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1.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 459-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ecuadorians are the largest immigrant group in Spain. In countries with preclinical programs of xenotransplantation (XenoTx), it is important to know the population attitude toward them; however, in the Ecuadorian population it is not known. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitude toward XenoTx of organs among the Ecuadorian population residing in Spain. METHODS: Population under study. Ecuadorians residing in Spain. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Sample of population over 15 years stratified by age and sex. Instrument valuation. Validated questionnaire of attitude towards xenotransplantation PCID-XenoTx-Ríos. Setting for the study. Random selection of people to survey based on stratification. RESULTS: Of the 461 respondents, 36% are in favor of XenoTx if the results were similar to those obtained with humans, 15% against, and 49% undecided. If the results were worse than with human organs, 11% would be in favor, 26% against, and 63% undecided. The variables associated with this attitude are age (P = .018), marital status (P = .026), studies (P < .001), comment with family (P = .001), couple attitude (P = .039), attitude toward cadaveric donation (P < .001), previous experience with donation (P = .001), consider the possibility of needing a transplant in the future (P < .001), and attitude toward related living donation (P < .001). In the multivariate analysis, these data persist: university studies (odds ratio [OR] = 3.875; P = .007); in favor of cadaveric organ donation (OR = 2.840; P < .001); previous relationship with donation and organ transplantation (OR = 1.901; P = .026); and consider the possibility of needing a transplant in the future (OR = 4.329; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The attitude toward XenoTx among Ecuadorian residents in Spain is unfavorable and is conditioned by different psychosocial variables.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Transplante Heterólogo , Adulto , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos , Espanha/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos
2.
Anthropol Med ; 27(1): 96-109, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928064

RESUMO

Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and New Age therapies (NAt) are increasingly widespread in the West. Although the variety of therapies they recommend is very extensive, as is the variety of beliefs and practices, there are common ideas shared across both such as the concept of holism and the notion of energy. The case studies examined in this paper, Vittorio and Sol, both suffered from severe personal problems that caused a state of general malaise. They managed to address them through the holistic world. Through their experiences, it is possible to highlight the contradictions of CAM-NAt in the West. While, on one hand, these represent a form of resistance to capitalist culture, on the other there is a risk that CAM-NAt could end up reinforcing capitalistic logic through the establishment of an 'individualistic holism'. The only solution to this situation seems to be a focus on the exercise of personal critical faculties, and an openness to different ways of conceiving the body, the health and diseases, but without, however, being drawn into the moralistic and individualist view that sometimes accompanies these.


Assuntos
Antropologia Médica , Terapias Complementares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Capitalismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(1): 45-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591519

