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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 429-435, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590807

RESUMO

Refined baseline inventories of non-indigenous species (NIS) are set per European Union Member State (MS), in the context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The inventories are based on the initial assessment of the MSFD (2012) and the updated data of the European Alien Species Information Network, in collaboration with NIS experts appointed by the MSs. The analysis revealed that a large number of NIS was not reported from the initial assessments. Moreover, several NIS initially listed are currently considered as native in Europe or were proven to be historical misreportings. The refined baseline inventories constitute a milestone for the MSFD Descriptor 2 implementation, providing an improved basis for reporting new NIS introductions, facilitating the MSFD D2 assessment. In addition, the inventories can help MSs in the establishment of monitoring systems of targeted NIS, and foster cooperation on monitoring of NIS across or within shared marine subregions.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Biologia Marinha
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2475-2484, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270681

RESUMO

The Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, endemic to East Asia, is one of the most expansive mosquito species in the world and has as yet established in 15 countries of Europe. Within Germany, the species has been spreading tremendously during the last years, and its four once geographically isolated populations were on the verge of merging in 2017. To reveal relationships and carry-over ways between the various populations, and thus, migration and displacement routes, the genetic make-up of Ae. japonicus from ten different locations throughout its German distribution area was investigated. For this purpose, a part of the mitochondrial DNA (nad4 gene) of collected specimens was sequenced and seven loci of short tandem repeats (microsatellites) were genotyped. When related to similar genetic studies carried out between 2012 and 2015, the results suggest that admixtures had since occurred, but no complete genetic mixture of populations had taken place. At the time of sampling for the present study, the western collection sites were still uniform in their genetic make-up; however, a carry-over of individuals from the southeastern to the northern and southwestern German populations was determined. Further introductions from abroad are possible. In summary, the genetic diversity of Ae. japonicus in Germany had grown considerably, thus increasing ecological variability and adaptability of the species. At this point (10 years after the first detection), it is not possible anymore to draw conclusions on the origins of the populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Alemanha
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 212-222, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176820

RESUMO

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a widely distributed and harmful invasive plant that is an important source of highly allergenic pollen grains and a prominent crop weed. As a result, ragweed causes huge costs to both human health and agriculture in affected areas. Efficient mitigation requires accurate mapping of ragweed densities that, until now, has not been achieved accurately for the whole of Europe. Here we provide two inventories of common ragweed abundances with grid resolutions of 1 km and 10 km. These "top-down" inventories integrate pollen data from 349 stations in Europe with habitat and landscape management information, derived from land cover data and expert knowledge. This allows us to cover areas where surface observations are missing. Model results were validated using "bottom-up" data of common ragweed in Austria and Serbia. Results show high agreement between the two analytical methods. The inventory shows that areas with the lowest ragweed abundances are found in Northern and Southern European countries and the highest abundances are in parts of Russia, parts of Ukraine and the Pannonian Plain. Smaller hotspots are found in Northern Italy, the Rhône Valley in France and in Turkey. The top-down approach is based on a new approach that allows for cross-continental studies and is applicable to other anemophilous species. Due to its simplicity, it can be used to investigate such species that are difficult and costly to identify at larger scales using traditional vegetation surveys or remote sensing. The final inventory is open source and available as a georeferenced tif file, allowing for multiple usages, reducing costs for health services and agriculture through well-targeted management interventions.


Assuntos
Ambrosia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 462, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240492

RESUMO

Coastal soils are particularly sensitive to nonnative species invasion. In this context, spatially explicit soil information is essential for improving the knowledge of the role of soil in changing environments, supporting coastal sustainable management. Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data provides an attractive opportunity to monitor soil because the acquisition of images is independent of weather and daylight. However, SAR has not been commonly used for soil prediction. In this study, we firstly investigated the temporal variation of vegetation canopy and the soil-vegetation relationship using Sentinel-1 data in an invaded coastal wetland. And then we built 3D models to predict soil properties at multiple depths. A total of 16 Sentinel-1 images were acquired in a growing season. A series of soil physicochemical properties were examined including soil bulk density, texture, organic/inorganic carbon, pH, salinity, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, relating to three depth layers in the top 1-m depth. Our results showed that time-series Sentinel-1 data can capture temporal characteristics of vegetation, and VH/VV was more sensitive to the vegetation growth than VH and VV. The soil-vegetation relationship captured by time-series SAR data was beneficial to predict soil properties, especially for soil chemical properties. The models provided permissible prediction accuracy, with an average RPD of 0.99. We concluded that the prior understanding of the temporal variation of SAR data is essential for developing practical soil prediction strategy. Our results highlight that SAR has the potential to predict a diverse set of soil properties in coastal wetlands with dense vegetation cover.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Solo/química , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono/análise , China , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Nitrogênio/análise , Salinidade , Estações do Ano
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 1): 344, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222487

