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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130739, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371278

RESUMO

Saffron is a spice revered for its unique flavor and health attributes often subjected to fraudulence. In this study, molecular networking as a visualization tool for UPLC/MS dataset of saffron and its common substitutes i.e. safflower and calendula (n = 21) was employed for determining genuineness of saffron and detecting its common substitutes i.e. safflower and calendula. Saffron was abundant in flavonol-O-glycosides and crocetin esters versus richness of flavanones/chalcones glycosides in safflower and cinnamates/terpenes in calendula. OPLS-DA identified differences in UPLC/MS profiles of different saffron accessions where oxo-hydroxy-undecenoic acid-O-hexoside was posed as saffron authentication marker and aided in discrimination between Spanish saffron of high quality from its inferior grade i.e. Iranian saffron along with crocetin di-O-gentiobiosyl ester and kaempferol-O-sophoroside. Kaempferol-O-neohesperidoside and N,N,N,-p-coumaroyl spermidine were characteristic safflower metabolites, whereas, calendulaglycoside C and di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid were unique to calendula. UV/VIS fingerprint spectral regions of picrocrocin (230-260 nm) and crocin derivatives (400-470 nm) were posed as being discriminatory of saffron authenticity and suggestive it can replace UPLC/MS in saffrom quality determination.


Assuntos
Calendula , Crocus , Glicosídeos , Irã (Geográfico) , Especiarias
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444931

RESUMO

Over the centuries, humans have traditionally used garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a food ingredient (spice) and remedy for many diseases. To confirm this, many extensive studies recognized the therapeutic effects of garlic bulbs. More recently, black garlic (BG), made by heat-ageing white garlic bulbs, has increased its popularity in cuisine and traditional medicine around the world, but there is still limited information on its composition and potential beneficial effects. In this study, the metabolite profile of methanol extract of BG (BGE) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in high-resolution mode. Results allowed to establish that BGE major components were sulfur derivatives, saccharides, peptides, organic acids, a phenylpropanoid derivative, saponins, and compounds typical of glycerophospholipid metabolism. Characterization of the BGE action in cancer cells revealed that antioxidant, metabolic, and hepatoprotective effects occur upon treatment as well as induction of maturation of acute myeloid leukemia cells. These results are interesting from the impact point of view of BG consumption as a functional food for potential prevention of metabolic and tumor diseases.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Peptídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Saponinas/análise , Especiarias/análise , Enxofre/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Células U937
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(35): 47856-47868, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302240

RESUMO

Improving poultry production, increasing poultry immunity, and reducing the disease spreading can be achieved by adding various potentially valuable ingredients to the feed or drinking water of poultry flocks. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal nutrition were prohibited. Additionally, consumer preferences tend towards purchasing products from livestock raised without antibiotics. Therefore, there is a critical need to find effective growth promoter alternatives and treatment methods for common poultry diseases. Some spice plants play important roles in improving the taste, aroma, and color of human food and their positive effects on human and animal health. The current review aimed to provide a broader perspective on some spice crops which can be effective alternatives to antibiotics in organic poultry production. These spices were including Thymus vulgaris, Cichorium intybus, Coriandrum sativum, Aloe vera, Heracleum persicum, Curcuma longa, and Glycyrrhiza glabra.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Especiarias
4.
Food Chem ; 365: 130478, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243125

RESUMO

The growing demand for authentic products that provide sensory characteristics combined with health benefits has been the focus of current studies. This study developed a Red Ale style craft beer with spices such as turmeric (T), black pepper (P) and aroma hops (H), used isolated or in mixtures. A mixture design was employed to evaluate the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the green and aged beers formulations. The spice extracts influenced the product's shelf-life. The addition of spices into the beers did not affect the physicochemical parameters that classify the Red Ale style, according to the hierarchical cluster analysis, except for aroma hops. A multiresponse optimization approach simultaneously maximized the antioxidant activity and the phenolic compounds in beers. The ideal formulation obtained for green beers was 25% T and 37.5% P and H; for aged beers, the formulation was 50% T, 20% P and 30% H.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Humulus , Antioxidantes/análise , Cerveja/análise , Fenóis/análise , Especiarias
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072233

