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2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826662

RESUMO

ABO blood groups have recently been related to COVID19 infection. In the present work, we performed this analysis using data from 412 COVID19 patients and 17796 blood donors, all of them from Gipuzkoa, a region in Northern Spain. The results obtained confirmed this relation, in addition to showing a clear importance of group O as a protective factor in COVID19 disease, with an OR = 0.59 (CI95% 0.481-0.7177, p<0.0001) while A, B and AB are risk factors. ABO blood groups are slightly differently distributed in the populations and therefore these results should be replicated in the specific areas with a proper control population.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doadores de Sangue/classificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Espanha/etnologia
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 137-155, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article presents new radiocarbon and isotopic data to provide further information about the diet of the indigenous population of La Gomera and its possible changes across time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: δ13 C and δ15 N of 53 human and 19 faunal samples from different sites on the island have been obtained and analyzed. Of these, 52 have been radiocarbon dated to provide insight on chronological changes. RESULTS: Human dates range from the 3rd to 15th centuries AD, while faunal dates range from the 1st to 17th centuries AD. Stable carbon and nitrogen values are significantly different between the human and goat samples and have also a trophic increase of 3.4‰. Although male and female δ15 N data are not significantly different. Both δ13 C and δ15 N values of both human and animal samples tend to discretely decrease over time. DISCUSSION: Radiocarbon dates from humans correlate with other dates obtained in the rest of the archipelago. Animal radiocarbon dates generally coincide except for one date, which requires further study. Isotopic δ15 N data suggest a mix of marine and terrestrial protein consumption in humans, the latter being more abundant given the seasonality of the first. δ13 C data also suggest a possible mixed diet in humans, with a predominance of C3 plants, like Hordeum vulgare, the only grain found in archaeological sites so far. Variations of both δ13 C and δ15 N over time suggest a slight modification on the diet, which could be related to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/história , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Colágeno/química , Feminino , Cabras , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Datação Radiométrica , Espanha/etnologia
5.
J Hum Genet ; 66(3): 327-332, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920600

RESUMO

The Mexican-Mestizo population arose following European contact with the Americas due to the admixture of principally Spaniards, Native Americans, and Africans around 500 years ago. Because the paternal lineage distribution of the Mexican population has been poorly investigated, this study inferred the haplogroups of ten populations based on 1859 haplotypes (Y-STR data) using two haplogroup predictor programs. In the Mexican population sample, we found predominantly European ancestry (50.1%), followed by Native American (32.5%), Eurasian (13.4%), African (2.1%), East African-South Eurasian (1.3%), and Asian (0.6%) ancestries. In general, our results support a contrary north-to-south gradient throughout the Mexican territory of European and Native-American ancestries, respectively. Moreover, the presence of West-European R1b and Sub-Saharan African E1b1a haplogroups agrees with historical and genetic data of gene flow during the European conquest. This study represents the effort to analyze these paternal lineages on a large scale by taking advantage of Y-STR haplotype data to determine the distribution and ancestry proportions in this country.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Haplótipos/genética , África/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Ásia/etnologia , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Casamento , México , Herança Paterna/genética , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espanha/etnologia
6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200054, 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1114765