RESUMO

Nonnative plants are widely recognized as stressors to wetlands and other ecosystems. They may compete with native plant species or communities and alter ecosystem properties, which can affect ecological condition, posing challenges to resource managers. As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA), we characterized the status of nonnative plants in wetlands across the conterminous United States (US). Our primary goals were to (1) document the composition of nonnative taxa at 1138 NWCA sites sampled in 2011 and (2) estimate the areal extent of wetland under stress from nonnative plants within the NWCA 2011 sampled population of ~ 25 million ha of wetland (represented by 967 sampled probability sites and the NWCA survey design). A total of 443 unique nonnative taxa were observed, encompassing a species pool adapted to diverse ecological conditions. For individual sites, the number of nonnative taxa ranged from 0 to 29, and total absolute cover of nonnatives ranged from 0 to 160%. We devised the nonnative plant indicator (NNPI) as a categorical indicator of stress (low to very high) from the collective set of nonnative plant taxa occurring at a particular location, based on a decision matrix of exceedance values for nonnative richness, relative frequency, and relative cover. Wetland area of the sampled population occurring in each NNPI category was estimated at the scale of the conterminous US and within five large ecoregions and four broad wetland types. Potential stress from nonnative plants, as indicated by the NNPI category, was low for approximately 61% (~ 15.3 million ha), moderate for about 20% (~ 5.2 million ha), high for about 10% (~ 2.48 million ha), and very high for about 9% (~ 2.2 million ha) of the wetland area in the entire sampled population. Percent of wetland area with high and very high NNPI varied by ecoregional subpopulations: greater within interior and western ecoregions (~ 29 to 87%) than within ecoregions in the eastern half of the nation (~ 11%). Among wetland type subpopulations, greater percent of wetland area with high and very high NNPI was observed for herbaceous vs. woody types and for inland vs. estuarine types. Estimates of wetland area by NNPI categories are expected to be useful to policy makers or resource managers for prioritizing management actions by identifying situations where stress from nonnative plants is most extensive. We also considered four exploratory analyses aimed at providing ecological information useful in interpreting NNPI extent results. We conducted three population-scale analyses examining ecoregional and wetland type population means for (1) the three NNPI metrics, (2) absolute cover of growth-habit groups of nonnative plants, and (3) metrics describing human-mediated disturbance. Finally, we examined ecological relationships with site-level NNPI status using a random forest (RF) analysis with NNPI as the response variable and predictor variables including ecoregion, wetland type, and a variety of characteristics describing natural vegetation structure, environment, and human-mediated disturbance.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantas/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
6.
Nature ; 571(7763): 103-106, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217580

RESUMO

Human-mediated translocation of species to areas beyond their natural distribution (which results in 'alien' populations1) is a key signature of the Anthropocene2, and is a primary global driver of biodiversity loss and environmental change3. Stemming the tide of invasions requires understanding why some species fail to establish alien populations, and others succeed. To achieve this, we need to integrate the effects of features of the introduction site, the species introduced and the specific introduction event. Determining which, if any, location-level factors affect the success of establishment has proven difficult, owing to the multiple spatial, temporal and phylogenetic axes along which environmental variation may influence population survival. Here we apply Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis to a global spatially and temporally explicit database of introduction events of alien birds4 to show that environmental conditions at the introduction location, notably climatic suitability and the presence of other groups of alien species, are the primary determinants of successful establishment. Species-level traits and the size of the founding population (propagule pressure) exert secondary, but important, effects on success. Thus, current trajectories of anthropogenic environmental change will most probably facilitate future incursions by alien species, but predicting future invasions will require the integration of multiple location-, species- and event-level characteristics.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Mapeamento Geográfico , Internacionalidade , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migração Animal , Animais , Aves/classificação , Atividades Humanas , Filogenia , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 673: 594-604, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999100

