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1.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-03-05.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-331356
2.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 19(2): 180-192, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956889

RESUMO

UV radiation affects the biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of plants. The effect is most pronounced at high altitude, such as alpine regions, and low latitude environments. The effect of UV radiation is impacted by different environmental conditions including temperature. We examined the response of the alpine plant Saxifraga hostii Tausch subsp. hostii growing at two altitudes (montane, 1100 m a.s.l. and alpine, 1500 m a.s.l.) in the Slovenian Alps. Selected ecophysiological, anatomical and pigment analyses along with measurements of the leaf optical properties were carried out during the growing season from July to September. Plants were grown under two different UV levels, near-ambient UV (UV) and reduced UV (UV-) radiation, and temperature conditions were monitored at both altitudes. Saxifraga hostii exhibited high photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and stomatal conductance under near-ambient UV radiation in August, which indicates that it is a well-acclimated plant. In September, photochemical efficiency was higher under reduced UV at the alpine altitude which together with a lower photosynthetic pigment content indicate delayed senescence for plants growing under reduced UV. Most leaf tissue thicknesses were not affected by UV radiation and altitude difference. There was a trend of increased stomatal density and reduced stomatal length on both leaf surfaces under near-ambient UV in August. However, there was no effect of UV attenuation or location at the alpine or montane site on the content of UV-B absorbing compounds, which implies the plant's tolerance of UV-B radiation. Saxifraga hostii leaves showed high absorption in the UV spectrum at higher altitudes, as shown by their optical properties. This study shows that Saxifraga hostii is well-acclimated to ambient UV radiation and to the environmental conditions at both altitudes. The effect of UV radiation is impacted by site conditions and this produces diverse plant responses, which contribute to the specific functional traits of Saxifraga hostii in the high-altitude environment.


Assuntos
Saxifragaceae/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Altitude , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Componente Principal , Saxifragaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saxifragaceae/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Eslovênia , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110056, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765883

RESUMO

The killings during the Second World War, with nearly one hundred thousand victims, is one of the greatest losses of life in Slovenia's modern history. This article presents the genetic identification of the victims of the largest family massacre that occurred in Slovenia, in which 10 members of the same family were killed. Seven of them were buried in a hidden mass grave and only two children survived. In 2015 and 2016, two graves were found and three incomplete female skeletons and at least three incomplete male skeletons were exhumed. A total of 12 bones and teeth were analysed and compared to two living relatives. Extracted DNA was quantified using the PowerQuant kit, and various autosomal and Y-STR kits were used for STR typing. Up to 2.7 ng DNA/g of powder was acquired from the samples analysed. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from seven bones and one molar. From the female grave, autosomal profiles were obtained only from one skeleton, and from the male grave from five out of six femurs. The relationships between the males were additionally confirmed by analyses of Y-STRs. STR profiles made possible the identification of four family members; one of the aunts from the female grave, and two uncles and the father of the surviving children, who were used as family references, from the male grave. The product rule was used to calculate a combined likelihood ratio for autosomal and Y-STRs, and statistical analyses showed high confidence of correct identification with posterior probability (PP) greater than 99.9 % for three out of four victims identified. For identifying the aunt, the PP obtained after ESI-17 and NGM STR typing was too low. To increase the PP, the next-generation sequencing Precision ID GlobalFiler NGS STR Panel was used and, after the analysis of additional STR loci, the statistical analysis showed a PP greater than 99.9 %, indicating that a sufficient number of genetic markers had been investigated in identifying the skeletal remains of the aunt. An elimination database containing the genetic profiles of all individuals that had been in contact with the bones was created to ensure traceability in case of contamination, and no matches were found. After more than 70 years, the skeletal remains were returned to the surviving children, who buried their relatives in a family grave.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Família , Dente/química , Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Cromossomos Humanos Y , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Exumação , Feminino , Genética Forense , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Eslovênia , II Guerra Mundial
4.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 717-723, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826655

