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1.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 90-97, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920610

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the caries situation of three-year-old preschool children residing in low socioeconomic status districts in Lima, Peru. The study is a crosssectional analysis of the caries situation of suburban areas of Lima. A stratified sampling procedure by geographical distribution, considering healthcare centers with a motherand- child health clinic and surrounding preschools as factors, identified 45 randomly selected preschools, of which 17 accepted to participate. Children from 3-year-old classrooms were examined by two independent calibrated dentists using the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) instrument at their premises using artificial light, sterile examination mirrors and gauze for drying each tooth before evaluation. ANOVA and the Tamhane method were used to analyze the data. 308 children, mean age 3.4 years (min: 3 years; max: 3 years, 7 months), were examined. The sample prevalence of enamel and dentine carious lesions (CAST code 3-7) was 91.2% while the prevalence of dentine carious lesions (CAST code 4-7) was 58.8%. The mean number of teeth with cavities that had reached the pulp and those that had an abscess or fistula were 2.0% and 0.5% respectively. The majority of enamel and dentine carious lesions were observed in molars. The CAST severity score was 7.0. Mean examination time was 57 seconds. The burden of dental caries of the children at this young age was high.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dente Molar/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/classificação , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Suburbana
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study tried to determine if malnutrition (underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight) and enamel defects (enamel hypoplasia, hypomineralized second molar, amelogenesis imperfecta, fluorosis) were associated with early childhood caries (ECC). The study also examined whether malnutrition was associated with the presence of enamel defects in 0-5-year-old children. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of primary data of a cross-sectional study assessing the association between maternal psychosocial health and ECC in sub-urban Nigerian population collected in December 2018 and January 2019. One hundred and fifty nine children were recruited. Exploratory variables were malnutrition and enamel defects. The outcome variables were the prevalence of ECC in 0-2-year-old, 3-5-year-old, and 0-5-year-old children. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations, and socioeconomic status, oral hygiene status, and frequency of in-between-meals sugar consumption were adjusted for. The adjusted prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p values were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of ECC was 2.1% in 0-2-year-old children and 4.9% in 3-5-year-old children. In adjusted models, underweight, stunting, and wasting/overweight were not significant risk indicators for ECC in either age group. 0-2-year-old children who had amelogenesis imperfecta (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. 3-5-year-old children who had hypoplasia (p = 0.004), amelogenesis imperfecta (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. 0-5-year-old children with hypoplasia (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. There were significant associations between various types of malnutrition and various types of enamel defects. CONCLUSION: Although different types of malnutrition were associated with enamel defects, and enamel defects were associated with ECC, malnutrition was not associated with ECC. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between malnutrition and genetically and toxin-induced enamel defects.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Nigéria , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1475(1): 52-63, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519363

RESUMO

Cracked teeth are the third most common cause of tooth loss, but there is no reliable imaging tool for the diagnosis of cracks. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence (ICG-NIRF) dental imaging for the detection of enamel cracks and enamel-dentin cracks in vitro in the first (ICG-NIRF-I, 700-950 nm) and second (ICG-NIRF-II, 950-1700 nm) imaging windows with transmission excitation light, and compared ICG-NIRF with conventional NIR illumination-II (NIRi-II) and X-ray imaging. Dentin cracks were detected by CT scan, while most enamel cracks, undetectable under X-ray imaging, were clearly visible in NIR images. We found that ICG-NIRF-II detected cracks more effectively than NIRi-II, and that light orientation is an important factor for crack detection: an angled exposure obtained better image contrast of cracks than parallel exposure, as it created a shadow under the crack. Crack depth could be evaluated from the crack shadow in ICG-NIRF and NIRi-II images; from this shadow we could determine crack depth and discriminate enamel-dentin cracks from craze lines. Cracks could be observed clearly from ICG-NIRF images with 1-min ICG tooth immersion, although longer ICG immersion produced images with greater contrast. Overall, our data show that ICG-NIRF dental imaging is a useful tool for diagnosing cracked teeth at an early stage.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Verde de Indocianina/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/patologia , Fluorescência , Humanos , Lasers , Raios X
4.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(5): 1193-1203, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006264

