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3.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900722

RESUMO

Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman), is a severe invasive insect pest of turf, landscapes, and horticultural crops. It has successfully colonized much of the United States and has recently established in mainland Europe. The distribution and voltinism of P. japonica will undoubtedly change as a consequence of climate change, posing additional challenges to the management of this species. To assess these challenges, a process-oriented bioclimatic niche model for P. japonica was developed to examine its potential global distribution under current (1981-2010) and projected climatic conditions (2040-2059) using one emission scenario (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5) and two global climate models, ACCESS1-0 and CNRM-CM5. Under current climatic conditions, the bioclimatic niche model agreed well with all credible distribution data. Model projections indicate a strong possibility of further range expansion throughout mainland Europe under both current and future climates. In North America, projected increases in temperature would enable northward range expansion across Canada while simultaneously shifting southern range limits in the United States. In Europe, the suitable range for P. japonica would increase by 23% by midcentury, especially across portions of the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Scandinavia. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario, cumulative growing degree-days increased, thereby reducing the probability of biannual life cycles in northern latitudes where they can occur, including Hokkaido, Japan, northeastern portions of the United States, and southern Ontario, Canada. The results of this study highlight several regions of increasing and emerging risk from P. japonica that should be considered routinely in ongoing biosecurity and pest management surveys.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Besouros/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917126

RESUMO

Invasive alien species are a major threat to native insular species. Eradicating invasive mammals from islands is a feasible and proven approach to prevent biodiversity loss. We developed a conceptual framework to identify globally important islands for invasive mammal eradications to prevent imminent extinctions of highly threatened species using biogeographic and technical factors, plus a novel approach to consider socio-political feasibility. We applied this framework using a comprehensive dataset describing the distribution of 1,184 highly threatened native vertebrate species (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered or Endangered on the IUCN Red List) and 184 non-native mammals on 1,279 islands worldwide. Based on extinction risk, irreplaceability, severity of impact from invasive species, and technical feasibility of eradication, we identified and ranked 292 of the most important islands where eradicating invasive mammals would benefit highly threatened vertebrates. When socio-political feasibility was considered, we identified 169 of these islands where eradication planning or operation could be initiated by 2020 or 2030 and would improve the survival prospects of 9.4% of the Earth's most highly threatened terrestrial insular vertebrates (111 of 1,184 species). Of these, 107 islands were in 34 countries and territories and could have eradication projects initiated by 2020. Concentrating efforts to eradicate invasive mammals on these 107 islands would benefit 151 populations of 80 highly threatened vertebrates and make a major contribution towards achieving global conservation targets adopted by the world's nations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Ilhas , Mamíferos
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 139: 197-204, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686419

RESUMO

A bloom of putatively non-indigenous species (NIS) Prorocentrum shikokuense was detected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea at the Brindisi harbor (Southern Adriatic Sea) on September 2016, in the context of EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive monitoring in the ports. This species is usually observed in the East China Sea and Japanese and Korean waters. In the Brindisi harbor this dinoflagellate reached the concentration 105 cell/L and represented from 30 to 50% of the total phytoplankton population. Besides this event, Prorocentrum shikokuense has not been found blooming until today in Mediterranean waters. This study suggests the necessity to improve the monitoring surveys in areas that are known vulnerable systems to alien and invasive species, such as ports.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/química , Eutrofização , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 139: 65-73, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686451

RESUMO

Biofouled commercial and recreational vessels are primary vectors for the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). This study designed and assessed a portable system to reactively treat biofouling in the internal pipework of recreational vessels - a high-risk 'niche area' for NIS that is difficult to access and manage. A novel thermal treatment apparatus was optimised in a series of laboratory experiments performed using scale models of vessel pipework configurations. Treatment effectiveness was validated using the Pacific oyster Magallana gigas, a marine NIS with known resilience to heat. In subsequent field validations on actual recreational vessels, treatment was successfully delivered to high-risk portions of pipework when an effective seal between delivery unit and targeted pipework was achieved and ambient heat loss was minimised. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of in-water treatment of vessel pipework, the study highlights the importance of robust optimisation and validation of any treatment system intended for biosecurity purposes.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Recreação , Água do Mar/química , Navios/normas , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Nova Zelândia , Navios/instrumentação
7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(1): 25-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295388