RESUMO

Objectives: Timely access to novel anticancer drugs is challenging and value frameworks such as the European Society of Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) could assist in drug prioritization. We assessed the overall time to access to novel anticancer drugs in Slovenia and its correlation with ESMO-MCBS scores.Methods: Anticancer drugs with European Medicines Agency marketing authorization (EMA MA), applying for national reimbursement approval (NRA) in the period 2008-2018 with assigned ESMO-MCBS score, were included. Publically available data from EMA and the Slovenian National Health Insurance Institute were used for time calculations.Results: Among 53 studied drugs; a majority (47) of them obtained reimbursement approval within the observed time. The median time to EMA MA was 397 (range 98-615) days with the NRA requiring additional 422 (range 154-892) days. Neither time to EMA MA nor NRA correlated with ESMO-MCBS substantial clinical benefit (p = 0.332 and p = 0.965, respectively).Conclusions: In Slovenia, time to access to novel anticancer drugs exceeds two years and, more importantly, is equally long for drugs with or without substantial clinical benefit. Integration of the ESMO-MCBS into reimbursement deliberations could improve access to drugs with substantial clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecanismo de Reembolso/economia , Antineoplásicos/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Eslovênia , Sociedades Médicas , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 114, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educating lay public can significantly strengthen the Chain of Survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. Schoolchildren are an accessible population for learning basic life support (BLS) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) and can be regarded as multipliers of knowledge that can reach the whole population. This study aimed to develop and validate a test for examining levels of knowledge about BLS and AED among schoolchildren that can be used to uniformly present reliable data. METHODS: A knowledge test about BLS and AED consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions was developed and implemented before and after a 2-h BLS and AED course consisting of an interactive lecture and a practical workshop for 783 students in seventh and ninth grades of elementary schools in Maribor, Slovenia. Each question was analyzed and presented with descriptive statistics and educometric parameters (difficulty and discriminating indices). All variables were checked for normality with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and analyzed using non-parametric tests. Statistical significance of the differences in knowledge before and after intervention were calculated with chi-square statistics and effect sizes r are reported. Differences between genders, grades and previous attendance to BLS courses were compared using Mann - Whitney U test. The effect size was calculated from the Z score and reported as r value. RESULTS: After educometric analysis, questions were adjusted to meet the requirements of satisfactory functioning difficulty and discriminating indices (values between 0,40 and 0,60, and above 0,20, respectively). Only one question had to be eliminated due to inadequate difficulty and discriminating index (0,99 and 0,02, respectively). Measurement invariance across gender (p < 0,001), school grade (p < 0,001), and attendance to previous courses (p = 0,303) was assured. CONCLUSIONS: A test for accurate and reliable measurement of knowledge of BLS and AED among schoolchildren was developed and validated. According to the findings it can now reliably be used to assess baseline knowledge and potential improvement in knowledge after a course on BLS and AED. Standardized data gathered with a validated tool can now be presented at legislative levels to promote BLS and AED courses implementation in school curricula.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Desfibriladores , Avaliação Educacional , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Eslovênia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4657(2): zootaxa.4657.2.13, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716794

RESUMO

In September 2017, during the monitoring of the non-native ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894), one specimen of an unknown ambrosia bark beetle species was collected in Slovenia. The specimen was trapped in an ethanol-baited trap located in Klavze (46° 09´ 39˝ N, 13° 48´ 7˝ E), in the western part of Slovenia. The most characteristic feature distinguishing the specimen from other known ambrosia beetle species occurring in Slovenia was the asperities that covered the entire surface of the pronotum. Based on the scientific literature concerning the non-native bark and ambrosia beetles in Europe (Kirkendall Faccoli 2010) and illustrated identification keys (Rabaglia et al. 2006; Faccoli et al. 2009), we identified the beetle by its morphological characteristics as Ambrosiodmus rubricollis (Eichhoff, 1875). As a result of this find, a specific monitoring was set up in 2018 in Slovenia with the aim to improve the knowledge about occurrence and distribution of A. rubricollis in this country.