RESUMO

Invasive exotic species threaten native biodiversity worldwide and their management is on the agenda of an increasing number of countries. We explored the potential of an ecosystem approach for the natural control of Gambusia holbrooki, which is among the most pernicious and widely distributed fish invaders. Individual-based linear mixed models were used to identify the ecosystem factors (conspecific density, environment and piscivorous birds) that most influenced life-history variation in male and female G. holbrooki (N = 654). All traits (body condition, growth, length, gonad weight, offspring size and number, real and potential fertility) were associated with at least one ecosystem factor from the 18 water bodies surveyed in north-eastern Spain. Models for female reproductive traits had the highest fit (R2 = 0.89) and those for body condition in both sexes the lowest (0.12). The life history of G. holbrooki was mostly affected by its density; increasing offspring number at the expense of offspring size at the sites with the highest fish density. Weaker effects on G. holbrooki life history were observed for the abundance of piscivorous birds and water-quality conditions, including turbidity and nutrient concentrations. Although effects were not consistent between traits, outputs supported that G. holbrooki has a wide tolerance to changes in water quality. Therefore, actions based solely on environmental changes within the range tested probably will fail in reducing the proliferation of G. holbrooki, especially if its body condition improved at the most naturalised sites. Overall, this study suggests that the management of G. holbrooki using ecologically sound treatments is likely to be very difficult in stagnant waters. Preventing new introductions and direct removal once established are the most appropriate actions for the management of this small, highly prolific fish invader.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ciprinodontiformes , Ecologia , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(6): 1630-1637, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Euplatypus parallelus is a highly polyphagous invasive pest native to Central and South America. In recent years it has invaded many countries in Africa and Asia and resulted in considerable economic loss. In China it has been reported to have invaded Taiwan, and been also recorded in Hainan Province. Until now there has been no invasion into the mainland. In order to better manage this invasive pest, here we predicted the suitable area of E. parallelus in China by the Maxent model. RESULTS: The Maxent model predicted the potential distribution of E. parallelus with a test AUC value of 0.962 and a training AUC value of 0.978. Temperature seasonality (Bio_04), annual temperature range (Bio_07), annual precipitation (Bio_12) and mean temperature of the coldest quarter (Bio_11) were the strongest predictors of E. parallelus distribution with 32.1%, 19.8%, 15% and 10.4% contributions, respectively. The potential suitable area for E. parallelus was mainly distributed in the southeastern coast, the southwestern border, and Taiwan and Hainan provinces in China, and the highly suitable areas were located in the northern coast of Hainan Province and the southwestern coast of Taiwan Province. This pest prefers a stable, warm and rainy climate, which indicates that tropics and subtropics would be its ideal area. CONCLUSION: Euplatypus parallelus has invaded Hainan and Taiwan in China. Measures should be taken to prevent it from spreading on these two islands. Moreover, strict quarantine, biological study and control measures are necessary to block its spread, invasion and damage, especially in these climate-suitable areas. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Gorgulhos , Animais , China , Meio Ambiente , Controle de Pragas
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(1): 25-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295388

