanosarcinales/metabolismo , Methanospirillum/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2009, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790294

RESUMO

Microorganisms play crucial roles in water recycling, pollution removal and resource recovery in the wastewater industry. The structure of these microbial communities is increasingly understood based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data. However, such data cannot be linked to functional potential in the absence of high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) for nearly all species. Here, we use long-read and short-read sequencing to recover 1083 high-quality MAGs, including 57 closed circular genomes, from 23 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The MAGs account for ~30% of the community based on relative abundance, and meet the stringent MIMAG high-quality draft requirements including full-length rRNA genes. We use the information provided by these MAGs in combination with >13 years of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data, as well as Raman microspectroscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, to uncover abundant undescribed lineages belonging to important functional groups.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esgotos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Dinamarca , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793629

RESUMO

Understanding the microbial communities in anaerobic digesters, especially bacteria and archaea, is key to its better operation and regulation. Microbial communities in the anaerobic digesters of the Gulf region where climatic conditions and other factors may impact the incoming feed are not documented. Therefore, Archaeal and Bacterial communities of three full-scale anaerobic digesters, namely AD1, AD3, and AD5 of the Jebel Ali Sewage water Treatment Plant (JASTP) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Among bacteria, the most abundant genus was fermentative bacteria Acetobacteroides (Blvii28). Other predominant bacterial genera in the digesters included thermophilic bacteria (Fervidobacterium and Coprothermobacter) and halophilic bacteria like Haloterrigena and Sediminibacter. This can be correlated with the climatic condition in Dubai, where the bacteria in the incoming feed may be thermophilic or halophilic as much of the water used in the country is desalinated seawater. The predominant Archaea include mainly the members of the phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota belonging to the genus Methanocorpusculum, Metallosphaera, Methanocella, and Methanococcus. The highest population of Methanocorpusculum (more than 50% of total Archaea), and other hydrogenotrophic archaea, is in agreement with the high population of bacterial genera Acetobacteroides (Blvii28) and Fervidobacterium, capable of fermenting organic substrates into acetate and H2. Coprothermobacter, which is known to improve protein degradation by establishing syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic archaea, is also one of the digesters' dominant genera. The results suggest that the microbial community in three full-scale anaerobic digesters is different. To best of our knowledge this is the first detailed report from the UAE.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Euryarchaeota/genética , Euryarchaeota/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886647

RESUMO

The Rimac river is the main source of water for Lima, Peru's capital megacity. The river is constantly affected by different types of contamination including mine tailings in the Andes and urban sewage in the metropolitan area. In this work, we aim to produce the first characterization of aquatic bacterial communities in the Rimac river using a 16S rRNA metabarcoding approach which would be useful to identify bacterial diversity and potential understudied pathogens. We report a lower diversity in bacterial communities from the Lower Rimac (Metropolitan zone) in comparison to other sub-basins. Samples were generally grouped according to their geographical location. Bacterial classes Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Campylobacteria, Fusobacteriia, and Gammaproteobacteria were the most frequent along the river. Arcobacter cryaerophilus (Campylobacteria) was the most frequent species in the Lower Rimac while Flavobacterium succinicans (Bacteroidia) and Hypnocyclicus (Fusobacteriia) were the most predominant in the Upper Rimac. Predicted metabolic functions in the microbiota include bacterial motility and quorum sensing. Additional metabolomic analyses showed the presence of some insecticides and herbicides in the Parac-Upper Rimac and Santa Eulalia-Parac sub-basins. The dominance in the Metropolitan area of Arcobacter cryaerophilus, an emergent pathogen associated with fecal contamination and antibiotic multiresistance, that is not usually reported in traditional microbiological quality assessments, highlights the necessity to apply next-generation sequencing tools to improve pathogen surveillance. We believe that our study will encourage the integration of omics sciences in Peru and its application on current environmental and public health issues.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Arcobacter/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Flavobacterium/genética , Fusobactérias/genética , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios/microbiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peru , Esgotos/microbiologia , Água/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8955, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903636

RESUMO

Oxidation ditches (ODs) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) running through the whole system. In this study, metagenomic sequencing was used to compare the bacterial communities and ARGs in the OD and MBR systems, which received the same influent in a WWTP located in Xinjiang, China. The results showed that the removal efficiency of pollutants by the MBR process was better than that by the OD process. The composition and the relative abundance of bacteria in activated sludge were similar at the phylum and genus levels and were not affected by process type. Multidrug, fluoroquinolones and peptides were the main ARG types for the two processes, with macB being the main ARG subtype, and the relative abundance of ARG subtypes in MBR effluent was much higher than that in the OD effluent. The mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the activated sludge were mainly transposons (tnpA) and insertion sequences (ISs; IS91). These results provide a theoretical basis for process selection and controlling the spread of ARGs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Genes Bacterianos , Membranas Artificiais , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução , Esgotos/microbiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009176, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651818

RESUMO

Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) is increasingly used to provide decision makers with actionable data about community health. WBE efforts to date have primarily focused on sewer-transported wastewater in high-income countries, but at least 1.8 billion people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) use onsite sanitation systems such as pit latrines and septic tanks. Like wastewater, fecal sludges from such systems offer similar advantages in community pathogen monitoring and other epidemiological applications. To evaluate the distribution of enteric pathogens inside pit latrines-which could inform sampling methods for WBE in LMIC settings unserved by sewers-we collected fecal sludges from the surface, mid-point, and maximum-depth of 33 pit latrines in urban and peri-urban Malawi and analyzed the 99 samples for 20 common enteric pathogens via multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Using logistic regression adjusted for household population, latrine sharing, the presence of a concrete floor or slab, water source, and anal cleansing materials, we found no significant difference in the odds of detecting the 20 pathogens from the mid-point (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.73, 1.6) and surface samples (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.54, 1.2) compared with those samples taken from the maximum depth. Our results suggest that, for the purposes of routine pathogen monitoring, pit latrine sampling depth does not strongly influence the odds of detecting enteric pathogens by molecular methods. A single sample from the pit latrines' surface, or a composite of surface samples, may be preferred as the most recent material contributed to the pit and may be easiest to collect.


Assuntos
Esgotos/microbiologia , Esgotos/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Toaletes , Animais , DNA Bacteriano , DNA de Helmintos , DNA de Protozoário , DNA Viral , Humanos , Malaui , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Características de Residência , População Urbana
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