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1.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 7, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spartina alterniflora is an invasive plant on the coast of China that replaces native vegetation and has a serious negative impact on local ecosystems. Monitoring the spatial distribution of S. alterniflora and its changes over time can reveal its expansion mechanism, which is crucial for the management of coastal ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to map the distribution of S. alterniflora in Zhejiang Province from 1985 to 2015 using a time series of Landsat TM/OLI images and analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of expansion of this species. RESULTS: After analyzing the distribution of coastal vegetation, the vegetation index was calculated based on Landsat images for 4 years (1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015). According to a threshold determined based on expert knowledge, the distribution of S. alterniflora in Zhejiang Province was extracted, and the temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of S. alterniflora were analyzed. The classification accuracy was 90.3%. S. alterniflora has expanded rapidly in recent decades after being introduced into southern Zhejiang. Between 1985 and 2015, S. alterniflora increased its area of distribution by 10,000 hm2, and it replaced native vegetation to become the most abundant halophyte in tidal flats. Overall, S. alterniflora expanded from south to north over the decades of the study, and the fastest expansion rate was 463.64 hm2/year, which occurred between 1995 and 2005. S. alterniflora was widely distributed in the tidal flats of bays and estuaries and expanded outward as sediment accumulated. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the changes over time in S. alterniflora cover in Zhejiang and can contribute to the control and management of this invasive plant.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , China , Espécies Introduzidas , Poaceae
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 309-318, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957409

RESUMO

Procambarus clarkii was introduced into China as an important aquatic product in early 20th century. It has characteristics of high fertility, rapid growth, adaptability and digging burrows, which could cause damage of crops, cropland and facilities, decrease local biodiversity and thus threaten local ecosystem. Thus, predicting the potential distribution of P. clarkii in response to climate change was essential for preventing and monitoring this species. Based on the distribution of P. clarkii, the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) models were used to predict its distribution in China under current climate and four climate scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, RCP 8.5) in two periods, 2041-2060 and 2061-2080. Then, the modeling results were tested by ROC curves. The results showed that under current climate, the highly suitable region for distribution predicted by the MaxEnt and GARP models were Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui along the Yangtze River. The main environmental variables affecting its distribution were mean temperature of the coldest quarter, minimum temperature of the warmest month, and temperature seasonality, maximum temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the driest month. Under the future climate scenarios, the suitable area of P. clarkii distribution varied in 2061-2080. The total suitable area of P. clarkii would increase under RCP2.6 and RCP 4.5, whereas under RCP 8.5 the suitable area of P. clarkii would increase, and then decrease. In RCP 6.0, there was no change. The suitable areas of P. clarkii would disperse to different latitude areas and migrate toward high altitude.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Astacoidea , China , Mudança Climática
3.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 109983, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989960

RESUMO

Stakeholders are critical environmental managers in human-dominated landscapes. In some contexts, stakeholders can be forced to personally act following their own observations and risk perception instead of science recommendation. In particular, biological invasions need rapid control actions to reduce potential socio-ecological impacts, while science-based risk assessments are rather complex and time-delayed. Although they can lead to important detrimental effects on biodiversity, potential time-delayed disconnections between stakeholders' action and science recommendations are rarely studied. Using the case study of western European beekeepers controlling the invasive Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax for its suspected impact on honey bee colonies, we analysed mechanisms underlying personal actions of stakeholders and how they evolved in science disconnection. Personal actions of stakeholders were causal-effect linked with their risk observation but disconnected to time-delayed science predictions and recommendations. Unfortunately, these science-disconnected actions also led to dramatic impacts on numerous species of the local entomofauna. These results highlight the need to improve mutual risk communication between science and action in the early-stages of management plans to improve the sustainably of stakeholders' practices.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Vespas , Animais , Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco
4.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 105-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792607