RESUMO

Climate change and increased anthropogenic activities are expected to elevate the potential of introducing nonindigenous species (NIS) into the Arctic. Yet, the knowledge base needed to identify gaps and priorities for NIS research and management is limited. Here, we reviewed primary introduction events to each ecoregion of the marine Arctic realm to identify temporal and spatial patterns, likely source regions of NIS, and the putative introduction pathways. We included 54 introduction events representing 34 unique NIS. The rate of NIS discovery ranged from zero to four species per year between 1960 and 2015. The Iceland Shelf had the greatest number of introduction events (n = 14), followed by the Barents Sea (n = 11), and the Norwegian Sea (n = 11). Sixteen of the 54 introduction records had no known origins. The majority of those with known source regions were attributed to the Northeast Atlantic and the Northwest Pacific, 19 and 14 records, respectively. Some introduction events were attributed to multiple possible pathways. For these introductions, vessels transferred the greatest number of aquatic NIS (39%) to the Arctic, followed by natural spread (30%) and aquaculture activities (25%). Similar trends were found for introductions attributed to a single pathway. The phyla Arthropoda and Ochrophyta had the highest number of recorded introduction events, with 19 and 12 records, respectively. Recommendations including vector management, horizon scanning, early detection, rapid response, and a pan-Arctic biodiversity inventory are considered in this paper. Our study provides a comprehensive record of primary introductions of NIS for marine environments in the circumpolar Arctic and identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities for NIS research and management. Ecosystems worldwide will face dramatic changes in the coming decades due to global change. Our findings contribute to the knowledge base needed to address two aspects of global change-invasive species and climate change.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(3): 1032-1048, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548757

RESUMO

The European Union (EU) has recently published its first list of invasive alien species (IAS) of EU concern to which current legislation must apply. The list comprises species known to pose great threats to biodiversity and needs to be maintained and updated. Horizon scanning is seen as critical to identify the most threatening potential IAS that do not yet occur in Europe to be subsequently risk assessed for future listing. Accordingly, we present a systematic consensus horizon scanning procedure to derive a ranked list of potential IAS likely to arrive, establish, spread and have an impact on biodiversity in the region over the next decade. The approach is unique in the continental scale examined, the breadth of taxonomic groups and environments considered, and the methods and data sources used. International experts were brought together to address five broad thematic groups of potential IAS. For each thematic group the experts first independently assembled lists of potential IAS not yet established in the EU but potentially threatening biodiversity if introduced. Experts were asked to score the species within their thematic group for their separate likelihoods of i) arrival, ii) establishment, iii) spread, and iv) magnitude of the potential negative impact on biodiversity within the EU. Experts then convened for a 2-day workshop applying consensus methods to compile a ranked list of potential IAS. From an initial working list of 329 species, a list of 66 species not yet established in the EU that were considered to be very high (8 species), high (40 species) or medium (18 species) risk species was derived. Here, we present these species highlighting the potential negative impacts and the most likely biogeographic regions to be affected by these potential IAS.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Política Ambiental , União Europeia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(3): 809-820, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insect Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) an important pest worldwide, mainly due to the serious economic losses incurred and the large number of zones invaded. However, current and future spatial distributions of this pest, and the total area of cropland potentially affected have not been estimated. Here, we aim to: (1) estimate the potential geographic distribution of B. hilaris; (2) quantify the total area of cropland potentially affected worldwide, and in two recently colonized zones (California and Chile); and (3) estimate future changes in distribution under different climate change scenarios. RESULTS: We found that B. hilaris shows high environmental suitability in Mediterranean and arid regions, potentially affecting 1 108 184.1 km2 of cropland worldwide. The most affected continents were Asia and America, with 309 659.8 and 294 638.6 km2 of cropland at risk. More than 50% of cropland areas are at risk in seven countries. In California and central Chile, 43.7% and 50% of susceptible crops are at a high level of risk, respectively. Climate change scenarios predict an increase in the potential distribution of B. hilaris worldwide; America being the most affected continent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a spatially explicit baseline from which to focus efforts on the prevention, management and control of this pest worldwide. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Heterópteros , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Distribuição Animal , Animais , California , Chile , Produtos Agrícolas , Geografia
10.
F1000Res ; 72018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416712

