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1.
Lancet ; 393(10188): 2291, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180023
2.
Med Humanit ; 45(2): 131-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048329

RESUMO

The impact of social and material conditions on mental health is well established but lacking in a coherent approach. We offer the concept of 'vitality' as means of describing how environments facilitate 'feelings of being alive' that cut across existing diagnostic categories. Drawing on the work of Stern, Fuchs, Worms and Duff, we argue that vitality is not solely a quality of an individual body, but rather emerges from attunements and resonances between bodies and materials. We use vitality as a lens to explore how movements within and between assembled sets of relations can facilitate or disable feelings and expressions of being alive. Building on extended discussions of both inpatient and community-based mental healthcare, we sketch out a research agenda for analysing 'vital spaces'.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Espaço Pessoal , Filosofia Médica , Humanos
3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0210045, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095562

RESUMO

Representations of the body and peripersonal space can be distorted for people with some chronic pain conditions. Experimental pain induction can give rise to similar, but transient distortions in healthy individuals. However, spatial and bodily representations are dynamic, and constantly update as we interact with objects in our environment. It is unclear whether induced pain disrupts the mechanisms involved in updating these representations. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of induced pain on the updating of peripersonal space and body representations during and following tool-use. We compared performance under three conditions (pain, active placebo, neutral) on a visuotactile crossmodal congruency task and a tactile distance judgement task to measure updating of peripersonal space and body representations, respectively. Consistent with previous findings, the difference in crossmodal interference from visual distractors in the same compared to opposite visual field to the tactile target was less when tools were crossed than uncrossed. This suggests an extension of peripersonal space to incorporate the tips of the tools. Also consistent with previous findings, estimates of the felt tactile distance judgements decreased after active tool-use. In contrast to our predictions, however, we found no evidence that pain interfered with performance on either task when compared to the control conditions. Our findings suggest that the updating of peripersonal space and body representations is not disrupted by induced pain. That is, experiencing acute pain does not give rise to distorted representations of the body and peripersonal space that can be present in people with chronic pain conditions.


Assuntos
Dor/fisiopatologia , Espaço Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Campos Visuais , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(3): 855-864, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617745

RESUMO

Peripersonal space (PPS) is created by a multisensory interaction between different sensory modalities and can be modified by experience. In this article, we investigated whether an auditory training, inside the peripersonal space area, can modify the PPS around the head in sighted participants. The auditory training was based on echolocation. We measured the participant's reaction times to a tactile stimulation on the neck, while task-irrelevant looming auditory stimuli were presented. Sounds more strongly affect tactile processing when located within a limited distance from the body. We measured spatially dependent audio-tactile interaction as a proxy of PPS representation before and after an echolocation training. We found a significant speeding effect on tactile RTs after echolocation, specifically when sounds where around the location where the echolocation task was performed. This effect could not be attributed to a task repetition effect nor to a shift of spatial attention, as no changes of PPS were found in two control groups of participants, who performed the PPS task after either a break or a temporal auditory task (with stimuli located at the same position of echolocation task). These findings show that echolocation affects multisensory processing inside PPS representation, likely to better represent the space where external stimuli, have to be localized.


Assuntos
Espaço Pessoal , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 62: 44-51, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with paraphilias have sexual interests that are unusual, including inanimate objects, places, or individuals (children, corpses). This study explores zoophiles (=PSA, people who have sex with animals) recruited from the Internet. METHOD: We administered a survey of own design via the Internet on popular discussion forums targeting the communities of PSA. All responses were quantified as the percentage of agreeing with one of the possible answer choices, plus the interpretation of qualitative data that may have been supplied in additional space. RESULTS: Survey questions were thematically categorized into four groups - worldview, personal space, sex life, and online space. PSA are remarkably self-aware of their sexuality and recognize that their behavior is illegal (even though they perceive it as an expression of love); they often relate their struggles with finding social acceptance to homosexuality, believing that one way of de-stigmatizing them would be to remove zoophilia from the list of disorders listed in the DSM. Concerning sex life, PSA believe that the quality of sex with animals is much higher than with humans, and physical features, such as the presence of a fur, can be sexually arousing to PSA, especially when seeing animals in public. PSA utilize the Internet to network and connect with other PSA; these Internet-based friendships usually do not extend beyond online conversations, given that PSA tend to be mistrustful of other zoophiles particularly in the area of personal safety. CONCLUSIONS: One of the most essential basis of zoophilia is relationship seeking behavior as well as interest in forming a long-term relationship with an animal partner.