RESUMO

Hostility towards outgroups contributes to costly intergroup conflict. Here we test an intervention to reduce hostility towards Muslims, a frequently targeted outgroup. Our 'collective blame hypocrisy' intervention highlights the hypocrisy involved in the tendency for people to collectively blame outgroup but not ingroup members for blameworthy actions of individual group members. Using both within-subject and between-subject comparisons in a preregistered longitudinal study in Spain, we find that our intervention reduces collective blame of Muslims and downstream anti-Muslim sentiments relative to a matched control condition and that the effects of the intervention persist one month and also one year later. We replicate the benefits of the intervention in a second study. The effects are mediated by reductions in collective blame and moderated by individual differences in preference for consistency. Together, these data illustrate that the collective blame hypocrisy intervention enduringly reduces harmful intergroup attitudes associated with conflict escalation, particularly among those who value consistency in themselves and others.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Processos Grupais , Hostilidade , Preconceito/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Individualidade , Islamismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 235, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The amount of research about orthorexic attitudes and behaviours has increased in the last five years, but is still mainly based on descriptive and anecdotal data, yielding a variety of prevalence data and inconsistent results. The interplay between socio-cultural context and orthorexia has been poorly investigated and is still far from being understood. METHOD: Multicentre, cross-sectional study involving Italian (N = 216), Polish (N = 206) and Spanish (N = 242) university students, assessed through a protocol including informed consent, socio-demographic and anamnestic data sheet and self-administered questionnaires (ORTO-15, Eating Attitudes Test- 26 [EAT-26], Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]). RESULTS: Higher prevalence of orthorexia (as described by the ORTO-15 cutoff) was found in Poland. Female gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), current Eating Disorder, dieting, EAT-26 score ≥ 20 and low/medium Persistence were associated with orthorexia in the whole sample. The cross-cultural comparison showed several differences among the three subgroups of students. CONCLUSIONS: The associations found between orthorexic attitudes, self-reported current eating disorder, BMI and adherence to a dieting need to be supported by further research. The differences among students from the three countries seem to suggest a possible rolve for cultural elements in the construct of orthorexia.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Polônia/etnologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Espanha/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(2): 163-175, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Around the aim of gaining knowledge on the secular trends in nutritional status of the Spanish population, we found a collection of historical records compiled by La Institución Libre de Enseñanza and their alumni association along 47 years. These data had been collected from boys and girls attending summer camps, with a policy of improving health of children with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. The objective is to extract all possible information about growth changes, and eventually any interpretation related to status of the originating families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary data were collected from both unpublished manuscripts containing the original records and publications of the organizing institutions. They had been gathered from 86 summer camps in Spain from 1887 to 1934. In these camps, detailed anthropometric data were collected from every attendee, including body height and weight. The sample population amounts to 1,791 boys and 1,281 girls, between 7 and 16 years of age. RESULTS: Body height and weight, pooled by camp year, age and sex, displayed variable secular increases. A similar observation appears for the body mass index (BMI). As a complement, a comparison was done to contemporary published references from both Spanish and international studies. DISCUSSION: Height, weight, and BMI from the camps may be judged as retardation of growth and malnutrition by modern standards but it is not the case when coetaneous references are considered: no overall significant differences were found with respect to several publications from Spanish and European populations.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Estudantes/história , Adolescente , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Criança , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Espanha/etnologia
6.
Nurse Educ Today ; 82: 1-7, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gypsy Roma Travellers are Europe's largest ethnic minority group. Yet they remain one of the most stigmatised communities who have significant health inequalities. Whilst nurses have a role in promoting health access, there have been minimal studies exploring health care professionals' attitudes towards these communities and no studies exploring nursing students' perceptions. OBJECTIVES: To explore nursing students understanding, knowledge and perceptions of working with Gypsy Roma Travellers. PARTICIPANTS: 23 nursing students from across four European countries (UK, Spain, Belgium, Turkey) participated in the study. The students ages ranged between 19 and 32 year old, there was a mix of students between year one to year three of their programme and both male (n = 3) and female students (n = 19). METHODS: This qualitative research utilised focus groups and one to one interviews based at the four different universities, all following a pre-agreed interview schedule. Focus groups and interviews were conducted by the research team in the students' first language and later translated into English for analysis using thematic analysis. The COREQ criteria were used in the reporting of the study. RESULTS: Four themes were identified which included: Exposure to Gypsy Roma Traveller Communities, Perceptions of Gypsy Roma Traveller cultures, Unhealthy lifestyles and culture and Nursing Gypsy Roma Travellers. CONCLUSIONS: Although personal and professional contact with Gypsy Roma Travellers was limited, most of the students' perceptions of these communities were negative. Nurse educational programmes need to embed transformational learning opportunities enabling student nurses to critically reflect upon values and beliefs of Gypsy Roma Travellers developed both before and during their nursing preparatory programme if they are to work effectively in a respectful, culturally sensitive way. There is also generally, a lack of research focussing upon healthcare professionals' attitudes towards these communities that needs to be explored through further research.


Assuntos
Percepção , Racismo/psicologia , Roma/etnologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Bélgica/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Roma/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/etnologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/etnologia , Reino Unido/etnologia
7.
Acta Med Port ; 32(6): 441-447, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis is defined as the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV acquisition in uninfected individuals. Recognizing the increasing use of informal pre-exposure prophylaxis in Portugal, CheckpointLX, a community clinic targeted to men who have sex with men in Lisbon, Portugal, began offering counselling and follow-up services prior to formal introduction. This study aims to characterize pre-exposure prophylaxis users attending CheckpointLX before formal pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Portugal, and those who were referred to pre-exposure prophylaxis in the National Health Service following formal approval of pre-exposure prophylaxis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data was collected by peer counsellors between May 2015 and September 2018 and inserted in a database. Medical care followed the European AIDS Clinical Society recommendations for pre-exposure prophylaxis eligibility, initiation and follow-up. For formal pre-exposure prophylaxis, the General-Directorate for Health's Pre-exposure Prophylaxis guidelines checklist was used. RESULTS: Until the end of May 2018, CheckpointLX had a total of 90 appointments for wild pre-exposure prophylaxis, of which 64 (71%) were first time visits. As for the 380 service users referred to the National Health Service, most were Portuguese (n = 318, 84%), and the mean age was 31 (8.9) years old. Condomless sex in the last six months with partners of unknown HIV status was the most common eligibility criteria (n = 59, 83%). DISCUSSION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis delivery should be complemented with effective information on the importance of immunization and education on safer practices of drug administration, in the scope of broader preventive sexual health care. CONCLUSION: Much remains to be done in Portugal to ensure that pre-exposure prophylaxis is available to those who need it the most. Offering pre-exposure prophylaxis at community clinics could be a first step.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Lista de Checagem , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/etnologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(5): 1397-1400, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111220