RESUMO

Invasive species pose considerable harm to native ecosystems and biodiversity and frustrate and at times fascinate the invasive species management and scientific communities. Of the numerous non-native species established around the world, only a minority of them are invasive and noxious, whereas the majority are either benign or in fact beneficial. Agriculture in North America, for example, would look dramatically different if only native plants were grown as food crops and without the services of the European honey bee as a pollinator. Yet the minority of species that are invasive negatively alter ecosystems and reduce the services they provide, costing governments, industries, and private citizens billions of dollars annually. In this review, I briefly review the consequences of invasive species and the importance of remaining vigilant in the battle against them. I then focus on their management in an increasingly connected global community.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/economia , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências
11.
Sci Data ; 5: 180239, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351305

RESUMO

Invasive alien species are widely recognized as one of the main threats to global biodiversity. Rapid flow of information on the occurrence of invasive alien species is critical to underpin effective action. Citizen science, i.e. the involvement of volunteers in science, provides an opportunity to improve the information available on invasive alien species. Here we describe the dataset created via a citizen science approach to track the spread of a well-studied invasive alien species, the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain and Ireland. This dataset comprises 48 510 verified and validated spatio-temporal records of the occurrence of H. axyridis in Britain and Ireland, from first arrival in 2003, to the end of 2016. A clear and rapid spread of the species within Britain and Ireland is evident. A major reuse value of the dataset is in modelling the spread of an invasive species and applying this to other potential invasive alien species in order to predict and prevent their further spread.


Assuntos
Besouros , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Irlanda , Reino Unido
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(35): 35365-35375, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343371

RESUMO

In coastal wetland ecosystems, most phosphorus (P) accumulates in the sediments and becomes a major pollutant causing eutrophication by recycling to the water column in estuary areas, especially exotic plant invasions will change the nutrient cycling. In this study, a large wetland invaded by exotic species Spartina alterniflora for over 15 years was selected to study the sediment P fractionation and its retention for different plant invasion periods. The samples were collected from east to west in September and the sediment P was fractionated into total P (TP), inorganic P (IP), iron/aluminum-bound P (Fe/Al-P), calcium-bound P (Ca-P), and organic P (OP). Additionally, the effect of the invasion period on the wetland P fractionation based on space-time reciprocal principle was investigated. For different S. alterniflora invasion periods, the average TP concentration was 675.37 mg kg-1 with a range of 160.33-1071 mg kg-1. The IP concentration was in the range of 107.33-813.33 mg kg-1 (accounting for 54.4-79.5% of TP), of which Fe/Al-P and Ca-P represented up to 99.4%. In addition, the P retention (RP) was within 41.67-329.67 mg kg-1. We also found that TP, IP, Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, OP, and RP in sediments were negatively correlated with pH (p < 0.05), and were also significantly positively correlated (p < 0.01) with water content and electrical conductivity. There were positive correlations between the various forms of P in the sediments (p < 0.01). However, the most important finding was that invasion time of S. alterniflora had a direct effect on the P speciation and three stages were determined. In the first stage, S. alterniflora mainly consumed the OP of the sediment. In the second stage, S. alterniflora showed great vitality and biological immobilization led to the transforming of IP to OP. In the third stage, all P fractions greatly decreased to values even lower than for the bare beach which indicated that S. alterniflora growth had begun to degenerate. These three stages well explained the P seemingly contradictory increases and decreases apparent in previous studies and provide important information for understanding the effect of S. alterniflora invasion.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Fósforo/análise , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Estuários , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise
13.
PLoS Biol ; 16(5): e2006025, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851948

RESUMO

Global trade and the movement of people accelerate biological invasions by spreading species worldwide. Biosecurity measures seek to allow trade and passenger movements while preventing incursions that could lead to the establishment of unwanted pests, pathogens, and weeds. However, few data exist to evaluate whether changes in trade volumes, passenger arrivals, and biosecurity measures have altered rates of establishment of nonnative species over time. This is particularly true for pathogens, which pose significant risks to animal and plant health and are consequently a major focus of biosecurity efforts but are difficult to detect. Here, we use a database of all known plant pathogen associations recorded in New Zealand to estimate the rate at which new fungal pathogens arrived and established on 131 economically important plant species over the last 133 years. We show that the annual arrival rate of new fungal pathogens increased from 1880 to about 1980 in parallel with increasing import trade volume but subsequently stabilised despite continued rapid growth in import trade and recent rapid increases in international passenger arrivals. Nevertheless, while pathogen arrival rates for crop and pasture species have declined in recent decades, arrival rates have increased for forestry and fruit tree species. These contrasting trends between production sectors reflect differences in biosecurity effort and suggest that targeted biosecurity can slow pathogen arrival and establishment despite increasing trade and international movement of people.