Assuntos
Transtornos Parafílicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Adulto , Animais , Literatura Erótica , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espaço Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 193: 113-122, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622020

RESUMO

The notion of a personal space surrounding one's ego-center is time-honored. However, few attempts have been made to measure the shape of this space. With increasing use of virtual environments, the question has arisen if real-world aspects, such as gender-effects or the shape of personal space, translate to virtual setups. We conducted two experiments, one with real people matched according to body height and level of acquaintance in a large laboratory setting, and one where subjects faced a virtual character, likewise matched to their body height. The first experiment also used a mannequin in place of the second human observer. The second experiment additionally manipulated the perspective of the subject to compare estimates of interpersonal distance between an egocentric and an allocentric perspective (in third-person view). Subjects approached (or were approached) from different angles until a comfortable distance for conversation with a stranger was reached (stop-distance task). Personal space turned out to be rather circular with a radius of about 1 m. Male pairs kept larger distances from one another than female or mixed-gender pairs. All subjects assumed larger distances to the mannequin compared to the real observer. Very comparable distances were preferred to the avatar in the virtual environment. Also, it did not matter whether the subject was engaged in active approach, was approached, or merely adjusted the distance between two avatars. Implications for theories of personal space are discussed.


Assuntos
Espaço Pessoal , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 23: e-1261, jan.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1048185

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: a amamentação é fortemente influenciada por diversos fatores, e a falta de um lugar privado e o constrangimento em locais público desencorajam as mulheres. OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção da mulher sobre o espaço para amamentar. MÉTODO: pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa desenvolvida com 30 mulheres grávidas e puérperas internadas na maternidade de um hospital universitário do estado do Espírito Santo. A análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin e a Teoria Interativa de Amamentação foram utilizadas para a sistematização dos dados. RESULTADOS: a maioria das mulheres relatou que iria amamentar em lugares públicos, no entanto, todas disseram que cobririam seus peitos com pano ou fralda e que se sentem mais confortáveis para amamentar em casa. As mulheres relataram sentir-se confortáveis quando estão próximas de mulheres, familiares ou amigas conhecidas, enquanto perto de homens, conhecidos ou não, sentem-se desconfortáveis e cobrem seus peitos para amamentar. E próximas de profissionais de saúde a maioria se sente confortável, já que orientam e apoiam a amamentação. CONCLUSÃO: amamentar em espaços públicos ainda causa desconforto, constrangimento e vergonha nas mulheres.(AU)


Introduction: breastfeeding is strongly influenced by many factors, and the lack of a private place and embarrassment in public places discourage women. Objective: to evaluate women's perceptions of space for breastfeeding. Method: a descriptive research with a qualitative approach developed with 30 pregnant and postpartum women admitted to the maternity ward of a university hospital in the Espírito Santo State. The content analysis proposed by Bardin and the Interactive Breastfeeding Theory were used to systematize the data. Results: most women reported that they would breastfeed in public places, but all said they would cover their breasts with cloth or diaper and feel more comfortable breastfeeding at home. Women reported feeling comfortable when they are close to known women, family or friends, while close to men, known or not, feel uncomfortable and cover their breasts for breastfeeding. And close to health professionals most feel comfortable as they guide and support breastfeeding. Conclusion: breastfeeding in public spaces still causes discomfort, embarrassment and shame in women.(AU)