Assuntos
Ambrosia , Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Eslovênia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4603(3): zootaxa.4603.3.13, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717223

RESUMO

The two syntypes of Melitaea phoebe nigrogygia Verity, 1939 present in the Florence University Natural History Museum are examined from high quality photographs of both sides. It is concluded that there is a high probability that they represent two different species: M. phoebe ([Denis Schiffermüller], 1775) and M. ornata Christoph, 1898. Alternatively one or both could be hybrids between the two species; hybrids have been encountered nearby in Slovenia. In order to solve the nomenclatural problem, a Lectotype has been chosen, which fixes the name nigrogygia Verity, 1939 to be associated with Melitaea ornata.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Museus , Eslovênia
8.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(10): 1218-1225, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Response to anti-TNF therapy is crucial for life expectancy and life quality in patients with severe Crohn's disease. We investigated if a previously reported gene expression profile predictive for infliximab response could be also applied to adalimumab response in an independent cohort. METHODS: Forty-seven Slovene Crohn's disease patients indicated for adalimumab therapy were enrolled in the study. Inflamed and non-inflamed colon biopsy samples were obtained during routine colonoscopy prior to adalimumab treatment. Response to adalimumab was measured with IBDQ. Gene expression in inflamed and non-inflamed colon biopsy samples was measured with RT-qPCR. Genotypes were extracted from previously available genotype data. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. The R package e1071 was used to train bootstrap aggregated support vector machines (SVM). RESULTS: SVM prediction model analysis was used to analyze pooled, non-inflamed, and inflamed colon tissue datasets using IBDQ response after 4, 12, 20 and 30 weeks of adalimumab treatment. The bagging approach was used in an endeavor to obtain 100 % accuracy using 10 × 100 or 100 × 100 iterations. Average adalimumab response prediction accuracy is 75.5 % for pooled samples, 90.5 % for inflamed samples, and 100 % for non-inflamed samples. Moreover, models trained on selected SNPs from analyzed genes had an average accuracy of 92.8 %, confirming the involvement of genetic regions mapping the reported genes. Finally, using combined gene expression and SNP data we observed 100 % adalimumab response prediction accuracy for pooled, inflamed, and non-inflamed datasets. DISCUSSION: Our study supports the reported genetic anti-TNF response profile and extends it for adalimumab prediction.


Assuntos
Adalimumab , Doença de Crohn , Marcadores Genéticos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética , Eslovênia
9.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 37(2): 2-8, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589590

RESUMO

The present study was performed on a skeleton excavated from the Late Roman Period necropolis in Ptuj, Eastern Slovenia. Previous anthropological analysis has revealed that the skeleton belongs to a male, who died in his early twenties; however, determination of ancestry was problematic. The skull displays artificial cranial deformation of circular fronto-occipital type and shows some Asiatic anthroposcopic features. However, the inter-orbital projection method of Gill and Hughes has placed him into the Western Eurasian group. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate whether this individual belonged to Western Eurasian or Eastern Asian ancestry group by analyzing his dental morphology. Twenty-one key dental traits for ancestry assessment were scored following the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Morphology of the roots was scored from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the dentition. These scores were input into a web application rASUDAS (beta version) which uses a naive Bayes classifier algorithm to assign an individual to a preselected number (from two to seven) of ancestry groups. The analysis revealed a complex tooth crown morphology (moderate maxillary incisor shoveling, 5-cusped maxillary first and second molars, 6-cusped mandibular first molars, 5-cusped mandibular second molars, multiple molar enamel extensions) and a simplified external root morphology (27 single-rooted teeth out of 32). Both mandibular second molars and the right mandibular third molar possess a C-shaped root canal. In addition, the mandible bilaterally exhibits accessory mental foramina. In a two-group analysis, the application calculated that the probability of assigning the individual from Ptuj to Eastern Asian ancestry group was close to 1.0. The result is in agreement with archaeological evidence which has indicated that this individual was a Hun warrior from the Migration Period of Europe. This study demonstrates a modern approach to estimating ancestry from dental morphology in bioarcheological and forensic contexts.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Raiz Dentária , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Teorema de Bayes , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Mandíbula , Eslovênia
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 334-342, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590795