RESUMO

Climate change and increased anthropogenic activities are expected to elevate the potential of introducing nonindigenous species (NIS) into the Arctic. Yet, the knowledge base needed to identify gaps and priorities for NIS research and management is limited. Here, we reviewed primary introduction events to each ecoregion of the marine Arctic realm to identify temporal and spatial patterns, likely source regions of NIS, and the putative introduction pathways. We included 54 introduction events representing 34 unique NIS. The rate of NIS discovery ranged from zero to four species per year between 1960 and 2015. The Iceland Shelf had the greatest number of introduction events (n = 14), followed by the Barents Sea (n = 11), and the Norwegian Sea (n = 11). Sixteen of the 54 introduction records had no known origins. The majority of those with known source regions were attributed to the Northeast Atlantic and the Northwest Pacific, 19 and 14 records, respectively. Some introduction events were attributed to multiple possible pathways. For these introductions, vessels transferred the greatest number of aquatic NIS (39%) to the Arctic, followed by natural spread (30%) and aquaculture activities (25%). Similar trends were found for introductions attributed to a single pathway. The phyla Arthropoda and Ochrophyta had the highest number of recorded introduction events, with 19 and 12 records, respectively. Recommendations including vector management, horizon scanning, early detection, rapid response, and a pan-Arctic biodiversity inventory are considered in this paper. Our study provides a comprehensive record of primary introductions of NIS for marine environments in the circumpolar Arctic and identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities for NIS research and management. Ecosystems worldwide will face dramatic changes in the coming decades due to global change. Our findings contribute to the knowledge base needed to address two aspects of global change-invasive species and climate change.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco
11.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(3): 1032-1048, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548757

RESUMO

The European Union (EU) has recently published its first list of invasive alien species (IAS) of EU concern to which current legislation must apply. The list comprises species known to pose great threats to biodiversity and needs to be maintained and updated. Horizon scanning is seen as critical to identify the most threatening potential IAS that do not yet occur in Europe to be subsequently risk assessed for future listing. Accordingly, we present a systematic consensus horizon scanning procedure to derive a ranked list of potential IAS likely to arrive, establish, spread and have an impact on biodiversity in the region over the next decade. The approach is unique in the continental scale examined, the breadth of taxonomic groups and environments considered, and the methods and data sources used. International experts were brought together to address five broad thematic groups of potential IAS. For each thematic group the experts first independently assembled lists of potential IAS not yet established in the EU but potentially threatening biodiversity if introduced. Experts were asked to score the species within their thematic group for their separate likelihoods of i) arrival, ii) establishment, iii) spread, and iv) magnitude of the potential negative impact on biodiversity within the EU. Experts then convened for a 2-day workshop applying consensus methods to compile a ranked list of potential IAS. From an initial working list of 329 species, a list of 66 species not yet established in the EU that were considered to be very high (8 species), high (40 species) or medium (18 species) risk species was derived. Here, we present these species highlighting the potential negative impacts and the most likely biogeographic regions to be affected by these potential IAS.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Política Ambiental , União Europeia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco
12.
Genome ; 62(3): 108-121, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184444

RESUMO

Madagascar is a prime evolutionary hotspot globally, but its unique biodiversity is under threat, essentially from anthropogenic disturbance. There is a race against time to describe and protect the Madagascan endangered biota. Here we present a first molecular characterization of the micromoth fauna of Madagascar. We collected 1572 micromoths mainly using light traps in both natural and anthropogenically disturbed habitats in 24 localities across eastern and northwest Madagascar. We also collected 1384 specimens using a Malaise trap in a primary rain forest at Andasibe, eastern Madagascar. In total, we DNA barcoded 2956 specimens belonging to 1537 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), 88.4% of which are new to BOLD. Only 1.7% of new BINs were assigned to species. Of 47 different families found, Dryadaulidae, Bucculatricidae, Bedelliidae, Batrachedridae, and Blastobasidae are newly reported for Madagascar and the recently recognized Tonzidae is confirmed. For test faunas of Canada and Australia, 98.9%-99.4% of Macroheterocera BINs exhibited the molecular synapomorphy of a phenylalanine in the 177th complete DNA barcode codon. Non-macroheteroceran BINs could thus be sifted out efficiently in the Malaise sample. The Madagascar micromoth fauna shows highest affinity with the Afrotropics (146 BINs also occur in the African continent). We found 22 recognised pests or invasive species, mostly occurring in disturbed habitats. Malaise trap samples show high temporal turnover and alpha diversity with as many as 507 BINs collected; of these, astonishingly, 499 (98.4%) were novel to BOLD and 292 (57.6%) were singletons. Our results provide a baseline for future surveys across the island.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mariposas/classificação , Mariposas/genética , Animais , DNA/análise , Madagáscar
14.
Sci Data ; 5: 180239, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351305