RESUMO

The presented study was aimed at the determination of the level of contamination with heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) in 240 samples of plant materials, i.e., herbal raw materials, spices, tea, and coffee. Moreover, a probabilistic risk assessment (noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models including target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR). The samples were subjected to microwave mineralisation with the use of HNO3 (65%), while the determination of the content of the elements was performed with the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and a mercury analyser. The element which was characterised by the highest level of accumulation in the analysed samples was lead (from 0.010 to 5.680 mg/kg). Among the heavy metals under analysis, the lowest concentration was noted in the case of mercury (from 0.005 to 0.030 mg/kg). A notably higher level of contamination with heavy metals was noted in the analysed samples of herbs and spices (0.005-5.680 mg/kg), compared to samples of tea and coffee (0.005-0.791 mg/kg). According to the guidelines of the World Health Organisation (WHO) concerning the limits of contamination of samples of herbal raw materials with heavy metals, lead levels exceeding the limits were only noted in 24 samples of herbs (18%). In all of the analysed samples of spices, tea, and coffee, no instances of exceeded limits were noted for any of the analysed heavy metals. The values of TTHQmax (in relation to the consumption of the analysed products) were as follows: up to 4.23 × 10-2 for spices, up to 2.51 × 10-1 for herbs, up to 4.03 × 10-2 for China tea, and up to 1.25 × 10-1 for roasted coffee beans. As the value of THQ ≤1, there is no probability of the appearance of undesirable effects related to the consumption of the analysed group of raw materials and products of plant origin. The CR value for As (max. value) was 1.29 × 10-5, which is lower than the maximum acceptable level of 1 × 10-4 suggested by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Especiarias , China , Café , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Especiarias/análise , Chá
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 353: 109295, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166957

RESUMO

Spices and herbs are widely used in almost all types of food preparation and their microbial contamination may cause spoilage and pose public health risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of packaging, source and a food safety management system (FSMS) on the microbiological quality of spices and dried herbs in a developing country, like Lebanon. For this, a total of 96 composite samples of thirteen most commonly consumed types of spices and dried herbs were collected twice at three-month interval. Each type was purchased in 5 common brands from 4 categories: packaged in companies with FSMS, packaged in companies without FSMS, packaged imported, and unpackaged. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), sulfite reducing anaerobic bacteria, C. perfringens, coliforms, E. coli, yeasts and molds were found in 89%, 43%, 18%, 15%, 1% and 54% of the samples, respectively. All samples were negative for Salmonella. One per cent, 4%, 6%, 1% and 7% of the samples had unacceptable levels of TAMB, coliforms, sulfite reducing anaerobic bacteria, E. coli, yeasts and molds, respectively. Among the four categories, imported samples had the lowest microbiological load, followed by locally packaged in companies with FSMS, then locally packaged in companies without FSMS and the highest microbiological load was for the unpackaged spices and dried herbs. This study highlighted the importance of storage conditions, good hygienic practices, process controls and FSMSs in the spices and dried herbs sector.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Gestão da Segurança , Especiarias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Fungos/fisiologia , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Especiarias/microbiologia
7.
Food Chem ; 364: 130406, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174644