RESUMO

Genetic data from 21 autosomal insertion-null (INNULs) markers found in the InnoTyper® 21 Human DNA Analysis (InnoGenomics®) was evaluated in 190 unrelated individuals from Andalusia. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated for the 20 INNULs. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the study population after Bonferroni correction and showed no signs of linkage between them. The combined power of discrimination and the power of exclusion for the 20 INNULs were 1-7.42352 × 10-9 and 93.60946%, respectively. These data might be useful for the research of population genetics and for individual identification and paternity testing in forensic science.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Ciências Forenses , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Probabilidade , Espanha/etnologia
9.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 32: 123-132, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone apps and wearable devices could augment clinical practice by detecting changes in health status for multiple sclerosis (MS). This study sought to investigate potential barriers and facilitators for uptake and sustained use in (i) people with both relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and progressive MS (PMS) and (ii) across different countries. METHODS: Twenty four participants with MS took part in four focus groups held in three countries (2 in the UK, 1 in Spain, and 1 in Italy) to investigate potential barriers and facilitators for mHealth technology. A systematic thematic analysis was used to extract themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: Facilitators and barriers were organised into functional technology-related factors and non-functional health-related and user-related factors. Twelve themes captured all requirements across the three countries for both RRMS and PMS. Key requirements included accommodation for varying physical abilities, providing information and memory aids. Potential negative effects on mood and providing choice and control as part of overcoming practical challenges were identified. CONCLUSIONS: We took a cross-national perspective and found many similarities between three European countries across people with RRMS and PMS. Future provision should accommodate the key requirements identified to engage people with MS in scalable mHealth interventions.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/etnologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/etnologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Espanha/etnologia , Reino Unido/etnologia
10.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(4): 393-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ethical values of nursing are crucial to the provision of humane care. Human dignity is a core value that must be preserved in order to deliver such care. No studies to date have compared the perceptions of nurses and/or patients regarding the components of dignified care embedded in actual clinical practice. PURPOSE: To explore the delivery of dignified care by professional nurses. This was an ethnographic qualitative study combining inductive and deductive methods to identify emergent themes. A multicenter study carried out in the internal medicine units of four hospitals in Barcelona (Spain). Convenience sampling was used to recruit nurses from the four units. SETTING AND SAMPLE: Multicenter study carried out in the internal medicine units of four hospitals in Barcelona (Spain). Convenience sampling was used to recruit nurses from the four units. METHOD: We conducted 158 hours of participant observation of 27 nurses. Semi-structured individual interviews were undertaken with 20 of these nurses, with data saturation being reached. Data were collected between September 2014 and May 2016 and were analysed using ATLAS.ti 7.2 for Windows. RESULTS: Two themes emerged from the analysis: Delivering dignified care and Factors influencing the delivery of dignified care. The nurses regarded human dignity as one of the key values of their profession. However, there was a discrepancy between their perceptions of the care they offered and what they actually did, due mainly to a lack of awareness about their own practice. Respect, confidentiality, privacy and communication were identified as the key elements underpinning dignified care. Institutional policies were seen as the major obstacle to the delivery of humane care, the key issues being frequent shift rotations, a high patient-nurse ratio and excessive paperwork. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underline the importance of delivering dignified care and the need to ensure that nurses' attitudes and behaviours are consistent with this goal. The ethnographic approach, combining participant observation with individual interviews, revealed discrepancies between nurses' perceptions of the care they offered, or should offer, and what they actually did. This suggests a need for professional forums in which nurses can become more aware of their own clinical practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente/ética , Cuidados de Enfermagem/ética , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Pessoalidade , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha/etnologia
11.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(4): 240-246, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183174