Introducción: la lactancia materna está muy influenciada por varios factores. La falta de un lugar privado y la vergüenza de exponerse en lugares públicos desalientan a las mujeres. Objetivo: evaluar las percepciones de las mujeres sobre los espacios para lactancia materna. Método: investigación descriptiva de enfoque cualitativo desarrollado con 30 mujeres embarazadas y en el posparto ingresadas en la maternidad de un hospital universitario del estado de Espírito Santo. Se utilizaron el análisis de contenido propuesto por Bardin y la Teoría Interactiva de la Lactancia materna para sistematizar los datos. Resultados: la mayoría de las mujeres declararon que amamantarían a sus niños en lugares públicos; todas ellas dijeron que cubrirían los senos con una tela o un pañal y que se sentirían más cómodas para amamantar en casa. Las mujeres manifestaron sentirse cómodas cuando están cerca de mujeres conocidas, familiares o amigos y que se sienten incómodas cuando están cerca de hombres, conocidos o no, y que se cubren los senos. La mayoría se siente cómoda cerca de los profesionales de la salud ya que guían y apoyan la lactancia materna. Conclusión: la lactancia materna en espacios públicos todavía causa molestias, bochorno y vergüenza a las mujeres.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Espaço Pessoal , Vergonha , Aleitamento Materno , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil , Desmame , Saúde Materno-Infantil
8.
Neuroimage ; 189: 32-44, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583066

RESUMO

Endoscopic surgery requires skilled bimanual use of complex instruments that extend the peri-personal workspace. To delineate brain structures involved in learning such surgical skills, 48 medical students without surgical experience were randomly assigned to five training sessions on a virtual-reality endoscopy simulator or to a non-training group. Brain activity was probed with functional MRI while participants performed endoscopic tasks. Repeated task performance in the scanner was sufficient to enhance task-related activity in left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the anterior Intraparietal Sulcus (aIPS). Simulator training induced additional increases in task-related activation in right PMv and aIPS and reduced effective connectivity from left to right PMv. Skill improvement after training scaled with stronger task-related activation of the lateral left primary motor hand area (M1-HAND). The results suggest that a bilateral fronto-parietal grasping network and left M1-HAND are engaged in bimanual learning of tool-based manipulations in an extended peri-personal space.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/educação , Mãos/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Espaço Pessoal , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 73(2): 193-202, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503381

RESUMO

Violent traumatic injury remains a common condition treated by emergency physicians. The medical management of these patients is well described and remains an area of focus for providers. However, violently injured patients disproportionately carry a history of physical and psychological trauma that frequently affects clinical care in the emergency department. The alteration of our clinical approach, taking into consideration how a patient's previous experiences influence how he or she may perceive and react to medical care, is a concept referred to as trauma-informed care. This approach is based on 4 pillars: knowledge of the effect of trauma, recognition of the signs and symptoms of trauma, avoidance of retraumatization, and the development of appropriate policies and procedures. Using this framework, we provide practical considerations for emergency physicians in the delivery of trauma-informed care for violently injured patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Família/ética , Violência/psicologia , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Ambiente de Instituições de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Espaço Pessoal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Violência/prevenção & controle
10.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(5-6): 836-849, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To better understand how nurses experience and react to intimate and sexual expressions of nursing home residents. BACKGROUND: Although many nursing home residents continue to desire intimacy and sexual expression, they commonly perceive negative attitudes of nursing staff towards them as a major barrier to their sexual well-being. To eliminate this barrier, it is crucial to gain a more in-depth understanding of nurses' personal experiences and reactions towards intimacy and sexuality in aged care. DESIGN: Our study used a qualitative design, rooted in grounded theory. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 15 nurses between 34 and 59 years of age were conducted. Participating nurses were recruited from seven different nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. We used the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL) for data analysis. We followed the COREQ guidelines to ensure rigour in our study. RESULTS: Nurses experienced and dealt with intimate and sexual expressions of residents in an individual way, which was focused on setting and respecting their own sexual boundaries and those of residents and family members. Depending on their comfort level with residents' expressions, nurses responded in three ways: active facilitation, tolerance and termination. Nurses' responses depended on contextual factors, including their personal experiences with sexuality, the nature of their relationship with the residents involved, the presence of dementia and the organisational culture of the facility. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses face a wide range of experiences and emotions when confronted with residents' expressions of sexuality and intimacy. A supportive approach is needed to guide nurses in dealing with these highly sensitive situations. This approach can be promoted at the institutional level through continuous educational programmes. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study advocates a contextual and interpretative ethical approach to sexuality in older adults, taking as starting point nurses' own vulnerability and that of residents and relatives.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Demência , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cultura Organizacional , Espaço Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Respeito
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 192: 42-51, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412839