RESUMO

Multiple mechanisms may act synergistically to promote success of invasive plants. Here, we tested the roles of three non-mutually exclusive mechanisms-founder effects, post-introduction evolution and phenotypic plasticity-in promoting invasion of Chromolaena odorata. We performed a common garden experiment to investigate phenotypic diversification and phenotypic plasticity of the genetically impoverished invader in response to two rainfall treatments (ambient and 50% rainfall). We used ancestor-descendant comparisons to determine post-introduction evolution and the QST-FST approach to estimate past selection on phenotypic traits. We found that eight traits differed significantly between plants from the invasive versus native ranges, for two of which founder effects can be inferred and for six of which post-introduction evolution can be inferred. The invader experienced strong diversifying selection in the invasive range and showed clinal variations in six traits along water and/or temperature gradients. These clinal variations are likely attributed to post-introduction evolution rather than multiple introductions of pre-adapted genotypes, as most of the clinal variations were absent or in opposite directions from those for native populations. Compared with populations, rainfall treatments explained only small proportions of total variations in all studied traits for plants from both ranges, highlighting the importance of heritable phenotypic differentiation. In addition, phenotypic plasticity was similar for plants from both ranges although neutral genetic diversity was much lower for plants from the invasive range. Our results showed that founder effects, post-introduction evolution and phenotypic plasticity may function synergistically in promoting invasion success of C. odorata.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Efeito Fundador , Adaptação Fisiológica , Espécies Introduzidas , Fenótipo
5.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 119-132, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720779

RESUMO

Mutualists can vary in the quantity and quality of service which they provide to their partners. Variation in seed disperser quality depends on seed-processing traits, dispersal distance, and deposition location, all of which ultimately affect plant fitness. Here, we compared these aspects of seed dispersal quality between a native and an invasive ant species, and examined how they affect competition and plant performance. Using experimental mesocosm communities, we examined how these two ant species affect the spatial pattern of recruitment and establishment for four myrmecochorous plant species, including one invasive species. We measured the locations of dispersed seedlings relative to ant nests, adult plants, and other dispersed seedlings, as well as measured the effects of location on plant performance. The invasive ant, Myrmica rubra, secondarily dispersed seeds farther from its nests, creating a less clumped pattern of seedling recruitment compared to the native ant, Aphaenogaster rudis. Plant species responded differently to dispersal. Invasive seedlings recruited farther from adult plants than native seedlings, and had higher survival the farther they were from conspecifics. In contrast, native plants had higher survival and grew taller when dispersed farther from invasive plants. We show that seed-dispersing ant partners differ in mutualist quality creating differences in dispersal distance and deposition location that affects a plant's competitive environment. Our results reveal the potential for long-term consequences on plant community structure with changing ant partner identity. We emphasize the need to examine dispersal quality in addition to quantity to uncover the importance of partner identity in structuring communities.


Assuntos
Formigas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Plântula , Sementes
6.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 227-238, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647694

RESUMO

California has been invaded by two distinct Euwallacea spp. that vector unique plant pathogenic symbiotic fungi on multiple hosts and cause Fusarium dieback. The objective of this study was to develop multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assays using hydrolysis probes targeting the ß-tubulin gene to detect, distinguish, and quantify fungi associated with the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB; Euwallacea whitfordiodendrus, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium euwallaceae, and Paracremonium pembeum) as well as the Kuroshio shot hole borer (KSHB; Euwallacea kuroshio, Fusarium kuroshium, and Graphium kuroshium) from various sample types. Absolute quantification reaction efficiencies ranged from 88.2 to 104.3%, with a coefficient of determination >0.992 and a limit of detection of 100 copies µl-1 for all targets across both assays. Qualitative detection using the real-time assays on artificially inoculated avocado shoot extracts showed more sensitivity compared with conventional fungal isolation from wood. All symbiotic fungi, except P. pembeum, from PSHB and KSHB female heads were detectable and quantified. Field samples from symptomatic Platanus racemosa, Populus spp., and Salix spp. across 17 of 26 city parks were positively identified as PSHB and KSHB through detection of their symbiotic fungi, and both were found occurring together on five trees from three different park locations. The molecular assays presented here can be utilized to accurately identify fungi associated with these invasive pests in California.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fusarium , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Gorgulhos , Animais , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , California , Feminino , Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Limite de Detecção , Gorgulhos/microbiologia
7.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 476-482, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875651