RESUMO

Sediment samples were randomly taken in March and August 2017 at the strandlines of nine locations along the coast of Slovenia (Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean). Microparticles were isolated by density separation in saturated aqueous NaCl-solutions and analysed by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). 11.3% of these particles were unambiguously confirmed as microplastics. Another 8.2% showed plastic characteristics but failed ATR-FTIR validation. 4.3% were naturally organic. The rest was unidentified material (76.2%). The average microplastic densities were 0.5 ±â€¯0.5 MP kg-1 in March and 1.0 ±â€¯0.8 MP kg-1 in August. The microplastics comprised fragments, fibres, films, and foams. The characteristics of the microplastics suggest origin from single-used plastic products and from aquaculture. Compared to other studies and sites, the microplastic pollution of the Slovenian coast appeared low. The validity of the results is discussed with respect to microplastic distribution and patchiness, sampling strategies, methodology, and scientific claims.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Eslovênia
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 368, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii causes globally distributed zoonotic Q fever. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs of C. burnetii. Coxiella burnetii are shed in large numbers in the waste of infected animals and are transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in domestic animals and ticks in areas of Slovenia associated with a history of Q fever outbreaks. RESULTS: A total of 701 ticks were collected and identified from vegetation, domestic animals and wild animals. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 17 out of 701 (2.4%) ticks. No C. burnetii DNA was found in male ticks. Ticks that tested positive in the PCR-based assay were most commonly sampled from wild deer (5.09%), followed by ticks collected from domestic animals (1.16%) and ticks collected by flagging vegetation (0.79%). Additionally, 150 animal blood samples were investigated for the presence of C. burnetii-specific antibodies and pathogen DNA. The presence of pathogen DNA was confirmed in 14 out of 150 (9.3%) blood samples, while specific antibodies were detected in sera from 60 out of 150 (40.4%) animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ticks, although not the primary source of the bacteria, are infected with C. burnetii and may represent a potential source of infection for humans and animals. Ticks collected from animals were most likely found to harbor C. burnetii DNA, and the infection was not lost during molting. The persistence and distribution of pathogens in cattle and sheep indicates that C. burnetii is constantly present in Slovenia.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Febre Q/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Cervos/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Muda , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
12.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527530

RESUMO

The methodology used in dietary surveys could, to a large extent, follow the instructions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), where 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) is recommended for (sub) population studies. However, it is necessary to examine the suitability of 24HDR for indicative dietary intake in older adults. This study aimed to compare participants' dietary intakes with the recommendations and to compare dietary intakes derived from a 24HDR using an OPEN web-based application to those obtained from reference weighed food records (WFRs). Forty-nine Slovenian residential home residents completed both assessments, and a comparison with dietary reference values was performed. Estimates from these two methods were compared and the correlations between them were assessed. The findings revealed that dietary intakes derived from the WFR method mostly differed from the recommended intakes. The 24HDR underestimated dietary intake compared to the WFR for 66% of monitored parameters, while 75% of these parameters were correlated, mostly at a moderate level (0.3-0.69). In conclusion, the diets of residential home residents in this study mostly differed from recommendations. Both methods for dietary intake assessment provided comparable results for most of the monitored parameters in expected deviations. A web-based 24HDR could be a valid tool for the indicative assessment of dietary intake in older adults. However, further validations are required.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Internet , Rememoração Mental , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Eslovênia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 39: 130-135, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476545

RESUMO

Mental well-being is a key for successful and productive living of each individual. An imbalance can occur due to various stressors and environmental factors. Due to academic pressures, distance from home and financial burden, nursing students often meet with mental health problems. The objective of this study was to determine the mental well-being of nursing students in Slovenia and Northern Ireland, and to compare the results obtained. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. The survey was carried out in 2017 among nursing students in Slovenia and Northern Ireland using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. The study included 90 students from Slovenia and 109 from Northern Ireland. Nursing students in both countries reported average level of mental well-being. Nursing students in Slovenia have significantly higher (p < 0.001) level of mental well-being than nursing students in Northern Ireland. There are some areas that demand special attention by nurse educators to support the mental well-being of students and the impact of this on their education. Further research needs to be undertaken to find out how to improve students' mental well-being and identify factors that are influencing mental well-being of nursing students.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte , Satisfação Pessoal , Eslovênia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10483-10499, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495613