RESUMO

The peripersonal space (PPS) is the space surrounding our body, represented in a multisensory fashion by integrating stimuli of different modalities. Recently, it has been demonstrated that PPS is emotionally connoted, being sensitive to the different affective valence of the stimuli located inside it. However, how visuo-tactile interactions can be spatially shaped by intrinsic or acquired valence of stimuli is not clear. To investigate this, we conducted three experiments in which participants performed a visuo-tactile interaction task, while the intrinsic valence (Exp. 1 and 2) or the learned valence (Exp. 3) of visual stimuli was manipulated. Participants were asked to respond as fast as possible to a tactile stimulus that was delivered while a visual stimulus was approaching (Exp.1 and 3) or receding (Exp.2) from the hand. Touch was synchronized with different distances of the visual stimulus from the hand. We found that both the expectancy of stimulus and the distance of the visual one from the hand impact RTs to tactile targets. Crucially, we found that spatial modulation was also influenced by stimulus valence, but only for the approaching and not the receding stimuli. At far distances, neutral stimuli yielded overall slower RTs than intrinsically positive or negative stimuli (Experiment 1), while no modulation was exerted by the level of conditioning (Experiment 3). At near distances, response to touches accompanied by looming neutral stimuli became as fast as that occurring with positive and negative ones. Stimulus valence did not interact with the expectancy of a tactile stimulus (Experiment 2). Overall, these findings support the vision that visuo-tactile interactions can be dynamically modulated by the valence of looming visual stimuli when these are located at longer distances from the body. When closer to it, all stimuli acquire saliency, regardless of their intrinsic or acquired valence, due to their proximity, and then relevance, to the body. Overall, a view of PPS as a gradient modulating visuo-tactile integration, also based on stimulus valence, is discussed.


Assuntos
Espaço Pessoal , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Res ; 83(6): 1184-1193, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305653

RESUMO

Previous research has associated men's physical features such as height and Shoulder-to-Hip Ratio (SHR) with dominance. Proxemics literature has suggested that the interpersonal space (comfort distance) increases in threatening and uncomfortable situations and decreases in unthreatening and comfortable situations. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of different heights and SHRs on comfortable interpersonal distance by systematic manipulation of virtual confederates bodily features. More specifically, participants determined their comfort distances from virtual male confederates with different heights and SHRs in a virtual environment. We hypothesized that a virtual confederate's height and SHR influences the perception of interpersonal dominance; and consequently interpersonal space increases for taller and broader confederates as a result of increased interpersonal dominance. Results showed that comfortable interpersonal distance was positively associated with height for male participants, but not for female participants. No effect was found for shoulder width, neither for male nor female participants. Results were discussed in terms of the importance of height as a signal of dominance and fighting ability.


Assuntos
Estatura , Relações Interpessoais , Espaço Pessoal , Percepção Social , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 122: 350-364, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174855

RESUMO

This paper presents an enhanced model that considers the specifications of personal space to describe uni- and bi-directional pedestrian movement on stairs. The shape of the personal space of each pedestrian is regarded as an oval shape, which is composed of four arcs, to precisely quantify movements. Specific models that facilitate the simulation of movement include adjustments to individual speeds based on the proximity of other members, conflict avoidance, overtaking, and direction finding. By implementing these parameters in the simulation, basic data concerning these movement behaviours were collected from the experiment, which was carried out at one a Shanghai subway station. Twenty-four young college students participated in this experiment. Numerical simulation results for a stochastic case under those parameters were obtained. The fundamental diagrams and moving behaviours according to different proportions of ascending and descending pedestrians are analysed and discussed. The results indicate that the simulation platform for personal space can serve as a useful tool to evaluate pedestrian movement on stairs.