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Las mujeres con antecedentes de diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) tienen mayor riesgo de diabetes. Si bien la etnia puede modificar este riesgo, no disponemos de estudios específicos en nuestro entorno. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la incidencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y prediabetes en el primer año posparto en mujeres con DMG y en un entorno multiétnico e identificar los factores asociados. Pacientes y métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de una cohorte observacional prospectiva de mujeres con DMG que acudieron al control posparto anual en el Hospital del Mar, entre enero de 2004 y marzo de 2016. Resultados: Trescientas cinco mujeres asistieron a las revisiones posparto. De estas, un 47,2% fueron caucásicas, un 22% del centro-sur de Asia, un 12% fueron de origen hispano y un 10% procedían de Marruecos y del este de Asia. La incidencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y de prediabetes fue del 5,2 y el 36,6%, respectivamente. Los factores asociados al metabolismo alterado de la glucosa fueron la etnia no caucásica (OR=3,15, IC 95% [1,85-5,39]), los antecedentes previos de DMG (OR=2,26, IC 95% [1,11-4,59]) y el índice de masa corporal previo al embarazo (OR=1,09, IC 95% [1,04-1,15]). Conclusiones: En una población española de origen multiétnico, la incidencia de alteraciones del metabolismo hidrocarbonado en el primer año posparto de mujeres con antecedentes de DMG fue del 41,8%, siendo el riesgo 3 veces superior en las mujeres no caucásicas que en las caucásicas


Background and aim: Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for diabetes. Ethnicity may modify such risk, but no studies have been conducted in our environment. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes one year after delivery in women with GDM and in a multiethnic background and to identify the associated factors. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospective, observational cohort of women with GDM who attended annual postpartum follow-up visits at Hospital del Mar from January 2004 to March 2016. Results: Three hundred and five women attended postpartum follow-up visits. Of these, 47.2% were Caucasian, 22% from South-Central Asia, 12% from Latin America, and 10% from Morocco and East Asia. Incidence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in these patients were 5.2 and 36.6%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, non-Caucasian origin (OR=3.15, 95% CI [1.85-5.39]), recurrent gestational diabetes (OR=2.26, 95% CI [1.11-4.59]), and pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR=1.09, 95% CI [1.04-1.15]) were independent predictors of impaired glucose tolerance. Conclusions: In a multiethnic Spanish population of women with GDM, incidence of impaired glucose tolerance in the first year after delivery was 41.8%, with a three-fold increased risk for women of non-Caucasian ethnicity


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Incidência , Espanha/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0209125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893316

RESUMO

The Canary Islands' indigenous people have been the subject of substantial archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and genetic research pointing to a most probable North African Berber source. However, neither agreement about the exact point of origin nor a model for the indigenous colonization of the islands has been established. To shed light on these questions, we analyzed 48 ancient mitogenomes from 25 archaeological sites from the seven main islands. Most lineages observed in the ancient samples have a Mediterranean distribution, and belong to lineages associated with the Neolithic expansion in the Near East and Europe (T2c, J2a, X3a…). This phylogeographic analysis of Canarian ancient mitogenomes, the first of its kind, shows that some lineages are restricted to Central North Africa (H1cf, J2a2d and T2c1d3), while others have a wider distribution, including both West and Central North Africa, and, in some cases, Europe and the Near East (U6a1a1, U6a7a1, U6b, X3a, U6c1). In addition, we identify four new Canarian-specific lineages (H1e1a9, H4a1e, J2a2d1a and L3b1a12) whose coalescence dates correlate with the estimated time for the colonization of the islands (1st millennia CE). Additionally, we observe an asymmetrical distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in the ancient population, with certain haplogroups appearing more frequently in the islands closer to the continent. This reinforces results based on modern mtDNA and Y-chromosome data, and archaeological evidence suggesting the existence of two distinct migrations. Comparisons between insular populations show that some populations had high genetic diversity, while others were probably affected by genetic drift and/or bottlenecks. In spite of observing interinsular differences in the survival of indigenous lineages, modern populations, with the sole exception of La Gomera, are homogenous across the islands, supporting the theory of extensive human mobility after the European conquest.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Migrantes/classificação , África do Norte/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Deriva Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Mitocondrial , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha/etnologia
13.
Psychol Assess ; 31(5): 631-642, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667265