RESUMO

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar la influencia de cambios socio-políticos, educativos y feministas de España en el mantenimiento de lactancia materna. MÉTODO Revisión histórico-descriptiva de documentación en bases de datos, Boletines Oficiales del Estado, del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y Bienestar Social. RESULTADOS La lactancia materna es un fenómeno complejo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociales y psicológicos. Ha cambiado a lo largo de la historia y, evolucionado con los movimientos feministas. La incorporación de la mujer al mercado laboral (s.XIX), produjo una modificación en el rol familiar y pareja. La sociedad del siglo XXI reclama a los poderes públicos la conciliación personal y laboral para la crianza de sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES E IMPLICACIÓN PARA LA PRÁCTICA Han sido múltiples los factores y procesos evolutivos para la situación socio-cultural de la mujer en la lactancia materna. Actualmente sigue siendo complicado compaginar gestación y crianza con el empleo, las redes formales e informales permiten avances en políticas sanitarias.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a influência das mudanças sócio-políticas, educativas e feministas em Espanha na manutenção do aleitamento materno. MÉTODO Revisão histórico-descritiva da documentação em bases de dados, Boletins Oficiais do Estado, do Ministério da Saúde e do Consumo e da Previdência Social. RESULTADOS O aleitamento materno é um fenómeno complexo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociais e psicológicos. Ela mudou ao longo da história e evoluiu com os movimentos feministas. A incorporação das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho (século XIX), produziu uma modificação no papel da família e do casal. A sociedade do século XXI exige do poder público a conciliação pessoal e laboral para a educação dos seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES E IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA Tem havido múltiplos factores e processos evolutivos para a situação sociocultural das mulheres em aleitamento materno. Hoje em dia, ainda é complicado combinar gravidez e educação com emprego, e as redes formais e informais permitem avanços nas políticas de saúde.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of socio-political, educational and feminist changes in Spain on the maintenance of breastfeeding. METHOD Historical-descriptive review of documentation in databases, Official State Bulletins, of the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare. RESULTS Breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon influenced by demographic, biological, social and psychological factors. It has changed throughout history and evolved with the feminist movements. The incorporation of women to the labor market (19th century), produced a modification in the family and couple role. The society of the 21st century demands from the public authorities the personal and labor conciliation for the upbringing of their children. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE There have been multiple factors and evolutionary processes for the socio-cultural situation of women in breastfeeding. Nowadays, it is still complicated to combine pregnancy and upbringing with employment, and formal and informal networks allow advances in health policies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno , Feminismo/história , Espanha/etnologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/história , Poder Familiar , Equidade de Gênero
7.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 48(1): 109-117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With structured interviews being an established method for assessing one's exposure to traumatic brain injury across their lifetime, effective assessment tools are needed to serve the large population of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and abroad. OBJECTIVE: To obtain preliminary evidence of validity for a Spanish version of a web-based, structured interview designed to assess lifetime exposure to TBI. METHODS: A sample of 720 Spanish-speaking individuals between the ages of 18 through 65 from the continental U.S. (34.3%), South America (30.8%), the Caribbean (12.6%), Spain (12.4%), and Mexico and Central America (9.9%) completed an online survey containing the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method (Self-Administered-Brief; OSU TBI-ID SAB), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, and PROMIS Cognitive Concerns Scale. RESULTS: Indices of severity of worst TBI, time since most recent TBI, and multiple injuries demonstrated expected relationships with neurobehavioral symptoms such that greater symptom reporting was observed among those who had more severe injuries, more recent injuries, and multiple injuries over a period of time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence of validity for three of the indices derived from OSU TBI-ID SAB among Spanish-speaking individuals. Further study is needed to assess other aspects of this instrument to pave the way for further epidemiological studies involving lifetime exposure to TBI among Spanish-speaking individuals across the U.S., Spain, and Latin America.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , América Central/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Sul/etnologia , Espanha/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21428, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293675

RESUMO

Chuetas are a group of descendants of Majorcan Crypto-Jews (Balearic Islands, Spain) who were socially stigmatized and segregated by their Majorcan neighbours until recently; generating a community that, although after the seventeenth century no longer contained Judaic religious elements, maintained strong group cohesion, Jewishness consciousness, and endogamy. Collective memory fixed 15 surnames as a most important defining element of Chueta families. Previous studies demonstrated Chuetas were a differentiated population, with a considerable proportion of their original genetic make-up. Genetic data of Y-chromosome polymorphism and mtDNA control region showed, in Chuetas' paternal lineages, high prevalence of haplogroups J2-M172 (33%) and J1-M267 (18%). In maternal lineages, the Chuetas hallmark is the presence of a new sub-branching of the rare haplogroup R0a2m as their modal haplogroup (21%). Genetic diversity in both Y-chromosome and mtDNA indicates the Chueta community has managed to avoid the expected heterogeneity decrease in their gene pool after centuries of isolation and inbreeding. Moreover, the composition of their uniparentally transmitted lineages demonstrates a remarkable signature of Middle Eastern ancestry-despite some degree of host admixture-confirming Chuetas have retained over the centuries a considerable degree of ancestral genetic signature along with the cultural memory of their Jewish origin.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Judeus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Pool Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Herança Paterna , Espanha/etnologia
9.
Hum Biol ; 91(4): 249-256, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767895