RESUMO

Turmeric powder is a widely consumed spice, making it an attractive target for adulteration, which is not easily detected. The study examined the simultaneous use of IR spectroscopy in combination with controlled (PCA) and uncontrolled (PLS-DA and CMCA) pattern recognition techniques to detect and classify Sudan Red, starch and metanil yellow fraud in turmeric powder nondestructively. The results showed that the two major peaks in turmeric powder at 1625 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1 are not present in Sudan Red, starch and metanil yellow because these materials lack this functional group. Data distribution at the two PC locations showed clearly scattered clusters according to the four mixing studied models (turmeric powder, turmeric powder-Sudan Red mixture, turmeric powder-starch mixture and turmeric powder-metanil yellow mixture), but there was a clear overlap between turmeric powder and turmeric powder - Sudan red mixture. Both PLS-DA and SIMCA supervised methods showed satisfactory discrimination. The results also showed that in all the sample groups, when the samples were classified by PLS-DA, the values were higher compared to the SIMCA model. The overall precision of the SIMCA and PLS-DA classifier were 82% and 92%, respectively. However, when considering only two main categories adulterated (the samples at the groups 2, 3 and 4) and pure (the samples at the group 1), an acceptable degree of separation between the resulting classes was obtained. Consequently, IR spectroscopy with pattern recognition methods was found to be a promising tool for nondestructive grouping of turmeric powder samples with different types of adulteration in turmeric powder.


Assuntos
Curcuma , Especiarias , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Pós , Análise Espectral Raman , Especiarias/análise
8.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103827, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119112

RESUMO

Consumption of leafy greens and to a lesser extent fresh herbs has been associated with several foodborne outbreaks including human norovirus (HuNoV). However, the extraction and detection of viruses from these matrices present multiple challenges such as low recovery yields and relatively high PCR inhibition. A new magnetic silica bead based (MSB) extraction protocol was developed and used to recover norovirus from leafy greens and fresh herbs. The performance results were compared to the ISO 15216-1:2017 standard. The HuNoV GII.4 and GI.5 recovery yields from spiked lettuce using the MSB extraction protocol range from 33 to 82%. There was a good correlation between murine norovirus (MNV) and HuNoV recovery yields from fresh herbs and leafy greens. No reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) inhibition was detected from leafy green extracts using the MSB methodology. The selected commercial RT-qPCR detection kit had a major impact on RT-qPCR inhibition levels detected in the ISO 15216-1:2017 RNA extracts. RNase treatment was used to estimate genome recovery from HuNoV with intact capsids. This treatment resulted in similar HuNoV and MNV recovery yields. Between 2019 and 2020, the MSB protocol was used to conduct a survey of HuNoV in domestic and imported leafy greens and fresh herbs sold at retail in Canada. All of the 280 samples tested were negative. Overall, the use of MSB was shown to be an efficient approach to recover HuNoV from leafy greens and certain types of fresh herbs and to conduct surveys.


Assuntos
Alface/virologia , Magnetismo/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Especiarias/virologia , Animais , Canadá , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Norovirus/química , Norovirus/genética , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(24): 6860-6869, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125514

RESUMO

The xMAP Food Allergen Detection Assay (xMAP FADA) is a powerful analytical method by virtue of its ability to simultaneously detect multiple antigenic elements with a repertoire of antibodies targeting 15 food allergens plus gluten. Further, by incorporating multiple levels of redundancy, it can also be used to distinguish between homologous cross-reactive analytes. The power of its analytical capabilities is especially critical when working with botanicals. In this research, 95 botanicals used in dietary supplements and spices were analyzed for cross-reactivity with common food allergens and gluten using the xMAP FADA. Complementary antibody ratios were calculated, and, with most samples, ratios generated by homologous cross-reactive epitopes were easily distinguished from true reactivity. In very few cases, sample ratios were comparable to the ratios generated by the calibration standards, indicating the probable detection of relatively minor quantities of target food allergen. With the xMAP FADA, distinguishing signal indicating target allergen detection from cross-reactivity in botanicals is possible using redundant antibodies and multiple confirmatory end points.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Reações Cruzadas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Especiarias
10.
J AOAC Int ; 104(2): 260-266, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For health reasons it is preferred to prepare food products with edible fats and oils that are high in unsaturated fatty acids. Unfortunately, these unsaturated acids are susceptible to lipid oxidation and the addition of natural antioxidants, e.g., rosemary extracts, etc. is needed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of natural oxidation inhibition strategies, fast, yet realistic, and objective methods are needed to study oxidation inhibition. METHODS: A model system consisting of salt and sunflower oil is proposed as a model for dry soups and sauces. Hexanal formation is studied using fast GC-MS as a quantitative indicator for lipid oxidation. RESULTS: A fast GC-MS method using a short, 6-m 150 µm inner-diameter column was developed that allowed elution of hexanal within approximately 20 s, with a total run time of 2 min. The GC method has quantification limits below 1 ppm and is hence much more sensitive than the human nose. CONCLUSIONS: The new accelerated method with hexanal read-out was successfully applied in a study to identify spices and herbs mixtures that can act as natural inhibitors of lipid oxidation. The fast GC-MS method is extremely stable and allowed the analysis of thousands of samples with very little maintenance. HIGHLIGHTS: With the right mixture of spices and herbs, lipid oxidation can be delayed more than 100 times as compared to non-stabilized systems.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Óleos Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Oxirredução , Especiarias/análise
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 312, 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966126