RESUMO

This study investigated the combined effect of CO2 laser irradiation and Remin Pro paste on microhardness of enamel white spot lesions (WSLs). Seventy-eight intact premolars were randomly assigned into six groups and then stored in a demineralizing solution to create WSLs. Afterwards, the teeth in group 6 (negative control) remained untreated, while groups 1 and 4 were exposed to CO2 laser irradiation (20 Hz, 1 W, 30 s) and Remin Pro paste, respectively. In groups 2 and 3, the teeth were exposed to laser either before (group 2) or after (group 3) Remin Pro application. The teeth in groups 1 to 5 were then immersed in artificial saliva for 90 days while subjected to fluoride mouthwash and weekly brushing. Finally, the teeth were sectioned, and Vickers microhardness was measured at the enamel surface and at 50, 100, and 150 µm from the surface. One sample of each group was also examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. The significance was set at 0.05. Laser irradiation followed by Remin Pro application (group 2) caused a significant increase in total WSLs' microhardness compared with laser alone (group 1) and control groups (P < 0.05). Microhardness at depths of 100 and 150 µm was also significantly greater in group 2 compared with those of group 3 and control groups (P < 0.05). Combined application of CO2 laser with Remin Pro paste, when laser is irradiated before the paste, is suggested for re-hardening of WSLs in deep layers of enamel.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/cirurgia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Dureza , Humanos
5.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(5): 1213-1222, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030555

RESUMO

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effect of short-pulsed CO2 9.3 µm laser irradiation against erosion in human enamel without and combined with TiF4 and AmF/NaF/SnCl2 applications, respectively, as well as compared to the protective effect of these fluoride treatments alone. After polishing, ninety enamel samples (3 × 3mm) were used for 9 different treatment groups: 4% TiF4 gel (pH 1.5, 24,533 ppm F-); AmF/NaF/SnCl2 rinse (pH 4.5; 500 ppm F-, 800 ppm Sn2); CO2 laser (average power 0.58 W); CO2 laser (0.58 W) + TiF4; CO2 laser (0.58 W) + AmF/NaF/SnCl2; CO2 laser (0.69 W); CO2 laser (0.69 W) + TiF4; CO2 laser (0.69 W) + AmF/NaF/SnCl2; negative control (deionized water). TiF4 gel was brushed on only once before the first erosive cycling, while samples treated with AmF/NaF/SnCl2 were daily immersed in 5 ml of the solution before cycling. Laser treatment occurred with a CO2 laser (wavelength 9.3 µm, pulse repetition rate 100 Hz, pulse duration 14.6 µs/18 µs, average power 0.58 W/0.69 W, fluence 1.9 J/cm2/2.2 J/cm2, beam diameter 0.63 mm, irradiation time 10 s, air cooling). TiF4 was applied only once, while AmF/NaF/SnCl2 was applied once daily before the erosive challenge. Surface loss (in µm) was measured with optical profilometry immediately after treatment, and after 5 and 10 days of erosive cycling (0.5% citric acid, pH 2.3, 6 × 2 min/day). Additionally, scanning electron microscopy investigations were performed. All application measures resulted in loss of surface height immediately after treatment. After 5 days, significantly reduced surface loss was observed after applying laser irradiation (both power settings) followed by applications of TiF4 or AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution (p < 0.05; 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test) compared to fluoride application alone. After 10 days, compared to after 5 days, a reduced tissue loss was observed in all groups treated with AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution. This tissue gain occurred with the AmF/NaF/SnCl2 application alone and was significantly higher when the application was combined with the laser use (p < 0.05). Short-pulsed CO2 9.3 µm laser irradiation followed by additional application of AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution significantly reduces the progression of dental enamel erosion in vitro.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Erosão Dentária/cirurgia , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Compostos de Estanho/uso terapêutico
6.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(1): 6-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267814