RESUMO

Invasive alien species are widely recognized as one of the main threats to global biodiversity. Rapid flow of information on the occurrence of invasive alien species is critical to underpin effective action. Citizen science, i.e. the involvement of volunteers in science, provides an opportunity to improve the information available on invasive alien species. Here we describe the dataset created via a citizen science approach to track the spread of a well-studied invasive alien species, the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain and Ireland. This dataset comprises 48 510 verified and validated spatio-temporal records of the occurrence of H. axyridis in Britain and Ireland, from first arrival in 2003, to the end of 2016. A clear and rapid spread of the species within Britain and Ireland is evident. A major reuse value of the dataset is in modelling the spread of an invasive species and applying this to other potential invasive alien species in order to predict and prevent their further spread.


Assuntos
Besouros , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Irlanda , Reino Unido
15.
Biofouling ; 34(7): 784-799, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354802

RESUMO

Growing coastal urbanization together with the intensification of maritime traffic are major processes explaining the increasing rate of biological introductions in marine environments. To investigate the link between international maritime traffic and the establishment of non-indigenous species (NIS) in coastal areas, biofouling communities in three international and three nearby local ports along 100 km of coastline in south-central Chile were compared using settlement panels and rapid assessment surveys. A larger number of NIS was observed in international ports, as expected in these 'invasion hubs'. However, despite a few environmental differences between international and local ports, the two port categories did not display significant differences regarding NIS establishment and contribution to community structure over the studied period (1.5 years). In international ports, the free space could be a limiting factor for NIS establishment. The results also suggest that local ports should be considered in NIS surveillance programs in Chile.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Chile , Navios
16.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204302, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260994

RESUMO

Successful eradication of invasives is facilitated by early detection and prompt onset of control. However, realizing or verifying that a colonization has occurred is difficult for cryptic species especially at low population densities. Responding to the capture or unconfirmed sighting of a cryptic invasive species, and the associated effort to determine if it indicates an incipient (small, localized) population or merely a lone colonizer, is costly and cannot continue indefinitely. However, insufficient detection effort risks erroneously concluding the species is not present, allowing the population to increase in size and expand its range. Evidence for an incipient population requires detection of ≥1 individual; its absence, on the other hand, must be inferred probabilistically. We use an actual rapid response incident and species-specific detection estimates tied to a known density to calculate the amount of effort (with non-sequential detections) necessary to assert, with a pre-defined confidence, that invasive brown treesnakes are absent from the search area under a wide range of hypothetical population densities. We illustrate that the amount of effort necessary to declare that a species is absent is substantial and increases with decreased individual detection probability, decreased density, and increased level of desired confidence about its absence. Such survey investment would be justified where the cost savings due to early detection are large. Our Poisson-based model application will allow managers to make informed decisions about how long to continue detection efforts, should no additional detections occur, and suggests that effort to do so is significantly higher than previously thought. While our model application informs how long to search to infer absence of an incipient population of brown treesnakes, the approach is sufficiently general to apply to other invasive species if density-dependent detection estimates are known or reliable surrogate estimates are available.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12095, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108295

RESUMO

During the last two centuries, thousands of insect species have been transported (largely inadvertently) and established outside of their native ranges worldwide, some with catastrophic ecological and economic impacts. Global variation in numbers of invading species depends on geographic variation in propagule pressure and heterogeneity of environmental resistance to invasions. Elton's diversity-invasibility hypothesis, proposed over sixty years ago, has been widely explored for plants but little is known on how biodiversity affects insect invasions. Here we use species inventories from 44 land areas, ranging from small oceanic islands to entire continents in various world regions, to show that numbers of established insect species are primarily driven by diversity of plants, with both native and non-native plant species richness being the strongest predictor of insect invasions. We find that at large spatial scales, plant diversity directly explains variation in non-native insect species richness among world regions, while geographic factors such as land area, climate and insularity largely affect insect invasions indirectly via their effects on local plant richness.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Insetos/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Geografia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Environ Manage ; 62(6): 1168-1185, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084019