Assuntos
Pedestres/psicologia , Espaço Pessoal , Subida de Escada , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia
14.
Psychol Sci ; 29(11): 1868-1877, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285541

RESUMO

Closer objects are invariably perceived as bigger than farther ones and are therefore easier to detect and discriminate. This is so deeply grounded in our daily experience that no question has been raised as to whether the advantage for near objects depends on other features (e.g., depth itself). In a series of five experiments ( N = 114), we exploited immersive virtual environments and visual illusions (i.e., Ponzo) to probe humans' perceptual abilities in depth and, specifically, in the space closely surrounding our body, termed peripersonal space. We reversed the natural distance scaling of size in favor of the farther object, which thus appeared bigger, to demonstrate a persistent shape-discrimination advantage for close objects. Psychophysical modeling further suggested a sigmoidal trend for this benefit, mirroring that found for multisensory estimates of peripersonal space. We argue that depth is a fundamental, yet overlooked, dimension of human perception and that future studies in vision and perception should be depth aware.


Assuntos
Percepção de Distância , Ilusões , Espaço Pessoal , Percepção Espacial , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15819, 2018 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361477

RESUMO

It has been suggested that the integration of multiple body-related sources of information within the peri-personal space (PPS) scaffolds body ownership. However, a normative computational framework detailing the functional role of PPS is still missing. Here we cast PPS as a visuo-proprioceptive Bayesian inference problem whereby objects we see in our environment are more likely to engender sensations as they come near to the body. We propose that PPS is the reflection of such an increased a priori probability of visuo-proprioceptive coupling that surrounds the body. To test this prediction, we immersed participants in a highly realistic virtual reality (VR) simulation of their right arm and surrounding environment. We asked participants to perform target-directed reaches toward visual, proprioceptive, and visuo-proprioceptive targets while visually displaying their reaching arm (body visible condition) or not (body invisible condition). Reach end-points are analyzed in light of the coupling prior framework, where the extension of PPS is taken to be represented by the spatial dispersion of the coupling prior between visual and proprioceptive estimates of arm location. Results demonstrate that if the body is not visible, the spatial dispersion of the visuo-proprioceptive coupling relaxes, whereas the strength of coupling remains stable. By demonstrating a distance-dependent alteration in visual and proprioceptive localization attractive pull toward one another (stronger pull at small spatial discrepancies) when the body is rendered invisible - an effect that is well accounted for by the visuo-proprioceptive coupling prior - the results suggest that the visible body grounds visuo-proprioceptive coupling preferentially in the near vs. far space.


Assuntos
Espaço Pessoal , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 22(12): 1076-1090, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337061

RESUMO

Predominant conceptual frameworks often describe peripersonal space (PPS) as a single, distance-based, in-or-out zone within which stimuli elicit enhanced neural and behavioural responses. Here we argue that this intuitive framework is contradicted by neurophysiological and behavioural data. First, PPS-related measures are not binary, but graded with proximity. Second, they are strongly influenced by factors other than proximity, such as walking, tool use, stimulus valence, and social cues. Third, many different PPS-related responses exist, and each can be used to describe a different space. Here, we reconceptualise PPS as a set of graded fields describing behavioural relevance of actions aiming to create or avoid contact between objects and the body. This reconceptualisation incorporates PPS into mainstream theories of action selection and behaviour.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Espaço Pessoal , Teoria Psicológica , Animais , Humanos
17.
Exp Brain Res ; 236(12): 3251-3265, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220004