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the distribution of enamel-, dentin-, root- and secondary caries within an elderly population in Northern-Norway.Material and methods: A study population (n = 1 173) was divided into age groups: 65-69 (seniors), 70-74 (young elderly), 75-79 (elderly) and 80-94 (old elderly). Seven examiners registered presence, location and severity of caries lesions on x-rays and intra-oral photos. Severity of approximal, occlusal, secondary and root caries was graded (D1-2: into enamel; D3-5: into dentin, root caries), and decayed missing filled surfaces/teeth (DMFS/DMFT) were calculated. T-test, ANOVA and a Bonferroni correction were used.Results: The seniors had more primary caries (DS1-5) compared to the oldest age groups, while the old elderly had significantly more secondary caries than the other groups (p < .05). Of those ≥65 years 13.8% were affected with root caries, 21% among the oldest. About 48% of the old elderly had one or more surfaces with untreated caries lesions into dentin, while for the other groups the number was 35% (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Individuals seem to maintain good oral health up to at least 80 years of age. Those older than 80 years have more root caries needing more intensified caries-controlling measures and a higher prevalence of untreated dentin lesions often in need of operative treatment.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(1): 13-30, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399861

RESUMO

Since the invention of lasers in dentistry, investigations in caries prevention by the use of laser radiation have been proposed. There are several mechanisms stated for this purpose such as photothermal and/or photochemical interaction processes with the enamel. Alone or in conjugation with topical fluoride application, this treatment modality may improve enamel acid resistance in high-caries-risk populations. Data collection was done by searching the keywords caries, prevention, and laser in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Lasing protocols of the collected literature and their effectiveness as well as examination methods used to verify treatment outcomes have been evaluated. One hundred eighteen publications were found for the last 10 years. The wavelengths investigated for caries prevention are mainly located in the near and the mid-infrared spectral range. In the evaluated period of time, investigations using CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; Er:YLF; fundamental, second, and third harmonic generations of Nd:YAG; diodes; and argon ion lasers were found in the databases. Accounting for 39% of the literature, CO2 laser was the most examined system for this purpose. Reviewing the literature in this narrative review showed that all laser systems presented a positive effect in varying degrees. Laser irradiation could be an alternative or synergistic to topical fluoridation for enamel caries prevention with longer lasting effect. Further research should be focused on selecting proper laser settings to avoid damage to enamel and developing effective evidence-based clinical protocols.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cárie Dentária/cirurgia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104549, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate different periods of exposure to clarified human saliva for the ability to protect enamel against erosive tooth wear. METHODS: For this purpose, sixty specimens (4 × 4 × 1.5 mm) were prepared from third human molars. For all groups, the period before abrasion was performed by remineralisation with human saliva (except in G1). The specimens were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the different remineralisation times of exposure to clarified human saliva: no exposure to saliva (G1) and 30 min (G2), 60 min (G3), 90 min (G4), 120 min (G5), and 240 min (G6) of exposure to human saliva. A 5-day cycling was performed with 5 min of erosion (1% citric acid; pH 2.3), 4x/day. After the first and last erosive episodes, the abrasion challenge was performed with slurry of fluoride toothpaste (1450 ppm F-, as sodium monofluorophosphate) plus human saliva (1:3), with an electric toothbrush (15 s, with a total of 120 s of slurry immersion). Surface loss (SL) was determined using an optical profilometer (n = 10) and for qualitative analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was performed (n = 3). The SL data were statistically analysed by one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected among the groups for SL (p > 0.05), and ESEM showed similar aspects of eroded enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The period of in vitro exposure to clarified human saliva was not able to protect against enamel erosion.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Saliva/química , Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 247, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate enamel reduction efficiency, abrasive property decay, and enamel effects between oscillating mechanical and manual systems for interproximal enamel reduction (IPR). METHODS: Three oscillating strips and three manual strips were tested on twelve freshly extracted premolars blocked in an acrylic cylinder pot by means of a material testing machine. Each strip underwent one test of 8 cycles (30 s each). Both abrasive tracks and teeth surfaces were qualitative evaluated before and after IPR by means of SEM analysis. Efficiency and abrasive property decay of both IPR systems were investigated by the amount of enamel reduction within the eight-cycle testing. Independent t-test was used to evaluate differences in variables between the two systems. RESULTS: Mechanical IPR system showed higher efficiency in terms of enamel reduction (p < 0.005) when compared with manual IPR system (0.16 mm and 0.09 mm, respectively). Quantity of removed enamel decreased throughout the 8 cycles for both systems. Less presence of enamel debris and detachment of abrasive grains were observed on mechanical strips rather than manual strips. SEM analysis revealed more regular surface of teeth undergone mechanical IPR procedures. CONCLUSION: Oscillating diamond strips showed more controlled efficiency when compared with the manual IPR system leading to a more regular enamel surface.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Diamante , Microabrasão do Esmalte/métodos , Dente Pré-Molar , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Microabrasão do Esmalte/instrumentação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1576-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719280