RESUMO

The study aims to evaluate the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of three herbs, namely, neem (Azadirachta indica), drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and scent (Ocimum gratissimum), and three spices garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and onion leaflets (Allium cepa) on ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics. The feed samples (200 mg substrates plus extracts of the selected herbs and spices) were incubated with rumen liquor taken from three mature West African dwarf ewes at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h. The results show that extracts of the selected herbs and spices increased the gas produced, from the insoluble fraction, degradability rate, volume of gas produced at time and time of most rapid change in gas produced. The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents of aqueous extracts of the selected herbs and spices (1 ml/200 mg substrates samples) were between 32.82 and 71.34 g/100 g OM, 4.10 and 10.25 MJ/kg DM and 0.28 and 1.31 µmol, respectively. Furthermore, the OMD, ME and SCFA contents of methanolic extracts of the selected herbs and spices (1 ml/200 mg substrates samples) were between 32.82 and 99.50 g/100 g OM, 4.10 and 14.37 MJ/kg DM and 0.28 and 2.07 µmol, respectively. Methane produced from the methanolic extracts of the herbs and spices highly differed (P < 0.05). This study suggests that extracts of the selected herbs and spices have the potential to affect rumen fermentation and also to reduce the methane production in sheep.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Especiarias , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Metano/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1164: 338519, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992216

RESUMO

This paper reports the development of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC‒MS/MS) method to determine eight banned dyes (Sudan I-IV, Sudan Orange, Sudan Red 7B, Para Red, Rhodamine B) in turmeric, curry, and chili products. For this purpose, the feasibility of electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) for the ionization of these compounds was evaluated. The tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation of all targeted compounds was studied and both multistage mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used to establish the fragmentation pathways and identify common fragmentation behaviors. Among the most significant ions, the most characteristic and abundant product ions observed on the triple quadrupole were selected to propose a selective and sensitive UHPLC‒MS/MS method (multiple reaction monitoring mode, MRM) of these target compounds in spices samples after a quick and easy extraction with acetonitrile. Matrix effect (ME) studies carried out in the three atmospheric pressure ionization sources have demonstrated that APCI showed the best performance with ME values ranging from 2 to 25%. Furthermore, the estimated quality parameters indicated the good performance of the proposed method, providing low method limits of detection (MLODs) (1-48 µg kg-1), good intra-day precision (RSD % < 15%), and accurate quantitation (relative error % < 15%). Finally, the applicability of the developed method was demonstrated by the analysis of turmeric, curry, and chili products. In total, 36 diverse samples coming from different countries were analyzed and although none of these compounds were detected above the MLODs, the analysis of spiked samples showed that the method was able to detect this family of compounds at low µg kg-1.