RESUMO

The biotic resistance hypothesis predicts that diverse native communities are more resistant to invasion. However, past studies vary in their support for this hypothesis due to an apparent contradiction between experimental studies, which support biotic resistance, and observational studies, which find that native and non-native species richness are positively related at broad scales (small-scale studies are more variable). Here, we present a novel analysis of the biotic resistance hypothesis using 24 456 observations of plant richness spanning four community types and seven ecoregions of the United States. Non-native plant occurrence was negatively related to native plant richness across all community types and ecoregions, although the strength of biotic resistance varied across different ecological, anthropogenic and climatic contexts. Our results strongly support the biotic resistance hypothesis, thus reconciling differences between experimental and observational studies and providing evidence for the shared benefits between invasive species management and native biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Ecologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Estados Unidos
8.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124965, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726610

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of spatial expansion between native invasive species (Phragmites australis) and commom native species (Cyperus malaccensis) on variations of micro-elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in decomposing litters in the Min River estuary, in situ filed decomposition experiment was conducted in P. australis (PA) community (before expansion, BE), C. malaccensis (CM) community (before expansion, BE) and P. australis-C. malaccensis (PA'-CM') community (during expansion, DE) from February 2016 to February 2017 by space-for- time substitution method. Results showed that the decomposition of C. malaccensis were faster than those of P. australis whether at BE stage or at DE stage. The decomposition rate of PA' increased by 24.40% compared to PA whereas the value of CM' decreased by 15.67% compared with CM. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As in decomposing litters of P. australis (PA and PA') and C. malaccensis (CM and CM') generally showed increasing tendency and the values in the former were significantly lower than those in the latter (p < 0.05). The physicochemical sorption onto recalcitrant organic fractions and the substrate quality (C/N and M/C ratios) of decomposing litters were two important factors affecting the differences in As/metals variations between species. The levels of Cr in decaying litters increased initially and decreased afterward, and the values in P. australis were significantly higher than those in C. malaccensis (p < 0.05). Whether at BE stage or at DE stage, stocks of As/metals in decomposing litters of P. australis (PA and PA') were generally higher than those of C. malaccensis (CM and CM'). The lower stocks of As/metals in CM or CM' might be more dependent on its lower mass remaining. Compared with PA at BE stage, the accumulation of As/metals in decomposing litters of PA' at DE stage decreased greatly, which might be ascribed to the lower precipitation of metal sulfides in PA'. Stocks of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr in CM' and stocks of Cr in PA' generally evidenced the export of metals from decomposing litter to environment, indicating that the potential exposure risk of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr might be increased as CM was invading by PA. This study found that the spatial expansion between P. australis and C. malaccensis not only altered the stocks of As/metals in decomposing litters but also increased the exposure risk of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr in ecotone. In future, as the ecological functions of ecotone was precisely evaluated during the expansion of the two plants in the Min River estuary, the alterations of litter decomposition rates and the exposure risks of Zn, Ni and Cd caused by CM' should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cyperus/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Espécies Introduzidas , Metais Pesados/análise , Poaceae/química , China , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134692, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693960