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic abilities of near-infrared light transillumination (using the DIAGNOcam) and bitewing radiographs in detecting cavitated proximal carious lesions in primary molars. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analytical, clinical study. The proximal surfaces of primary molars of healthy 5- to 8-year-old children were radiographically screened for the presence of carious lesions in the enamel or outer third of dentin (D1). Two trained and calibrated examiners evaluated the depth of caries in bitewing radiographs and DIAGNOcam images and then verified the presence of cavitation by direct visual examination using the "International Caries Detection and Assessment System" after temporary tooth separation. Results: A total of 236 proximal lesions were included in the study. Most of the clinically cavitated lesions (51.9%) were D1 radiographically and in outer dentin lesions (scores 3 and 4) by the DIAGNOcam (37% and 48.1%, respectively). Although DIAGNOcam showed higher sensitivity (0.852) compared to the radiographs (0.519), it showed slightly less specificity (0.569) compared to the radiographs (0.579). However, DIAGNOcam showed higher value of the area under the curve (AUC = 0.722; P < 0.001) compared to the radiographic method (AUC = 0.561; P = 0.308). Conclusions: The DIAGNOcam showed higher sensitivity and better accuracy than bitewing radiographs in diagnosing cavitated proximal lesions in primary molars and can be generally considered as an alternative to radiographs to detect cavitation without the hazards of ionizing radiation in children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Microrradiografia/instrumentação , Microrradiografia/métodos , Radiografia Interproximal/métodos , Radiografia Dentária/métodos , Dente Decíduo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transiluminação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar/patologia , Radiografia Dentária Digital , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(10): 3691-3703, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To define an expert Delphi consensus on when to intervene in the caries process and on existing carious lesions using non- or micro-invasive, invasive/restorative or mixed interventions. METHODS: Non-systematic literature synthesis, expert Delphi consensus process and expert panel conference. RESULTS: Carious lesion activity, cavitation and cleansability determine intervention thresholds. Inactive lesions do not require treatment (in some cases, restorations will be placed for reasons of form, function and aesthetics); active lesions do. Non-cavitated carious lesions should be managed non- or micro-invasively, as should most cavitated carious lesions which are cleansable. Cavitated lesions which are not cleansable usually require invasive/restorative management, to restore form, function and aesthetics. In specific circumstances, mixed interventions may be applicable. On occlusal surfaces, cavitated lesions confined to enamel and non-cavitated lesions radiographically extending deep into dentine (middle or inner dentine third, D2/3) may be exceptions to that rule. On proximal surfaces, cavitation is hard to assess visually or by using tactile methods. Hence, radiographic lesion depth is used to determine the likelihood of cavitation. Most lesions radiographically extending into the middle or inner third of the dentine (D2/3) can be assumed to be cavitated, while those restricted to the enamel (E1/2) are not cavitated. For lesions radiographically extending into the outer third of the dentine (D1), cavitation is unlikely, and these lesions should be managed as if they were non-cavitated unless otherwise indicated. Individual decisions should consider factors modifying these thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive diagnostics are the basis for systematic decision-making on when to intervene in the caries process and on existing carious lesions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Carious lesion activity, cavitation and cleansability determine intervention thresholds. Invasive treatments should be applied restrictively and with these factors in mind.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/terapia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/patologia , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Estética Dentária , Humanos
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 167, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for analytical techniques for measuring Erosive Tooth Wear (ETW) on natural surfaces in clinical studies. The purpose was to investigate the use of two instruments aimed to assess initial to more advanced stages of ETW. METHODS: Human premolar enamel samples (2x3mm) (n = 24), were polished flat and mounted in resin cylinders (4 cylinders, 6 samples in each). Part 1: Baseline analyses by White Light Interferometer (WLI), Surface Reflection Intensity (SRI: TableTop and OptiPen) and Surface Hardness (SH). Erosion (1% citric acid (pH 3.6) for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. SRI and SH analyses after every erosion episode and by WLI after 10 min. New indentations were made and enamel loss; was measured by change in indentation depths from toothbrush abrasion (200 g, 60 strokes, 30 s). Another series of 2 × 5 min erosion (totally15 min and 20 min) was analysed with SH and SRI after each erosion, and by WLI (on samples and impressions of samples) after 20 min. Part 2 investigated WLI performance in the interface where initial erosion increases in severity and substance loss occurs. The samples were repolished. Baseline analyses by WLI, SRI (TableTop and OptiPen) and SH. Four cylinders were etched for 1, 2, 4, 8 min respectively and analysed by SRI, SH on samples, and WLI on samples and impressions). RESULTS: Part1: SRI decreased from baseline to ~ 6 min etch and increased slightly after abrasion, the two devices correlated well (ICC 0.98 p < 0.001, Spearmans rs 0.91 p < 0.001). SH decreased nearly linearly to 10 min etch, but increased distinctly after abrasion. Mean enamel loss from abrasion alone was 0.2 µm (change in indentation depths). After 10 min etch, it was 0.27 µm (WLI) and after 20 min etch, it was 2.2 µm measured on samples vs 2.4 µm on impressions of samples (7% higher). Part 2: From baseline to 8 min etch; SRI and SH decreased whereas WLI presented increasing etch depths. CONCLUSIONS: With some adjustments, the use of SRI and WLI in combination seems to be a promising strategy for monitoring ETW in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dentária/etiologia , Atrito Dentário , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Ácido Cítrico/química , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dureza , Humanos , Abrasão Dentária/patologia , Erosão Dentária/patologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
13.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 43(4): 274-280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283894