RESUMO

Tacuarembó is a department located in northeastern Uruguay, whose population is the result of several migration waves from Europe and Near East, as well as Africans and Afro-descents mostly from Brazil; these waves settled with the territory's various Native ethnic groups (Charrúa, Minuán, and Guaraní). In the past, this population has been the focus of genetic studies showing this trihybrid origin, with greater contributions of Natives and Africans than in other Uruguayan regions. In this study we analyzed eight Alu insertions (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25) to provide valuable information for ancestrality and genetic differentiation and to compare with both previous studies on the Tacuarembó population and Alu frequencies in other Uruguayan populations. The European contribution to Alu and classical markers was almost equal to that of a previous study using 22 classical markers (63% vs. 65%), while African contribution was higher (30% vs. 15%), and Native American contribution shows an important difference in Alu: 7% versus 20%. We found no significant differences in genetic differentiation between Tacuarembó and Montevideo but significant differences between Tacuarembó and Basque descendants from Trinidad. Our results support previous findings obtained with classical markers that demonstrate the trihybrid composition of the Tacuarembó population, correlated with historical records. Thus, Alu insertions provide interesting information in light of the admixture process in the Uruguayan population.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Brasil/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Espanha/etnologia , Uruguai/etnologia
10.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2020(170): 143-170, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488983

RESUMO

Although children's school success is a parental goal in most cultures, there is wide cultural variation in the qualities that parents most wish their children to develop for that purpose. A questionnaire contained forty-one child qualities was administered to 757 parents in seven cultural communities in Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted separately within each sample and results revealed both similarities and differences across the seven samples. The factor structures showed considerable similarity: four domains of characteristics (Cognitive Qualities, Social Qualities, Negative temperament, and Good Characters) were identified in each sample as strongly influencing children's success in school. However, parents differed across the seven cultural communities in the importance they attributed to these factors. The results also reveal some culturally unique patterns in parents' concepts of the successful schoolchild; the seven samples were differentiated by distinctive associations of individual qualities around the four common domains. These results offer new insights for incorporating perspectives from other cultures into our own concepts of what qualities are most important for children's success in school, and how educators can be cognizant of differing cultural perspectives represented by the families whose children are their students.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Comparação Transcultural , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Personalidade , Adulto , Austrália/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/etnologia , Pais , Personalidade/fisiologia , Polônia/etnologia , Espanha/etnologia , Suécia/etnologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 172(2): 189-213, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated chronological changes in physiological stress and levels of habitual loading of Ibizan populations from the Late Roman-Early Byzantine (LREB) to the Islamic period (300-1,235 AD) using measures of body size and bone cross-sectional properties to compare Urban LREB, Urban Medieval Islamic, and Rural Medieval Islamic groups. It also explored the effect of diet, modeled using stable isotopes, on physiological stress levels and behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample comprised individuals from three archeological populations: Urban Late Roman- Early Byzantine (LREB) (300-700 AD), Medieval Urban Islamic (902-1,235 AD), and Medieval Rural Islamic. Bone lengths, femoral head dimensions, and cross-sectional properties, diaphyseal products and circumferences, were compared to assess differences in body size and habitual loading in 222 adult individuals. Ordinary least squares regression evaluated the correlations between these measures and carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) stable isotope ratios in 115 individuals for whom both isotope values and osteological measures are available. RESULTS: The Medieval Rural Islamic group had shorter stature and reduced lower limb cross-sectional properties compared to the two urban groups. Limb shape differs between Urban LREB and Urban Medieval Islamic groups. Measures of body size length were positively correlated with δ13 C values in all individuals and separately in the Urban LREB and Rural Medieval Islamic groups. δ15 N showed a positive correlation with left humerus shape in the Urban LREB sample. CONCLUSIONS: The low stature and cross-sectional properties of the Medieval Rural Islamic group may be an indicator of greater physiological stress, potentially due to poorer diet. Positive correlations between measures of body size and δ13 C values further suggest that greater access to C4 resources improved diet quality. Alternatively, this relationship could indicate greater body size among migrants from areas where individuals consumed more C4 resources.