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that the integration of visual and tactile information is a necessity to induce ownership over a rubber hand. This idea has recently been challenged by Ferri et al. (Proc R Soc B 280:1-7, 2013), as they found that sense of ownership was evident by mere expectation of touch. In our study, we aimed to further investigate this finding, by studying whether the mere potential for touch yields a sense of ownership similar in magnitude to that resulting from actually being touched. We conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, our set-up was the classical horizontal set-up (similar to Botvinick and Cohen, Nature 391:756, 1998). Sixty-three individuals were included and performed the classical conditions (synchronous, asynchronous), an approached but not touched (potential for touch), and a 'visual only' condition. In the second experiment, we controlled for differences between the current set-up and the vertical set-up used by Ferri et al. (Proc R Soc B 280:1-7, 2013). Fifteen individuals were included and performed a synchronous and various approaching conditions [i.e., vertical approach, horizontal approach, and a control approach (no hands)]. In our first experiment, we found that approaching the rubber hand neither induced a larger proprioceptive drift nor a stronger subjective sense of ownership than asynchronous stimulation did. Generally, our participants gained most sense of ownership in the synchronous condition, followed by the visual only condition. When using a vertical set-up (second experiment), we confirmed previous suggestions that tactile expectation was able to induce embodiment over a foreign hand, similar in magnitude to actual touch, but only when the real and rubber hand were aligned on the vertical axis, thus along the trajectory of the approaching stimulus. These results indicate that our brain uses bottom-up sensory information, as well as top-down predictions for building a representation of our body.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Propriedade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espaço Pessoal , Estimulação Luminosa , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13847, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218103

RESUMO

Body schema, a sensorimotor representation of the body used for planning and executing movements, is plastic because it extends by using a tool to reach far objects. Modifications of peripersonal space, i.e., a functional representation of reach space, usually co-occur with body schema changes. Here, we hypothesized that such plastic changes depend on the experience of controlling the course of events in space trough one's own actions, i.e., the sense of agency. In two experiments, body schema and peripersonal space were assessed before and after the participants' sense of agency over a virtual hand was manipulated. Body schema and peripersonal space enlarged or contracted depending on whether the virtual hand was presented in far space, or closer to the participants' body than the real hand. These findings suggest that body schema and peripersonal space are affected by the dynamic mapping between intentional body movements and expected consequences in space.


Assuntos
Movimento , Espaço Pessoal , Sensação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 68(8): 1238-1242, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of personal space on blood pressure using the Giger and Davidhizar transcultural assessment model. METHODS: The quasi-experimental study was carried out in a maternity hospital located in Isparta, Turkey, from March to July 2014, and comprised all the women hospitalised in the obstetrics and gynaecology clinic. The blood pressure measurements were performed by two nursing students; one male and one female. The questionnaire was composed by the researchers in reference to the sub-dimensions of the Giger and Davidhizar transcultural assessment model. RESULTS: There were 115 women with a mean age of 26.50±4.86 years. Overall, 81(70.4%) patients were members of a nuclear family, and 43(37.4%) were primary school graduates. There was no significant difference in the diastolic blood pressure values measured by female and male students (p>0.05), but systolic blood pressure values measured by the female and male students were significantly different (p<0.05).. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients had increased systolic blood pressure values when they were measured by male nursing students and the increase was correlated with ethnicity and income level.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Espaço Pessoal , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/efeitos adversos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Brain Behav ; 8(9): e01085, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The approach of an external stimulus to the peripersonal space (PPS) modifies some physiological measures, including the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex. CBF measurement may be useful to assess brain activations when producing specific motor responses, likely mediated by cortical and subcortical neural circuits. METHODS: This study investigated PPS in 15 healthy humans by characterizing the hemodynamic responses (pulsatility index, PI; and heart rate, HR) related to different directions of movements of individual's hand toward and backward his/her own face, so to perturb PPS). RESULTS: We observed that the CBF and HR were enhanced more when the stimulated hand was inside the PPS of the face in the passive and active condition than when the hand was outside the PPS and during motor imagery task. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the modulation of PPS-related brain responses depends on specific sensory-motor integration processes related to the location and the final position of a target in the PPS. We may thus propose TCD as a rapid and easy approach to get information concerning brain responses related to stimuli approaching the PPS. Understanding the modulations of brain activations during tasks targeting PPS can help to understand the results of psychophysical and behavioral trials and to plan patient-tailored cognitive rehabilitative training.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Espaço Pessoal , Ultrassom/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Valores de Referência
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