RESUMO

Objectives: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease with typical, atypical and asymptomatic forms, in which many oral manifestations have been recognized. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of oral manifestations as well as explore if oral examination could be used as a first diagnostic screening tool for atypical or asymptomatic forms. Study Design: 45 CD patients, between 2 and 18 years (mean age 10.3) and 45 healthy subjects, age and gender-matched, were examined for hard and soft tissue lesions such as dental enamel defects (DED), dental caries, aphthous-like ulcers (ALU), atrophic glossitis, geographic tongue, median rhomboid glossitis. Results: Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed for the prevalence of DED (in 64,4% CD and 24,46% control patients, p=0.001), their location in the teeth (incisal: p=0.0001, middle: p=0.002, cervical: p=0.007), as well as for the prevalence of ALU (in 40% CD as opposed to 4,44% control patients, p=0.001). Conclusion: The presence of DED and ALU could be used as a sign of alert for possible atypical and asymptomatic forms of CD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Cárie Dentária , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Esmalte Dentário , Doenças Dentárias , Adolescente , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Criança , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/classificação , Humanos , Prevalência , Doenças Dentárias/complicações , Úlcera
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 129, 2019 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between HIV anti-retroviral therapy and tooth wear. METHODS: Assessment of tooth wear was conducted both with a survey questionnaire and clinical assessment at Russell Street Dental Clinic in Portland, Oregon. The survey questionnaire comprised of questions on study participant's gender, age, HIV status, current medications, awareness of tooth grinding or clenching, jaw soreness, tooth or gum soreness, and frequency of headaches. For the clinical evaluation, a dental provider recorded the degree of wear on each tooth using a scale of 0-3. An individual tooth-wear index was used to rank patients with regard to incisal and occlusal wear. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, tests of association and regression analysis using SPSS V.24. RESULTS: The study sample involved 93 patients (HIV + ve = 60, HIV-ve = 33) with age range of 20-90 yrs. (mean = 49 yrs., s.d = 13.3). 92 and 67% participants of the HIV + ve and HIV-ve groups, respectively, presented with tooth wear. The mean tooth wear index was higher in HIV + ve patients than HIV-ve patients (8.2 vs. 7.8), however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A significant, positive correlation was found between HIV presence and tooth wear index, after accounting for age (B = 0.71, p < 0.05). The number of years on anti-retroviral therapy alone was positively correlated with tooth wear index (R2 = 0.116, p < 0.05). After controlling for age, years of anti-retroviral therapy use was positively correlated with tooth wear index (B = 0.047, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that HIV + ve patients, who are on anti-retroviral therapy have significant tooth wear, although more studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm this. There is a critical need to initiate a dialogue with medical providers about tooth wear as a possible side effect of antiretroviral therapy and to introduce appropriate preventive measures.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Atrito Dentário/induzido quimicamente , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Desgaste dos Dentes/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bruxismo/epidemiologia , Odontologia Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Atrito Dentário/epidemiologia , Erosão Dentária/epidemiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 522-532, June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002254