RESUMO

The present study examined measurement invariance of the 48-item, 8-factor, Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ) across nationality in college students from the United States, Spain, and Argentina. We also compared latent mean differences and criterion-related validity (i.e., correlation with other alcohol-related outcomes) across countries. Last month drinkers (1,511) from the United States (n = 774, 70.5% female), Argentina (n = 439, 50.6% female), and Spain (n = 298, 72.1% female) completed an online survey measuring alcohol use, drinking motives, college alcohol beliefs, and negative alcohol-related consequences. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported configural and scalar invariance of a 47-item, 8-factor YAACQ across countries. Overall, the correlation analysis supported criterion-related validity (i.e., strong bivariate correlations between the 8 subscales and alcohol consumption, drinking motives and college alcohol beliefs) across countries. Some nonsignificant bivariate correlations and differences in the magnitude of the correlations across countries are discussed. Our findings expand previous work, mostly focused on U.S. samples, by supporting the YAACQ as an adequate measure to assess alcohol-related consequences in youths across countries marked by unique cultural traditions, attitudes, and policies pertaining to alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/normas , Adulto , Argentina/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Espanha/etnologia , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(4): 495-518, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614727

RESUMO

We hypothesized that individuals in cultures typified by lower levels of relational mobility would tend to show more attention to the surrounding social and physical context (i.e., holistic vs. analytic thinking) compared with individuals in higher mobility cultural contexts. Six studies provided support for this idea. Studies 1a and 1b showed that differences in relational mobility in cultures as diverse as the U.S., Spain, Israel, Nigeria, and Morocco predicted patterns of dispositional bias as well as holistic (vs. analytic) attention. Study 2 demonstrated that, for Americans and Japanese, relational mobility offered better predictive validity of these cognitive tendencies than related cultural constructs; moreover, Studies 1b and 2 showed that relational mobility mediated cross-cultural differences in perception and attribution. Studies 3a and 3b showed that lower relational mobility induces a weaker sense of internal locus of control and a stronger sense of external locus of control, which led to more holistic (vs. analytic) cognition. Last, Study 4 replicated these results in an experimental setting and demonstrated the causal effect of relational mobility on analytic/holistic cognition. Overall, we suggest that relational mobility may be an important socioecological factor that can help explain robust cognitive differences observed across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Interpessoais , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Japão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Nigéria/etnologia , Percepção Social , Espanha/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
15.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 34(2): e2688, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether or not cultural differences influence beliefs about the necessity of taking prescribed psychiatric drugs and concern about their adverse effects in psychiatric outpatients in Spain, Argentina, and Venezuela. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,372 adult psychiatric outpatients using 2,438 psychotropic drugs and was designed to assess outpatients' beliefs about their prescribed medication. Patients completed sociodemographic, clinical questionnaires, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire Specific Scale and registered scores ranging from 1 to 5 on each of two subscales: concern and necessity. A "necessity-concern differential" was obtained by calculating the difference (range -4 to +4). RESULTS: The global score, including all drugs in the total sample, had a mean necessity score of 3.50 ± 0.95, a mean concern score of 2.97 ± 0.99, and a mean differential score of 0.54 ± 1.42. The concern and necessity mean scores varied significantly across these three culturally Hispanic countries, probably across drug classes, and were associated with treatment duration. On the other hand, age and education played a very limited role. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the diverse effects of culture and society on these attitudes is highly relevant for the development of responsive mental health services in multicultural societies.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Cultura , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Argentina/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/etnologia , Venezuela/etnologia
16.
J Atten Disord ; 23(1): 22-31, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the effect of cultural and gender differences in ADHD among Spanish, African American, Hispanic American, and European American young adults. METHOD: Structural equivalence between the four groups was examined by Tucker's phi coefficient. A MANCOVA was carried out with cultural groups and gender as factors and age as covariate. RESULTS: Structural equivalence was observed across all groups, and no differential item functioning was found. No significant effect was found for gender, although, with the exception of the Hispanic group, males scored higher than females. Furthermore, small, though significant, cultural differences were found. The lowest levels of ADHD were observed in the European American group and the highest in the Hispanic American group. ADHD symptoms, notably inattention, showed some decline with age. CONCLUSION: Findings extend existing data and suggest a relationship between culture and the development of ADHD, which might be mediated by parenting style.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etnologia , Cultura , Caracteres Sexuais , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Espanha/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(4): 435-444, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is the most commonly used test to detect olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the cut-off score for clinical purposes is often difficult to establish because of age and sex effects. The current work aims to study the sensitivity and specificity of the UPSIT Spanish version and its accuracy in discriminating PD patients at different age groups from healthy controls (HC), and to perform an item analysis. METHOD: Ninety-seven non-demented PD patients and 65 HC were assessed with the UPSIT Spanish version. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for PD were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was used to define predictors of UPSIT scores. RESULTS: Using the normative cut-off score for anosmia (≤18), the UPSIT showed a sensitivity of 54.6% with a specificity of 100.0% for PD. We found that, using the UPSIT cut-off score of ≤25, sensitivity was 81.4% and specificity 84.6% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.908). Diagnosis and age were good predictors of UPSIT scores (B = -10.948; p < .001; B = -0.203; p < .001). When optimal cut-off scores were considered according to age ranges (≤60, 61-70, and ≥71), sensitivity and specificity values were >80.0% for all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the Spanish UPSIT version, sensitivity and specificity are improved when specific cut-off scores for different age groups are computed.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Traduções , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha/etnologia
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 49(3): e13060, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waist circumference has been suggested as predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents but it has not been compared with newly proposed anthropometric indexes. This study aimed to disclose the capacity of ten classic and novel anthropometric indexes to discriminate by the presence of MetS in this young population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 981 adolescents (13.2 ± 1.2 years) randomly recruited from eighteen schools in south-east Spain. Body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal volume index (AVI), body roundness index (BRI), body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body adiposity index for paediatrics (BAIp), conicity index (C-Index), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body shape index (ABSI) were measured and calculated. Receiver-operator curves (ROC) were created to determine the discriminatory capacity of these anthropometric parameters for MetS. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 7.0% for boys and 6.1% in girls. Participants with MetS had significantly higher levels of blood pressure and plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin. All anthropometric indexes were elevated in MetS individuals compared to the non-MetS group. AVI and WC showed the highest AUC values (0.83 for boys and 0.86 for girls). In contrast, according to ROC analyses, no anthropometric index was capable of discriminating the components of MetS (hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycaemia and low-HDL levels), except for abdominal obesity. CONCLUSION: We suggest the use of WC and AVI, with the cut-off points presented herein, for the discrimination between adolescents with or without MetS.