Assuntos
Especiarias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Pressão Atmosférica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corantes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
J Food Biochem ; 45(6): e13750, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954990

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals need special attention as preventive molecules to create a natural barrier against various dreadful diseases like cancer and to regulate metabolism. In the present study, two spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Cinnamomum verum, been identified as excellent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPases) sources that play significant role in the regulation of cell signal transduction and developmental processes in plants as well as animals, being lucrative and potential targets for pharmacological modulation. PTPases from both cases were partially purified into 0%-40% and 40%-80% fractions based on ammonium sulfate saturation levels. Fraction (40%-80%) exhibited a purification level of 4.44-fold and 2.86-fold with specific activity of 44.06 and 23.33 U/mg for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. PTPases being found to be thermally stable up to 70°C imply their industrial significance. Kinetic studies showed Km values to be 7.14 and 8.33 mM, whereas the activation energy (Ea ) values were 25.89 and 29.13 kJ/mol, respectively. Divalent cations: Cu2+ , Zn2+ , and Mn2+ acted as inhibitors of PTPases, from both sources. The Ki values of inhibitors varied from 0.014-0.125 mM in the descending order Cu2+  > Zn2+  > Mn2+ and Mn2+  > Cu2+  > Zn2+ for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. The inhibitory effect of sodium metavanadate aligns with prominent PTPase characteristics. In addition to these properties, the thermostability of PTPases from two spices enhances their significance in industries with therapeutically vital products. Although the source of PTPases is culinary spices, further studies are required to establish the utilization of PTPases as nutraceuticals and in therapeutic formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For a healthy lifestyle, awareness needs to be created by humankind towards food habits to minimize illnesses. Numerous studies have explored the consumption of nutraceutical products acts as a natural barrier and immune booster for various human ailments including SARS-COV-2. PTPases play important roles in regulating intracellular signaling and, ultimately, biological function along with their structural features. The importance of PTPases and their inhibitors has been implicated in various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Further investigations need to be undertaken to explore the therapeutic properties of PTPases in both in vivo and in vitro for their clinical significance.


Assuntos
Ammi , COVID-19 , Ammi/metabolismo , Animais , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Cinética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Especiarias
14.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 60(2): 359-364, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813608

RESUMO

In this study, the validity of using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique as a scanning method for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs was investigated. Gamma-irradiated thyme, mint and clove samples were stimulated with a continuous wave blue light (CW-OSL) and their OSL signal sensitivity and stability properties were measured. While no OSL signal was observed for all non-irradiated spices, a significant increase in the intensity of OSL signals was noted for all samples after irradiation with 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy. It was also observed that the measured OSL signals were well above the background level even after one year of irradiation. It is therefore concluded that irradiated thyme, mint and clove samples can clearly be identified using the CW-OSL technique without any pre-treatment even one year after irradiation. This result indicates that, where spices contain sufficient silicate minerals, the CW-OSL technique could be used as a method for detecting irradiation.


Assuntos
Irradiação de Alimentos , Mentha , Dosimetria por Luminescência Estimulada Opticamente , Especiarias/análise , Syzygium , Thymus (Planta) , Luz
15.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(6): 562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878754
16.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 5007-5030, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893678

RESUMO

Cuminum cyminum L. is a versatile spice belonging to family Apiaceae. Though the plant has pan-tropical distribution but it is indigenous to Egypt, the Mediterranean, and South Asian countries. It exhibits numerous culinary, traditional, and pharmacological attributes. Its traditional uses also validate its immense pharmacological potential. Cuminum cyminum is the hub of numerous bioactives such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and so forth. Cuminaldehyde is the major bioactive, rendered to most of its pharmacological as well as clinical significance. The present study comprised of current knowledge on its taxonomy, nutritional, traditional, phytochemistry, pharmacology (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, antidiabetic, wound healing, anticancer, etc.), toxicology, and clinical attributes. Besides, the mechanism of action is also well explained. The present study provides a rationale for further bioprospection of this wonder plant. Future studies are needed to fill the research gaps, particularly on relevant phytocompound isolation, their pre-clinical and clinical characterization, evaluation, and structure-activity relationship. Moreover, well-designed and highly appropriate clinical and placebo trials are still needed to demonstrate the trustworthy role of cumin on human health.