RESUMO

Marine bioinvasions are increasing worldwide by a number of factors related to the anthroposphere, such as higher ship traffic, climate change and biotic communities' alterations. Generating information about species with high invasive potential is necessary to inform management decisions aiming to prevent their arrival and spread. Grateloupia turuturu, one of the most harmful invasive macroalgae, is capable of damaging ecosystem functions and services, and causing biodiversity loss. Here we developed an ecological niche model using occurrence and environmental data to infer the potential global distribution of G. turuturu. In addition, ecophysiological experiments were performed with G. turuturu populations from different climatic regions to test predictions regarding invasion risk. Our model results show high suitability in temperate and warm temperate regions around the world, with special highlight to some areas where this species still doesn't occur. Thalli representing a potential temperate region origin, were held at 10, 13, 16, 20 and 24 °C, and measurements of optimal quantum field (Fv/Fm) demonstrated a decrease of photosynthetic yield in the higher temperature. Thalli from the population already established in warm temperate South Atlantic were held at 18, 24 and 30 °C with high and low nutrient conditions. This material exposed to the higher temperature demonstrated a drop in photosynthetic yield and significant reduction of growth rate. The congregation of modelling and physiological approach corroborate the invasive potential of G. turuturu and indicate higher invasion risk in temperate zones. Further discussions regarding management initiatives must be fostered to mitigate anthropogenic transport and eventually promote eradication initiatives in source areas, with special focus in the South America. We propose that this combined approach can be used to assess the potential distribution and establishment of other marine invasive species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 26, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823024

RESUMO

The spread of the exotic species Hovenia dulcis known as Japanese raisin tree, coming from Asia, detected in a protected area of 465.0 ha surrounding the city of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, named "Green Belt." In this context, this research aimed at developing an aerial monitoring system able to identify and quantify the extension in the Green Belt area that this species invaded, as well as describing the impacts caused on the local forest community. We collected data from an ultralight Flyer GT aircraft equipped with a vertical camera. The images were taking in June and July 2015, when H. dulcis trees have shed their leaves, displaying a gray color, and September and October 2015, when the leaves are young and with a light green color. Based on the methodology proposed trough aerial monitoring by photogrammetry, the results indicated that the total invaded area by H. dulcis in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul County, RS, was 131.8 ha, corresponding to 20.9% of the total area. To validate this method, a quantitative comparison between the result from a terrestrial fieldwork carried out and the proposed method showed no significant differences in the estimated area occupied by H. dulcis. We concluded that these results validate the proposed aerial assessment method.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas , Fotogrametria , Dispersão Vegetal , Rhamnaceae/fisiologia , Brasil
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133739, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756834

RESUMO

Understanding mechanisms of fish invasion success is crucial to controlling existing invasions and preventing potential future spread. Despite considerable advances in explaining successful fish invasions, little is known about how non-native fish successfully invade alpine freshwater ecosystems. Here, we explore the role of fish life history and environmental factors in contributing to invasion success of Pseudorasbora parva on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We compared life history trait differences between native populations in lowland China with introduced populations in lowland Europe and the high elevation Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse life-history trait variation across elevation gradients. A random forest model was developed to identify the key environmental filters influencing P. parva invasion success. Life history characteristics differed substantially between native and introduced populations. Compared with native Chinese populations, introduced populations in lowland Europe had smaller body size, higher fecundity, smaller oocytes and earlier maturation. Introduced populations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau had smaller body size, lower fecundity, smaller oocytes and later maturation compared with native populations. 1-Year-Length and fecundity in all age classes of females significantly increased with increasing elevation. 2-Year-Length and 3-Year-Length of male significantly increased while maximal longevity and length at first maturity were significantly decreased with the elevation gradient. Habitat type, annual mean temperature, elevation, annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, were the 5 most important predictors for the occurrence of the P. parva. Our study indicates that invasive P. parva adopt different life history strategies on the plateau compared with invasive populations at low elevations, highlighting that more studies are required for a better understanding of biological invasion under extreme conditions. Considering the ongoing hydrologic alteration and climate change, our study also highlighted that P. parva may expand their distribution range in the future on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tibet
12.
Ambio ; 48(12): 1401-1430, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760633