Assuntos
Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Circunferência da Cintura , Adiposidade/etnologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Espanha/etnologia
19.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(2): 305-314, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Negative symptoms are currently viewed as having a 2-dimensional structure, with factors reflecting diminished expression (EXP) and motivation and pleasure (MAP). However, several factor-analytic studies suggest that the consensus around a 2-dimensional model is premature. The current study investigated and cross-culturally validated the factorial structure of BNSS-rated negative symptoms across a range of cultures and languages. METHOD: Participants included individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who had been rated on the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) from 5 cross-cultural samples, with a total N = 1691. First, exploratory factor analysis was used to extract up to 6 factors from the data. Next, confirmatory factor analysis evaluated the fit of 5 models: (1) a 1-factor model, 2) a 2-factor model with factors of MAP and EXP, 3) a 3-factor model with inner world, external, and alogia factors; 4) a 5-factor model with separate factors for blunted affect, alogia, anhedonia, avolition, and asociality, and 5) a hierarchical model with 2 second-order factors reflecting EXP and MAP, as well as 5 first-order factors reflecting the 5 aforementioned domains. RESULTS: Models with 4 factors or less were mediocre fits to the data. The 5-factor, 6-factor, and the hierarchical second-order 5-factor models provided excellent fit with an edge to the 5-factor model. The 5-factor structure demonstrated invariance across study samples. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the validity of the 5-factor structure of BNSS-rated negative symptoms across diverse cultures and languages. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , China/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alemanha/etnologia , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/classificação , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/classificação , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Espanha/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
20.
Span J Psychol ; 21: E66, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569885

RESUMO

The present work presents three studies that investigate the relationship between causal attributions of poverty in Africa, attitudes towards African immigrants and perspective-taking. The objective of preliminary study (N = 54) was to collect information to adapt the Perceived Causes of Third World Poverty Scale (Hine & Montiel, 1999), in the Spanish adaptation by Betancor et al. (2002) to Spanish adolescents. The Study 1 (N = 102) explores the factorial structure of the teenager questionnaire adaptation and to test the relationship with Modern Racism Scale (McConahay, 1986). Correlational analysis reflects the existence of a central element in the new forms of racism: Victim blaming through Personal Attributions of Poverty. The objective of Study 2 (N = 62) was to determine whether empathic induction through empathic perspective-taking (Batson et al., 1997) can ameliorate the individual's attributions of poverty concerning African immigrants among majority group members. However, the opposite effect was found, empathy induction increased Personal Attributions of poverty (η2 = .10). This effect was moderated by Modern Racism, simple slope test indicates t(52) = 2.49, p < .01, higher prejudiced participants increased Personal Attribution of poverty after empathic induction, blaming the victims for their situation.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Empatia , Pobreza/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia
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