Assuntos
Cuminum , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Cuminum/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Especiarias/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916634

RESUMO

We developed and validated a screening method for mycotoxin analysis in cereal products and spices. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used for the analysis. Dispersive solid-phase extractions (d-SPEs) were used for the extraction of samples. Ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), aflatoxins (AFLA; AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin (FUMO; FB1, FB2, FB3), T2, and HT2 were validated in maize. AFLA and DON were validated in black pepper. The method satisfies the requirements of Commission Regulation (EC) no. 401/2006 and (EC) no. 1881/2006. The screening target concentration (STC) was under maximum permitted levels (MLs) for all mycotoxins validated. The method's performance was assessed by two different proficiencies and tested with 100 real samples.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Especiarias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806052

RESUMO

In addition to the sense of taste and olfaction, chemesthesis, the sensation of irritation, pungency, cooling, warmth, or burning elicited by spices and herbs, plays a central role in food consumption. Many plant-derived molecules demonstrate their chemesthetic properties via the opening of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. TRPA1 and TRPV1 are structurally related thermosensitive cation channels and are often co-expressed in sensory nerve endings. TRPA1 and TRPV1 can also indirectly influence some, but not all, primary taste qualities via the release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal neurons and their subsequent effects on CGRP receptor expressed in Type III taste receptor cells. Here, we will review the effect of some chemesthetic agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and their influence on bitter, sour, and salt taste qualities.


Assuntos
Canal de Cátion TRPA1/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/fisiologia , Paladar , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/química , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Cátions , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ratos , República da Coreia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Especiarias , Substância P/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/química , Canais de Cátion TRPV/química , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Nervo Trigêmeo/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806213

RESUMO

Spices are a popular food of plant origin, rich in various phytochemicals and recognized for their numerous properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, as well as the content of specialized metabolites, of aqueous extracts of three spice species--garlic (Allium sativum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinalle L.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)--prepared by green extraction methods. Ultrasound treatment increased the chromaticity parameter b value of turmeric and ginger extracts, thus indicating a higher yellow color predominantly due to curcuminoids characteristic of these species. Ultrasound-assisted extraction significantly increased the content of total soluble solids, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and vitamin C. The temperature of the system was also an important factor, with the highest (70 °C) conditions in ultrasound-assisted extraction having a positive effect on thermolabile compounds (vitamin C, phenolics, total carotenoids). For example, turmeric extract treated with ultrasound at 70 °C had up to a 67% higher vitamin C content and a 69.4% higher total carotenoid content compared to samples treated conventionally at the same temperature, while ginger extracts had up to 40% higher total phenols. All different concentrations of spice extracts were not sufficient for complete inhibition of pathogenic bacterial strains of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus; however, only garlic extracts had an effect on slowing down the growth and number of L. monocytogenes colonies. Spice extracts obtained by ultrasonic treatment contained a significantly higher level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity, suggesting that the extracts obtained have significant nutritional potential and thus a significant possibility for phytotherapeutic uses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Curcuma , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais , Especiarias , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919764

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in oat-buckwheat doughs and cookies with the addition of ten selected spices or herbs (2 g/100 g flours weight basis). The used spices and herbs, as was expected, showed a wide range of bioactive molecules, namely phenolic acids and flavonoids, and they are a rich source of components with antioxidant potential. All analysed oat-buckwheat dough showed higher antioxidant activity potential and higher total phenolic content (TPC) compared to cookies. The highest TPC was found in clove, both dough and cookies, with its addition showing the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power. Generally, cookies with the addition of spice/herbs showed higher phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity compared to oat-buckwheat cookies without the condiment. The technology of obtaining confectionery products, like oat-buckwheat cookies, that will favor the protection of bioactive compounds should still be improved.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fagopyrum/química , Farinha/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Lanches , Especiarias , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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