Assuntos
Comércio/história , Fungos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Medidas de Segurança/história , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Espécies Introduzidas/legislação & jurisprudência , Nova Zelândia , Medidas de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Árvores/microbiologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 1061-1068, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843207

RESUMO

Citizen science is a powerful tool that can be used to resolve the problems of introduced species. An amateur naturalist and author of this paper, S. Watanabe, recorded the total number of Limax maximus (Limacidae, Pulmonata) individuals along a fixed census route almost every day for two years on Hokkaido Island, Japan. L. maximus is an invasive slug considered a pest species of horticultural and agricultural crops. We investigated how weather conditions were correlated to the intensity of slug activity using for the first time in ecology the recently developed statistical analyses, Bayesian regularization regression with comparisons among Laplace, Horseshoe and Horseshoe+ priors for the first time in ecology. The slug counts were compared with meteorological data from 5:00 in the morning on the day of observation (OT- and OD-models) and the day before observation (DBOD-models). The OT- and OD-models were more supported than the DBOD-models based on the WAIC scores, and the meteorological predictors selected in the OT-, OD- and DBOD-models were different. The probability of slug appearance was increased on mornings with higher than 20-year-average humidity (%) and lower than average wind velocity (m/s) and precipitation (mm) values in the OT-models. OD-models showed a pattern similar to OT-models in the probability of slug appearance, but also suggested other meteorological predictors for slug activities; positive effect of solar radiation (MJ) for example. Five meteorological predictors, mean and highest temperature (°C), wind velocity (m/s), precipitation amount (mm) and atmospheric pressure (hPa), were selected as the effective factors for the counts in the DBOD-models. Therefore, the DBOD-models will be valuable for the prediction of slug activity in the future, much like a weather forecast.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Humanos , Umidade , Japão , Temperatura Ambiente , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 129(1): 86-91, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680572

RESUMO

Blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea frequently occur in coastal waters. The increased availability of substrates for the settlement and proliferation of polyps due to the expansion of artificial structures in coastal areas has been proposed as a possible contributing factor in jellyfish blooms. This paper investigates whether a marine artificial lake (Fenghuang Lake) provides additional substrates for A. coerulea polyps and contributes to jellyfish blooms. High densities of A. coerulea ephyrae were discovered in this lake, with a mean density of 41 individuals/m3 and a maximum measured density of 128 individuals/m3. Meanwhile, A. coerulea ephyrae were also found in the two emptying channels outside the lake, with a mean density of 13 individuals/m3. Underwater surveys revealed that dense colonies of A. coerulea polyps occurred mainly on biogenic reefs formed by a polychaete, which was identified as an invasive serpulid species Hydroides dianthus, based on the phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI gene sequences. Our study highlights the potential modification of habitats by the alien polychaete H. dianthus, which might provide complex benthic habits suitable for the settlement and proliferation of A. coerulea polyps and may contribute to jellyfish blooms in the marine artificial lake and nearby coastal waters.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Lagos/química , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Poliquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cifozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Filogenia , Poliquetos/fisiologia
16.
PLoS Biol ; 16(4): e2005987, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684017

RESUMO

A consistent determinant of the establishment success of alien species appears to be the number of individuals that are introduced to found a population (propagule pressure), yet variation in the form of this relationship has been largely unexplored. Here, we present the first quantitative systematic review of this form, using Bayesian meta-analytical methods. The relationship between propagule pressure and establishment success has been evaluated for a broad range of taxa and life histories, including invertebrates, herbaceous plants and long-lived trees, and terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates. We found a positive mean effect of propagule pressure on establishment success to be a feature of every hypothesis we tested. However, establishment success most critically depended on propagule pressures in the range of 10-100 individuals. Heterogeneity in effect size was associated primarily with different analytical approaches, with some evidence of larger effect sizes in animal rather than plant introductions. Conversely, no variation was accounted for in any analysis by the scale of study (field to global) or methodology (observational, experimental, or proxy) used. Our analyses reveal remarkable consistency in the form of the relationship between propagule pressure and alien population establishment success.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Modelos Estatísticos , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Plantas , Poaceae/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Tamanho da Amostra , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/fisiologia , Vertebrados/fisiologia
17.
PLoS Biol ; 16(4): e2005568, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664943