RESUMO

The aims of this work were to determine the effect of upland origin on milk composition when comparing similar lowland and upland production system and to highlight the factors responsible for the added value of upland milk from commercial farms. Tanker milk from 55 groups of farms (264 farms in total) in France, Slovakia, and Slovenia was collected twice during the indoor season and 3 times during the outdoor season. The tanker rounds were selected in each country to be balanced according to their origin (lowland or upland) and within upland or lowland groups, according to the forage systems: corn-based or grass-based forage system. At each milk sampling, the production conditions were recorded through on-farm surveys. The milk was analyzed for gross composition, carotenoids, minerals, fatty acids, phenolic compound derivatives, volatile organic compound concentrations, and color. The milk from upland and lowland areas differed in their contents of a few constituents. Upland milk was richer in not identified (n.i.) retention time (Rt) 13,59, 4-methylpentylbenzene, 1-methyl-2-n-hexylbenzene, and ß-caryophyllene than lowland milk. These differences could be most likely attributable to the utilization of highly diversified and extensively managed semi-natural grasslands. The higher forbs content of upland pastures could be related as well to the richness in C18:3n-3, CLA cis-9,trans-11, MUFA, and PUFA we observed in upland compared with lowland milk during the outdoor season. In contrast, grazing on lowland pastures rich in grasses gave a yellower milk that was richer in ß-carotene. Out of the few compounds showing a significant effect of origin or its interaction, most of the milk constituents were unaffected by the origin at all. However, almost all milk constituents differed according to the forage system and the season, and the differences observed between seasons can be attributed to differences in the cow diet composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/classificação , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Leite/química , Altitude , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , França , Lactação , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , Eslováquia , Eslovênia , Zea mays
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484409

RESUMO

Increased exposure times to various health risk factors and the vulnerability of building users might result in significantly higher prevalence rates of sick building syndrome (SBS) in a hospital setting compared to other indoor environments. The purpose of our study was to assess the association between SBS symptoms and measured environmental parameters at a Slovenian general hospital. A combination of a self-assessment study and field measurements was conducted in order to estimate the health risk factors for SBS symptoms among the users of a Slovenian general hospital. The Chi-square test was used to analyse the association between observed health and environmental parameters. The response rate was 67.5%. A total of 12.0% of healthcare workers at hospital wards reported at least six SBS symptoms, 19.0% reported 2-3 SBS symptoms. At the observed hospital wards, the most deviations were recorded for the level of lighting (83.3%), noise level (73.6%), and room temperature (55.3%). A statistically significant association was found between indoor environmental quality and skin-related SBS symptoms (χ2 = 0.009; p = 0.006). This information will be of great value in defining an integral strategy of environmental health activities aimed at healthier indoor environmental quality in hospitals.


Assuntos
Hospitais Gerais , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
16.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019869155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394962

RESUMO

Although Slovenia is becoming an aging society, very little is known about the abilities and needs of home-dwelling older people or their preferences regarding assistance. The aim of the study was to explore the need for assistance in daily activities among older Slovenian people living at home. Older adults aged between 65 and 97 years (N = 358) participated in the cross-sectional survey study. A questionnaire that assessed independence in daily activities and assistance in the home environment was developed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a nonparametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank test), and the chi-square test. The results showed that older Slovenians were more independent in activities of daily living (ADLs) than instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Independence was the highest for using the toilet, feeding, and mobility transfers, and the lowest for bathing. With IADLs, assistance was most often required with shopping and housework; this assistance was usually provided by family members. The provider of assistance was generally compatible with older people's preferences concerning assistance at home. We found no differences in care preferences between urban and rural settings. Assistance in the home environment was predominantly provided by unpaid helpers, which reflects recent developments in health and social services that put an emphasis on a person's social network. Due to demographic changes and the decrease in the number of adult children, reliance on close relatives might soon become a challenge. These findings can help policy makers understand older people's choices and preferences better when planning long-term care.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Vida Independente/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Serviços Domésticos/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Eslovênia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Environ Res ; 177: 108627, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421448

RESUMO

In recent years, several studies have addressed the issue of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg); however, few have actually analysed MeHg blood concentrations. Our study population included mothers and their new-borns from Slovenia (central region; N = 584) and Croatia (coastal region; N = 234). We have measurements of total Hg (THg) and MeHg in maternal hair, maternal peripheral blood, and cord blood. Cord blood Hg concentrations were low to moderate (median THg = 1.84 ng/g and MeHg = 1.69 ng/g). The proportion of THg as MeHg (%MeHg) in maternal and cord blood varied between 4% and 100% (coefficient of variation, CV = 32%) and between 8% and 100% (CV = 20%), respectively. Our data shows that variability of %MeHg was higher at lower blood THg levels. Concentrations of MeHg in maternal blood and cord blood were highly correlated (Rs = 0.943), in the case of inorganic Hg correlation was significant but weaker (Rs = 0.198). MeHg levels in maternal blood and cord blood were positively associated with seafood intake, maternal age, and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, MeHg in maternal blood was positively associated with plasma selenium levels, and cord blood MeHg was negatively associated with parity. The results of multiple linear regression models showed that speciation analysis provides more defined estimation of prenatal exposure in association modelling. Associations between Hg exposure and cognitive performance of children (assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler development) adjusted for maternal or child Apolipoprotein E genotypes showed higher model R2 and lower p-values when adjusted for MeHg compared to THg. This study demonstrates that Hg speciation improves the association between exposure and possible negative health effects.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna , Mercúrio/sangue , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue , Croácia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Eslovênia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31142-31157, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463746