RESUMO

Species invasions are a major driver of ecological change, are very difficult to control or reverse, and will increase with climate change and global trade. Invasion sciences consider how species in invaded environments adapt, but neither scientists nor policy makers consider human adaptation to invasive species and how this affects ecosystems and well-being. To address this, a framework conceptualising autochthonous human adaptation to invasions was developed based on the Human Adaptation to Biodiversity Change framework and a case study metasynthesis. Results show that adaptation occurs within different spheres of human activity and organisation at different social-ecological scales; responses have feedbacks within and across these spheres. Adaptation to invasives and other drivers is a set of highly contextual, complex, non-linear responses that make up pathways pursued over time. Most invasive species management and adaptation occurs 'from below,' and policies and planned control efforts should support autochthonous adaptation, rather than undermining it.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Humanos
13.
Zootaxa ; 4691(2): zootaxa.4691.2.2, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719401

RESUMO

The invasive species of the genus Bythotrephes introduced in the North American lakes in 1970s-early 1980s was named variously either B. cederstroemi or B. longimanus. The investigation of individuals of the genus from 15 Canadian lakes has allowed us to identify all of them as B. cederströmii Schödler, based on the detailed taxonomic redescription of the Eurasian representatives of the species. The available documented data (figures and photographs) on Bythotrephes from other North American lakes, made it possible to recognize their identity with this species as well. The possible introduction of interspecific hybrids of the genus Bythotrephes in the North American lakes has not been confirmed.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Animais , Canadá , Crustáceos , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos , Estados Unidos
14.
Zootaxa ; 4686(2): zootaxa.4686.2.1, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719486

RESUMO

Here we provide a checklist of millipedes described or recorded in the literature from Venezuela. The diplopod fauna is comprised of eight orders, 18 families, 54 genera, and 157 species. The millipede orders Glomerida, Chordeumatida, Julida, Siphoniulida, and Platydesmida (known elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere) are not, as of yet, reported from the Venezuelan fauna. Two widely distributed invasive species, Asiomorpha coarctata and Oxidus gracilis, were recorded from Venezuela. All species records listed here contain comprehensive citation and synonymy lists. Numerous locality data are questionable and are discussed. For most species, the supposed deposition of the type specimens is given. However, the museum and gender information is taken mostly from the literature as the type specimen themselves were not examined. An analysis of records extracted from GBIF in 2016 and in 2018 was conducted and compared to the data captured from the published taxonomic literature. The data in this checklist are summarized online at the MilliBase website.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Venezuela
15.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.1, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715759

RESUMO

The Indo-Pacific portunid, Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867), is a crab species native to the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans and has previously colonized the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Atlantic. It is now recorded in the Eastern Atlantic, on the coast of Benin, where a thriving population has established. This invasive and widely distributed species exhibits morphological variations within and between populations, which are discussed in detail. Its current distribution is presented, and its future expansion along the West African coast and future impact on coastal ecosystems and local fisheries are the object of tentative forecasts. Illustrations of sexually mature specimens from different sizes and regions are presented, and their allometric, individual and geographical variations are discussed. A new synonymy and a new account on the taxonomy and the biology of the species are presented. Illustrations of the lectotype and the paralectotype of C. hellerii are also provided for the first time. Charybdis spinifera (Miers, 1884), C. merguiensis (De Man, 1887) and C. vannamei Ward, 1941 are here treated as subjective junior synonyms of C. hellerii. The holotype of C. spinifera and two syntypes of C. merguiensis are illustrated.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Benin , Ecossistema , Oceano Pacífico
16.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.7, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716214

RESUMO

Invasive species continue to be a noteworthy risk to a wide range of biological systems and species diversity throughout the world. At present, accessible data about invasive species in Egypt are still insufficient despite the genuine danger these species pose to the Egyptian environment, economy and human well-being. The present study adds new distribution records of the invasive scutellerid species, Deroplax silphoides (Thunberg, 1783), to the Egyptian fauna. In 2008, this bug was first observed in Egypt in South Sinai, followed by Giza in 2016. Recently, hundreds of specimens were reported from Cairo in 2018. A new host plant, Chrysanthemum morifolium L. (Asteraceae), is reported for this bug. This work also provides additional information about the male and female genitalia. New characteristic features, photos, examined material, map of its world distribution, ecological and behavioral notes are also provided. Moreover, egg sculpturing of Deroplax silphoides was examined for the first time.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecologia , Egito , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 976-982, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726580