RESUMO

Alien plant invasions in urban areas can have considerable impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Managing urban plant invasions is particularly challenging given the complex interactions between ecological, economic and social elements that exist in the urban milieu. Strategic landscape-scale insights are crucial for guiding management, as are tactical site-scale perspectives to plan and coordinate control efforts on the ground. Integrating these requirements to enhance management efficiency is a major challenge. Decision-support models have considerable potential for guiding and informing management strategies when problems are complex. This study uses multi-criteria decision tools to develop a prioritization framework for managing invasive alien plants (IAPs) in urban areas at landscape and local scales. We used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP; a multi-criteria decision support model) to develop and rank criteria for prioritising IAP management in the City of Cape Town (CoCT), South Africa. Located within a global biodiversity hotspot, Cape Town has a long history of alien plant introductions and a complex socio-political make-up, creating a useful system to explore the challenges associated with managing urban plant invasions. To guide the prioritization of areas for IAP management across the CoCT, a stakeholder workshop was held to identify a goal and criteria for consideration, and to assess the relative importance given to each criterion in IAP management. Workshop attendees were drawn from multiple disciplines involved with different aspects of IAP research and management: government departments, scientists and researchers, and managers with a diverse set of skills and interests. We selected spatial datasets and applied our multi-criteria decision analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to develop a landscape-scale prioritization map. To address issues relevant in an urban setting, we also modified an existing IAP management framework to develop a tactical (site-level) prioritization scheme for guiding on-the-ground control operations. High-priority sites for IAP management were identified at landscape- and local scales across the study area. Factors related to safety and security emerged as pivotal features for setting spatially-explicit priorities for management. The approach applied in this study can be useful for managers in all urban settings to guide the selection and prioritization of areas for IAP management.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Ecologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , África do Sul
19.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 67(1): 32-35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157658

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: In 2016-2017, the monitoring of possible introduction of an invasive mosquito species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera, Culicidae), was conducted in eastern, southern, central and western parts of Bohemia, Czech Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The focus was placed on local major traffic arteries (motorways D1, D3 and D5 and an expressway E49), which connecting South Europe and some of Balkan countries, infested by Ae. albopictus, with the Czech capital Prague. In total, more than 100 ovitraps were placed on 16 study sites - close surroundings of refuelling gas stations and neighbouring parking lots. RESULTS: In August and September 2017, totally eight specimens of Ae. albopictus were collected at the ovitrap site near Mezno/Mitrovice, Central Bohemia on D3 motorway and other two specimens were recovered at the gas station near Rozvadov, West Bohemia on D5 motorway. On the other hand, Ae. albopictus was not recorded on a main Czech motorway D1 connecting Prague and Bratislava capitals during the monitoring. CONCLUSION: The introduction of this mosquito into the Czech Republic is known since 2012 from surroundings of Mikulov town (South Moravian Region), our records were then the first in the region of Bohemia. Moreover, the distance between positive localities shows the potential for Ae. albopictus to be introduced by ground transport anywhere within the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Aedes , Espécies Introduzidas , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , República Tcheca , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10179, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976993

RESUMO

We analyze the invasive potential of two Asian ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus and Euwallacea sp., into Mexico and the southern United States. The fungal symbionts of these beetles have been responsible for damage to trees of the family Lauraceae, including Persea americana and other non-cultivated tree species on both coasts of the United States. We estimate their potential threat using ecological niche modeling and spatial multi-criteria evaluation protocols to incorporate plant and beetle suitabilities as well as forest stress factors across Mexico. Mexico contains higher climatic and habitat suitability for X. glabratus than for Euwallacea sp. Within this country, the neotropical region is most vulnerable to invasion by both of these species. We also identify a corridor of potential invasion for X. glabratus along the Gulf of Mexico coast where most Lauraceae and native Xyleborus species are present; dispersal of either X. glabratus or Euwallacea sp. into this region would likely lead to major disease spread. However, the overall potential damage that these beetles can cause may be a function of how many reproductive hosts and how many other ambrosia beetles are present, as well as of their capacity to disperse. This work can also alert relevant managers and authorities regarding this threat.


Assuntos
Florestas , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Lauraceae/parasitologia , Árvores/parasitologia , Gorgulhos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Clima , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , México , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
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