RESUMO

Amelogenin is one of the enamel matrices secreted by ameloblasts. A mutation of the amelogenin gene can cause hereditary dental enamel defects known as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Since lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), -3 (LAMP-3), and 78kDa glucose-related protein (Grp78) were identified as binding proteins of amelogenin, several studies have suggested the involvement of these binding proteins with the cell kinetics of ameloblasts in normal or abnormal conditions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of these amelogenin binding proteins in the ameloblast cell differentiation of mice with a point mutation of the amelogenin gene (Amelx*). The incisors of Amelx* mice had a white opaque color and the tooth surface was observed to be rough under a scanning electron microscope. Among the sequential ameloblast cell differentiation in the Amelx* mice, the shape of ameloblasts at the transition stage was irregular in comparison to those in wild-type (WT) mice. Immunostaining of Grp78 revealed that the whole cytoplasm of the transition stage ameloblasts was immunopositive for Grp78 antibody, while only the distal part of cell was positive in the WT mice. Furthermore, in the Amelx* mice, the cytoplasm of the transition stage ameloblasts was immunopositive for LAMP-1 and LAMP-3. These results suggest that Amelx* may cause the abnormal distribution of amelogenin binding proteins in the cytoplasm of ameloblasts.


La amelogenina es una de las matrices de esmalte secretadas por los ameloblastos. Una mutación del gen de amelogenina puede causar defectos hereditarios del esmalte dental conocidos como amelogénesis imperfecta (AI). Dado que la proteína de membrana asociada a lisosoma-1 (LAMP-1), -3 (LAMP-3) y la proteína relacionada con la glucosa de 78 kDa (Grp78) se identificaron como proteína de unión a amelogenina, varios estudios han sugerido la participación de estas proteínas con la cinética celular de los ameloblastos en condiciones normales o anormales. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la distribución de LAMP-1, LAM-3 y Grp78 durante la diferenciación celular de ameloblastos de ratones con una mutación puntual del gen de amelogenina (Amelx*). Los incisivos de los ratones Amelx* presentaron un color blanco opaco y se observó en microscopio electrónico de barrido que la superficie del diente era áspera. La diferenciación celular secuencial y la forma de los ameloblastos en la etapa de transición en los ratones Amelx* fue irregular en comparación con los ratones silvestres (RS). La inmunotinción de Grp78 reveló que todo el citoplasma de los ameloblastos en etapa de transición fue inmunopositivo para el anticuerpo Grp78, mientras que solo la parte distal de la célula fue positiva en los ratones RS. Además, en ratones Amelx*, el citoplasma de los ameloblastos en etapa de transición fue inmunopositivo para LAMP-1 y LAMP-3. Estos resultados sugieren que Amelx* puede causar distribución anormal de proteínas de unión a amelogenina en el citoplasma de los ameloblastos.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Amelogenina/metabolismo , Amelogênese Imperfeita , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Imunofluorescência , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Amelogenina/genética , Proteína 3 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Incisivo/patologia
16.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 57(8): 1629-1643, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069699