RESUMO

Managing invasive alien species is particularly challenging in the ocean mainly because marine ecosystems are highly connected across broad spatial scales. Eradication of marine invasive species has only been achieved when species were detected early, and management responded rapidly. Generalized approaches, transferable across marine regions, for prioritizing actions to control invasive populations are currently lacking. Here, expert knowledge was elicited to prioritize 11 management actions for controlling 12 model species, distinguished by differences in dispersion capacity, distribution in the area to be managed, and taxonomic identity. Each action was assessed using five criteria (effectiveness, feasibility, acceptability, impacts on native communities, and cost), which were combined in an 'applicability' metric. Raising public awareness and encouraging the commercial use of invasive species were highly prioritized, whereas biological control actions were considered the least applicable. Our findings can guide rapid decision-making on prioritizing management options for the control of invasive species especially at early stages of invasion, when reducing managers' response time is critical.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Biodiversidade , Tomada de Decisões
18.
Biol Lett ; 15(11): 20190496, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744412

RESUMO

Individuals that disperse farther than other individuals are more likely to be on the frontlines of spreading populations and may be more likely to mate with one another as a consequence of their spatial proximity. Over generations, this process-known as spatial sorting-can produce patterns of increasing dispersal ability from a population's core towards the spreading front. By contrast, when the spread of a population is limited by the availability of suitable habitat, theory predicts that range boundaries can select against more dispersive phenotypes and produce patterns of decreasing dispersal capacity towards population margins. In a common garden study of invasive kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribraria)-which are limited by the availability of hostplants in their southern and western margins-I show that midrange individuals fly 49% farther than individuals in the core and 37% farther than individuals at margins. This result highlights that other processes, such as maternal effects or selection at range boundaries, may create more complicated patterns of dispersal ability across landscapes than predicted by models of spatial sorting alone.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Fenótipo
19.
Zootaxa ; 4565(3): zootaxa.4565.3.13, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716473

RESUMO

Colaphellus palaestinus Achard, an alien invasive species is here reported for the first time for Europe. It was found for the first time in Malta in November 2017, and the year after thousands of individuals were observed in Malta with many photographs posted in social media and local news. Global distribution of this species and information on closely related species is also provided here. Colaphellus zarudnyi Medvedev is probably a synonym of C. palaestinus.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Espécies Introduzidas , Malta
20.
Zootaxa ; 4658(3): zootaxa.4658.3.1, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716729

RESUMO

The diversity of the formicine ant genus Nylanderia is currently underestimated and largely undescribed. This includes the faunas of tropical regions where species richness is typically high. Here, the taxonomy of the West Indian Nylanderia fauna is revised for the first time. Fourteen new species are described, bringing the total number of species known from the region to 22. The new species are: N. bibadia, sp. nov., N. caerula, sp. nov., N. coveri, sp. nov., N. disatra, sp. nov., N. esperanza, sp. nov., N. fuscaspecula, sp. nov., N. lucayana, sp. nov., N. metacista, sp. nov., N. pini, sp. nov., N. semitincta, sp. nov., N. sierra, sp. nov., N. wardi, sp. nov., N. xestonota, sp. nov., and N. zaminyops, sp. nov. There are several introduced species in the region including the globally widespread Old World species N. bourbonica. Other introduced species are N. fulva, N. pubens, N. guatemalensis, and N. steinheili. The following new synonyms are proposed: fulva Mayr 1862 (= fulva cubana Santschi 1930); steinheili Forel 1893 (= steinheili minuta Forel 1893). An identification key is provided for the workers of Nylanderia found in the West Indies. Photomontage images are provided for the worker of each species and when available photomontage and SEM images are provided for males. This work represents another step forward in understanding the diversity of this widespread and commonly encountered ant genus.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Índias Ocidentais
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