RESUMO

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) emphasises the role of biodiversity in delivering benefits essential for all people and, as a result, seeks to safeguard all life-forms. The indices that are used to measure progress towards international conservation and sustainability goals, however, focus solely on the 'native' component of biodiversity. A subset of non-native species can cause undesirable economic, social, or biological effects. But non-native species also contribute to regional biodiversity (species richness and biotic interactions) and ecosystem services. In some regions and cities, non-native species make up more than half of all species. Currently, the contributions of these species to biodiversity and ecosystem services are overlooked. Here, I argue that biodiversity and sustainability indices should include all species. This is not only consistent with definitions of biodiversity but also will promote the idea that long-term, sustainable, human well-being is intricately tied to benefits derived from nature.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plantas , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 128: 185-196, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571362

RESUMO

Some marine invertebrates can inhabit floating substrates, and raft over long distances, becoming a significant environmental problem in terms of alien species and habitat disruption. On the Atlantico Department beaches (Colombia) woody debris and plastic litter dominate (86%) the types of refuse on the beaches with their densities ranging from 0.82-1.72 items m-1. Such litter and woody debris generate the optimal conditions for floating colonizers. In this work, 26 beaches were surveyed, and 16 of them (62%) were found to have marine fauna using litter and woody debris as a substrate for potential rafting and dispersal. Serpulidae polychaete tubes, goose barnacles Lepas (Anatifa) anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, and the bryozoans Arbopercula tenella (Hincks, 1880), Arbopercula angulata (Levinsen, 1909), plus three unidentified species were found colonizing woody debris, seeds, plastic and glass bottles. These findings of woody debris and litter facilitating the arrival and dispersal of non-native species on this coast, demonstrate that preventive management of such refuse in coastal habitats goes beyond simply preserving coastal esthetics.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Praias/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Madeira/análise , Animais , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 128: 318-323, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571378

RESUMO

A modified version of the ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) has been recently proposed to evaluate biological invasions in macroalgal assemblages. ALEX was applied in a Marine Protected Area where a recreational-fishing port is present testing the following hypotheses: ALEX increases with the distance from the port, it changes between the two directions off the port and it changes among three different habitats: Cystoseira beds, algal turf and dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. A total of 78 native macroalgal taxa and 4 introduced species were found, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa cylindracea and the Rhodophyta Apoglossum gregarium, Acrothamnion preissii and Womersleyella setacea. All study sites were in high quality status highlighting that the assemblages investigated were at an early stage of NIS invasion. However, ALEX detected different values among conditions and habitats within the MPA, suggesting a local dynamics of NIS spread and different resistance to invasion of the investigated habitats.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Água do Mar/química , Alga Marinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Itália , Alga Marinha/classificação , Navios , Instalações de Transporte
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 128: 41-50, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571391

RESUMO

Early detection is important for successful management of invasive species, but optimising monitoring systems to detect multiple species from different taxonomic groups remains a major challenge. Settlement plates are often used to monitor non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) associated with vessel biofouling, but there have been few assessments of their fitness-for-purpose. We deployed arrays of settlement plates ("settlement arrays") containing combinations of treatments that reflected conditions associated with the vessel transport pathway (i.e., copper based antifouling coatings, shaded habitat) to determine the treatment combinations that maximised NIMS diversity. Horizontal (shaded) treatments preferentially sampled higher NIS diversity than vertical plates. Although plates with copper-based biocides had larger proportions of NIS to indigenous species, they sampled only a subset of NIS diversity. Overall diversity was greatly enhanced through use of multiple treatments, demonstrating benefits of multi-faceted sampling arrays for maximising the potential taxonomic and species richness.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Cobre/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biologia Marinha , Nova Zelândia , Água do Mar/química , Navios
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