RESUMO

In the field of dental image processing and analysis, automatic segmentation results of dental hard tissue can provide a useful reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment process. However, the segmentation accuracy is greatly affected due to the limitation of imaging conditions in the oral environment, as well as the complexity of dental hard tissue topology. To further improve the precision of dental hard tissue segmentation, a novel algorithm was presented by using the sparse representation-based classifier and mathematical morphology operations. First, the captured dental image was preprocessed to eliminate the impact of imbalance local illumination. Then, the preliminary dental hard tissue areas were calculated as the initial marker regions based on color characteristics analysis, and the sparse representation-based classifier was applied sequentially to optimize the initial marker regions combined with certain morphological operations. Finally, a modified marker-controlled watershed transform was employed to segment dental hard tissue regions on the basis of the optimized marker regions, and the final results were obtained after homogeneous region merging. The experimental results show that our method has better adaptability and robustness than existing state-of-the-art methods. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fotografia Dentária/métodos , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Humanos , Fotografia Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Dente/patologia , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(4): 619-631, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the correspondence between histology of defective enamel and documented developmental stressors using a pig proxy; with the ultimate goal of differentiating, within enamel, stressor types including birth, weaning, surgery, and social disruption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lower first molars were removed from five female and four male domestic pigs, thin-sectioned and examined with phase-contrast microscopy for daily and accentuated laminations. Known stressor events include birth; processing (nonanesthetized clipping of needle teeth, tail docking, and castration) within 5 days of birth; weaning in nursery; penned vaccination 2-4 days later; transfer to grower barn; additional vaccination. Timing of accentuated laminations was derived from counts of daily laminations from birth and between accentuated laminations; or, more commonly, from measurements between accentuated laminations divided by average daily lamination width. RESULTS: Acknowledging our small sample, we confirm daily periodicity of laminations in pig enamel. Lamination width varies among sexes (males wider), cusps, crown decile, and enamel depth (wider toward surface). Accentuated laminations occurred at reconstructed median ages of 3.7 days after birth (cf. up to 5 days for "processing"), 19.7 days (cf. 18-25 days for weaning), 4.5 days (cf. 2-4 days for vaccination) and ~39.5 days (cf. 63 days for transfer). DISCUSSION: Encouragingly, the timing of known stressors (birth, surgical processing, weaning, and vaccination) can be determined with high precision, in good thin sections, from accentuated laminations in pig enamel. Timing of transfer was poorly estimated, likely reflecting lesser severity and the occurrence of undocumented stress events in the nursery.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Animais , Antropologia Física/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Dente Molar/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Suínos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215370, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978248