Assuntos
Dieta , Classe Social , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/história , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Islamismo , Mundo Romano , Espanha/etnologia
12.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 459-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ecuadorians are the largest immigrant group in Spain. In countries with preclinical programs of xenotransplantation (XenoTx), it is important to know the population attitude toward them; however, in the Ecuadorian population it is not known. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitude toward XenoTx of organs among the Ecuadorian population residing in Spain. METHODS: Population under study. Ecuadorians residing in Spain. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Sample of population over 15 years stratified by age and sex. Instrument valuation. Validated questionnaire of attitude towards xenotransplantation PCID-XenoTx-Ríos. Setting for the study. Random selection of people to survey based on stratification. RESULTS: Of the 461 respondents, 36% are in favor of XenoTx if the results were similar to those obtained with humans, 15% against, and 49% undecided. If the results were worse than with human organs, 11% would be in favor, 26% against, and 63% undecided. The variables associated with this attitude are age (P = .018), marital status (P = .026), studies (P < .001), comment with family (P = .001), couple attitude (P = .039), attitude toward cadaveric donation (P < .001), previous experience with donation (P = .001), consider the possibility of needing a transplant in the future (P < .001), and attitude toward related living donation (P < .001). In the multivariate analysis, these data persist: university studies (odds ratio [OR] = 3.875; P = .007); in favor of cadaveric organ donation (OR = 2.840; P < .001); previous relationship with donation and organ transplantation (OR = 1.901; P = .026); and consider the possibility of needing a transplant in the future (OR = 4.329; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The attitude toward XenoTx among Ecuadorian residents in Spain is unfavorable and is conditioned by different psychosocial variables.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Transplante Heterólogo , Adulto , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos , Espanha/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos
13.
Anthropol Med ; 27(1): 96-109, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928064

RESUMO

Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and New Age therapies (NAt) are increasingly widespread in the West. Although the variety of therapies they recommend is very extensive, as is the variety of beliefs and practices, there are common ideas shared across both such as the concept of holism and the notion of energy. The case studies examined in this paper, Vittorio and Sol, both suffered from severe personal problems that caused a state of general malaise. They managed to address them through the holistic world. Through their experiences, it is possible to highlight the contradictions of CAM-NAt in the West. While, on one hand, these represent a form of resistance to capitalist culture, on the other there is a risk that CAM-NAt could end up reinforcing capitalistic logic through the establishment of an 'individualistic holism'. The only solution to this situation seems to be a focus on the exercise of personal critical faculties, and an openness to different ways of conceiving the body, the health and diseases, but without, however, being drawn into the moralistic and individualist view that sometimes accompanies these.


Assuntos
Antropologia Médica , Terapias Complementares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Capitalismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia
14.
Health Commun ; 35(5): 649-657, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810391

RESUMO

This study closely examines 51 breast cancer narratives Latina and Spanish women wrote for other patients to illuminate how they conceptualize their health, with insights for addressing health disparities. Using discourse analysis of the role of language and culture in health care communication, this study focuses on the use of metaphors in the narratives. This provides revelations about the cultural and linguistic aspects of how the writers conceptualize their disease. Building on past research on metaphor use in cancer discourse in the English language, this study reveals the prevalence of metaphors comparing cancer to combat, or more generally, violence (e.g., "my battle against cancer"), or a journey (e.g., "my path with cancer"). Writers used this metaphorical language to offer advice to others with cancer and to mark their membership in a larger community of people with cancer. We also find that Spanish women use metaphors more frequently than Latinas and that they differed in their metaphorical portrayals of cancer. This research uncovers culturally embedded themes that are central to how women with cancer think about the disease, such as the prominence of spirituality in Latinas' metaphorical constructions, a pattern not evident in Spanish women's narratives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hispano-Americanos , Metáfora , Narração , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Cura pela Fé , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Espanha/etnologia
15.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(1): 45-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591519