RESUMO

Butyltin compound (BTC) contamination was evaluated in two north Adriatic marinas, San Rocco (Italy) and Lucija (Slovenia). BTC sedimentary concentrations (121 ± 46 and 352 ± 30 ng Sn g-1 in San Rocco and Lucija, respectively) evidenced the past use of antifouling paints, confirmed by the reduced tributyltin content (~ 46%) with respect to the sum of BTC. Elemental and organic carbon isotopic (δ13C) analyses of bulk sediments and its lipid and humic substances were performed in order to evaluate their role in BTC partitioning and preservation. The δ13C of sedimentary bulk and refractory organic matter suggested that diagenetic processes could play a role in the preservation or release of pollutants. No contamination was found in water collected from the benthic chamber and thus, fluxes at the sediment-water interface were not assessed, except for MBT efflux at Lucija (28.9 ng Sn m-2 day-1). Nevertheless, BTC concentrations in porewaters (up to 75 ng Sn l-1) and rather low sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients (Kd) with respect to the data reported in the literature would suggest a potential risk of the reintroduction of BTC into the water column at both sites: at Lucija, sedimentary contamination is high despite the greater Log Kd, whilst at San Rocco, the low BTC concentration is associated with a reduced sediment affinity.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Pintura , Reciclagem , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/química , Eslovênia , Compostos de Trialquitina/análise
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287377

RESUMO

Four analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of veterinary drug residues and environmental pesticide residues in honey: (a) GC-MS method for the analysis of amitraz and all metabolites containing the 2,4-dimethylaniline moiety; (b) GC-MS method for the analysis of thymol, chlorfenvinphos and coumaphos; (c) GC-MS method for the analysis of 75 active substances; (d) LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of 60 active substances. Between the GC-MS (method c) and the LC-MS/MS method (method d) there was no overlap among active substances, meaning that using both methods 135 active substances originating from the environment in total were included and validated. The first method involved hydrolysis of amitraz and its metabolites containing the 2,4-dimethylaniline moiety to 2,4-dimethylaniline and extraction of 2,4-dimethylaniline to n-hexane. The other three methods had the same extraction procedure with a mixture of solvents: acetone, dichloromethane and petroleum ether. All 4 methods were tested in practice. Sixty samples of honey were analysed: 22 from organic and 38 from conventional production. Overall, residues were mainly higher than reported in literature but did not exceed MRLs. Risk assessment confirmed that the analysed samples are of no cause for concern for consumers.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Eslovênia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Drogas Veterinárias/metabolismo
20.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(9): 461-469, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288626

RESUMO

Work-related musculoskeletal (MS) disorders are considered one of the most frequent occupational diseases among dental workers. Dental work consists of static, demanding tasks that involve repeated gripping of small-sized instruments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MS pain, the areas of pain, and the risk factors for MS pain in dental workers. A self-administrated questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument for dental workers who voluntarily responded to the invitation. To determine the prevalence and severity location of MS pain, the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire was administered among 87 dental workers, with a total of 79.8%, who reported at least one MS complaint. MS pain occurred in 82.6% of general dentists, 75.0% of dental specialists, 66.7% of dental assistants, and 33.3% of dental technicians. Pain most frequently occurred in the neck (60.7%), upper back (52.4%), right shoulder (44.0%), lower back (41.7%), hips/buttocks (29.8%), and the right wrist (23.8%). The prevalence of pain among dental workers could be reduced by ergonomic working environment, regular breaks, maintenance of health, and performing specific exercises designed to dental workers.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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