RESUMO

Alterations in the structure and mechanical properties of teeth in adult Wistar rats exposed to cadmium were investigated. Analyses were conducted on two sets of incisors from female and male specimens, that were intoxicated with cadmium (n = 12) or belonged to the control (n = 12). The cadmium group was administered with CdCl2 dissolved in drinking water with a dose of 4mg/kgbw for 10 weeks. The oral intake of cadmium by adult rats led to the range of structural changes in enamel morphology and its mechanical features. A significant increase of cadmium levels in the teeth in comparison to the control, a slight shift in the colour and reduction of pigmented enamel length, higher surface irregularity, a decrease of hydroxyapatite crystals size in the c-axis and simultaneous increase in pigmented enamel hardness were observed. The extent of these changes was sex-dependent and was more pronounced in males.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Incisivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cristalização , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/fisiopatologia , Durapatita/química , Durapatita/metabolismo , Feminino , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Incisivo/patologia , Incisivo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Minerais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Difração de Raios X
19.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180359, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970114

RESUMO

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of enamel development disorders that alter the structure and chemical composition of the tissue. There is great variability in the clinical presentation; according to Witkop, AI can be categorized into 14 subtypes, which makes its diagnosis extremely complex. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and determine the frequency of clinical and radiographic features and inheritance patterns found in 41 Chilean families diagnosed with diverse types of AI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the clinical records, photographs, pedigrees and radiographs of 121 individuals recruited between 2003 and 2016. All of the information was included in a database that was analyzed using the application Stata 14. RESULTS: The 72 affected individuals had average age of 16 years, and no sex association with the presence of AI was found. The most frequent clinical subtypes were as follows: 43% hypomature, 25% hypoplastic, 21% hypomature/hypoplastic, 7% hypocalcified and 4% hypocalcified/hypoplastic. The number of severely affected teeth was 22, which occurred in the patients with hypocalcified and hypocalcified/hypoplasic AI who presented the highest number of damaged teeth. Caries and periodontal disease were found in 47 and 32% of the patients, respectively. Malocclusions were observed in 43% of the individuals with AI, with open bite being the most frequent. Radiographically, the thickness of the enamel decreased in 51% of the patients, and 80% showed decreased radiopacity of the enamel compared to that of dentin. Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern was found in 37% of the families with hypoplastic AI, and autosomal recessive pattern was present in 56% of the other clinical subtypes, but more frequently in those affected with hypomature and hypocalcified AI. CONCLUSION: Of the five clinical subtypes, autosomal recessive hypomature, autosomal dominant hypoplastic and autosomal recessive hypomature/hypoplastic AI were the most prevalent subtypes in this group.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Amelogênese Imperfeita/genética , Genealogia e Heráldica , Padrões de Herança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amelogênese Imperfeita/epidemiologia , Amelogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Distribuição por Sexo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(3): 313-319, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837417

RESUMO

Background: Although there are several studies on permanent tooth wear caused by dental materials, studies concerning primary teeth are limited. Aim: To evaluate the wear of primary tooth enamel against different ceramic and composite resin materials. Settings and Design: In vitro study. Materials and Methods: We assessed five materials (n = 10 per group): monolithic zirconia (group Z), lithium disilicate glass ceramic (group L), resin nanoceramic (group R), nanohybrid composite resin (group C), and primary tooth enamel (group E). The mesiopalatal cusps of primary maxillary second molars were used as antagonists. Wear tests were performed in a dual-axis chewing simulator, and the volume loss in the antagonist tooth was evaluated using a laser scanner and three-dimensional profiling system. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests (P < 0.05). Results: The maximum antagonist tooth wear was observed in group L (3.84 ± 0.7 mm3), followed by groups C (3.68 ± 0.76 mm3), R (3.48 ± 0.71 mm3), Z (2.66 ± 0.65 mm3), and E (1.66 ± 0.42 mm3). Volume loss was significantly lesser in group Z than in groups L and C (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among groups L, C, and R. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, our findings suggest that zirconia should be used for full coronal coverage in primary tooth restorations because it causes lesser antagonist tooth wear than does lithium disilicate, resin nanoceramic, and nanohybrid composite resin.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas/química , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Materiais Dentários/química , Desgaste dos Dentes/etiologia , Dente Decíduo/efeitos dos fármacos , Porcelana Dentária , Desgaste de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Humanos , Mastigação , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Desgaste dos Dentes/diagnóstico , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Zircônio
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