RESUMO

Hostility towards outgroups contributes to costly intergroup conflict. Here we test an intervention to reduce hostility towards Muslims, a frequently targeted outgroup. Our 'collective blame hypocrisy' intervention highlights the hypocrisy involved in the tendency for people to collectively blame outgroup but not ingroup members for blameworthy actions of individual group members. Using both within-subject and between-subject comparisons in a preregistered longitudinal study in Spain, we find that our intervention reduces collective blame of Muslims and downstream anti-Muslim sentiments relative to a matched control condition and that the effects of the intervention persist one month and also one year later. We replicate the benefits of the intervention in a second study. The effects are mediated by reductions in collective blame and moderated by individual differences in preference for consistency. Together, these data illustrate that the collective blame hypocrisy intervention enduringly reduces harmful intergroup attitudes associated with conflict escalation, particularly among those who value consistency in themselves and others.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Processos Grupais , Hostilidade , Preconceito/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Individualidade , Islamismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia
16.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback ; 45(1): 23-29, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612295

RESUMO

The simulation scenarios are increasingly being used to assess professional competences in health sciences at university level. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of differences in the stress psychophysiological response of Psychology degree students from Spain and Colombia undergoing to clinical practice. Multiple psychophysiological measures were obtained in a sample of 25 Colombian and Spanish Psychology students undergoing to simulation scenario. Differences in the initial level of stress and habituation process as reported by self-reported and psychophysiological measurements as discussed. Differences in stress-related psychological traits are also analyzed and further discussed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adulto , Colômbia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Espanha/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 46(2): 256-271, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081971

RESUMO

This study is a multi-national follow-up to the original (Sandberg and Knestel (2011) Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37, 393-410) article on the process of learning Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy (EFT). A total of 102 clinicians from nine Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, and El Salvador) participated in the study. A comparison of results across the two studies revealed more similarities than differences. However, a few notable differences emerged from responses to qualitative questions, namely a heightened sense of appreciation for and resonance with the focus on core emotion in EFT and less frequent reports of difficulty learning and adapting to the model among Spanish-speaking therapists. These differences were consistent with common cultural values and forms of expression in Latin America and Spain. Results are discussed in terms of training, supervision, and future research as well.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Terapia de Casal/educação , Emoções , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Adulto , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Espanha/etnologia
18.
J Soc Psychol ; 160(2): 204-215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258025

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the role of sex, age, educational level and psychosocial group-identification factors in well-being and satisfaction with life. METHOD: 229 Spanish Gypsies completed a survey of demographic data, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, ethnic identity and the individual's inclusion of self within the ingroup. RESULTS: (a) only level of studies is related to satisfaction with life; (b) participants with higher scores in ethnic identity reported more well-being and more life satisfaction; and (c) assessment of ethnic belonging affects more areas of well-being than does perception of closeness to the ingroup. CONCLUSION: objective conditions of deprivation are not related to well-being as reported by the participants; it is important to study how Spanish Gypsies value and perceive their ethnicity in order to predict their well-being and satisfaction with life.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Satisfação Pessoal , Roma (Grupo Étnico)/etnologia , Identificação Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/etnologia
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(7): 2412-2423, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328577

RESUMO

The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-revised/follow-up (M-CHAT-R/F) was developed to reduce the number of cases requiring telephone verification. The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the M-CHAT-R/F in the Spanish public health system. The M-CHAT-R/F was translated, culturally adapted, and then administered to 6625 children. Of the 39 positive screening cases, 15 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 24 with non-ASD disorders or delays. The sensitivity was 0.79 and specificity of 0.99. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.39 and 0.99, respectively. These results are similar to the English equivalent, though observed prevalence was lower. This study supports Spanish National Health System policy makers to consider a universal ASD screening program.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/etnologia , Lista de Checagem/normas , Características Culturais , Tradução , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha/etnologia
20.
J Transcult Nurs ; 31(6): 564-575, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779531

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim was to examine the risk factors of anternatal depression among immigrant and native pregnant women in Spain. Method: A total of 1,524 pregnant women completed the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised form. Results: The native group reported a lower prevalence (15.2%) compared with immigrant group (25.8%). For immigrants, primiparity, moving, and perceived lack instrumental support from friends or emotional support from partners and family members were significant risk factors. Discussion: The study identified risk factors that can be used for preventive interventions during pregnancy. Significance: Screening and interventions for depression during pregnancy should take migration status into account to maximize effective health care. Also, health providers should consider how migration status can result in different risk factors that affect depression during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Gravidez , Prevalência , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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