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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109020, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896019

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) infecting sheep, goats, and cattle worldwide. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection and quantification of H. contortus by using specific primers based on a conserved region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mt-COI) gene, and evaluated this technique in the detection of H. contortus infections in cattle in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The newly developed qPCR assay successfully discriminated H. contortus from other GIN species infecting cattle in the specificity evaluations, with a specific melt peak of 77.5 °C. Our results revealed the efficient amplification of the proposed target COI region within the range of plasmid copies, from 2 × 106 to 2 × 101 per µl, with 96.9 % efficiency, R² value of 0.999, and a slope of -3.398. Among the 920 cattle fecal samples from the field, 58 samples (6.3 %) were positive with qPCR assay, whereas 45 samples (4.9 %) were positive, as determined by larval culture, suggesting the utility of SYBR Green qPCR. Phylogenetic characterization of the partial COI gene of H. contortus isolates was also evaluated for 100 eggs and third stage larvae recovered from positive cattle faecal samples, which were verified with the qPCR assay prior to analyses. COI sequences were classified into three haplotypes (THC1 to THC3) with intraspecific nucleotide differences of 0.50 to 0.76 %. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the haplotypes grouped with H. contortus isolates from several countries in a monophyletic cluster, with evidence of at least two main haplogroups. Overall, the SYBR Green qPCR assay was highly specific and sensitive, suggesting that it can be used for screening of H. contortus infections in livestock populations in epidemiological studies and the control of this important parasite.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109017, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901535

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis represents a significant problem in human and animal health and constitutes one of the most severe Neglected Tropical Diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. The etiological agent is the complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), composed of several species/genotypes. Diagnosis in the definitive host and molecular epidemiology studies are important points for cystic echinococcosis control. Here we developed a new copro-LAMP assay, LAMP EGSL, for diagnosis in the definitive host for simultaneous detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.), Echinococcus ortleppi, and Echinococcus canadensis species. Also, the analytical sensitivity, specificity and plausibility of performance in a rural context of a previously reported species-specific LAMP reaction, was evaluated. Both reactions showed high analytical sensitivity values (10 fg-100 fg DNA) and did not show cross reaction with DNA from host or other helminthic parasites. LAMP EGSL was performed with samples from an endemic area. In addition, the alkaline hydrolysis of one E. granulosus s. s. adult parasite followed by specific LAMP to E. granulosus s. s. was performed in a laboratory with low resources from another cystic echinococcosis endemic area. The results obtained suggest that LAMP EGSL represents a potential tool for canine diagnosis that could be useful for cystic echinococcosis control programs. In addition, we showed that LAMP reaction for E. granulous s. s., E. ortleppi and E. canadensis specific detection, could be useful for molecular epidemiology studies applicable to the definitive host. Both reactions were performed in endemic, rural areas without sophisticated equipment.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus , Parasitologia/métodos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925424

RESUMO

Urbanization has a significant impact on abiotic and biotic factors in nature. We examined the morphometric characters of four carabid species (Abax parallelepipedus, Carabus scheidleri, Carabus violaceus, and Pterostichus oblongopunctatus) along urbanization gradients in and around the cities of Vienna (Austria) and Debrecen (Hungary). We found significant differences among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the parameters of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, the labial palpus, and the length of the tibia and the elytra of the carabids studied. We also found significant differences between males and females based on the parameters of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, the labial palpus, the femur, and the elytra. An interaction between urbanization and sex was found in the case of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, the labial palpus, the femur, and the elytra. Our findings suggested that in the cases of species from Carabini tribus the parameters of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, and the elytra could be useful for assessing the effects of urbanization because these morphometric characters responded sensitively to the environmental stress, whereas the most useful parameters are those of antennomers and the tibia for the species of Pterostichini tribus. Our findings also revealed that females are more sensitive to environmental stress than males.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Urbanização , Animais , Áustria , Cidades , Feminino , Hungria , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 87-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707455

RESUMO

In May 2017, high mortality of chickens and Muscovy ducks due to the H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). In this study, we assessed the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic features in poultry of the H5N8 HPAIV from the 2017 Congolese outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral gene segments revealed that all 12 DR Congo isolates clustered in clade 2.3.4.4B together with other H5N8 HPAIVs isolated in Africa and Eurasia, suggesting a possible common origin of these viruses. Antigenically, a slight difference was observed between the Congolese isolates and a representative virus from group C in the same clade. After intranasal inoculation with a representative DR Congo virus, high pathogenicity was observed in chickens and Muscovy ducks but not in Pekin ducks. Viral replication was higher in chickens than in Muscovy duck and Pekin duck organs; however, neurotropism was pronounced in Muscovy ducks. Our data confirmed the high pathogenicity of the DR Congo virus in chickens and Muscovy ducks, as observed in the field. National awareness and strengthening surveillance in the region are needed to better control HPAIVs.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , África , Animais , Ásia , Galinhas , República Democrática do Congo , Patos/classificação , Patos/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Replicação Viral
5.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 283-287, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436852

RESUMO

Species identification of necrophagous insects found on a dead body is an essential key in applying medicolegal entomology to the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Due to limited morphological identification of insect evidence, several studies have identified species using molecular information such as DNA markers. While considerable cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence data of necrophagous fly species have been collected and annotated, those of necrophagous beetle species have not. Since necrophagous beetles such as Dermestes species have a larval period longer than that of flies, beetles are useful in even the late decomposition phase in estimating minimum PMI. To obtain the full-length COI gene sequences of six Dermestes species collected from South Korea, we designed primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. The obtained full COI nucleotide sequences were used for performing phylogenic analysis and comparison with previously reported sequences. The results demonstrated that the COI gene sequences could be used to identify forensically important Dermestes species in South Korea.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , Primers do DNA , Larva , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 127-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741097

RESUMO

In clinical virome research, whole-genome/transcriptome amplification is required when starting material is limited. An improved method, named "template-dependent multiple displacement amplification" (tdMDA), has recently been developed in our lab (Wang et al. in BioTechniques 63:21-25. https://doi.org/10.2144/000114566, 2017). In combination with Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics pipelines, its application in virome sequencing was explored using a serum sample from a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In comparison to an amplification-free procedure, virome sequencing via tdMDA showed a 9.47-fold enrichment for HCV-mapped reads and, accordingly, an increase in HCV genome coverage from 28.5% to 70.1%. Eight serum samples from acute patients liver failure (ALF) with or without known etiology were then used for virome sequencing with an average depth at 94,913x. Both similarity-based (mapping, NCBI BLASTn, BLASTp, and profile hidden Markov model analysis) and similarity-independent methods (machine-learning algorithms) identified viruses from multiple families, including Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae, Myoviridae, and Anelloviridae. However, their commensal nature and cross-detection ruled out an etiological interpretation. Together with a lack of detection of novel viruses in a comprehensive analysis at a resolution of single reads, these data indicate that viral agents might be rare in ALF cases with indeterminate etiology.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Falência Hepática Aguda/virologia , Soro/virologia , Anelloviridae/isolamento & purificação , Anelloviridae/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/sangue , Myoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Myoviridae/fisiologia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 95-101, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678400

RESUMO

Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for farm animals are of growing interest in food and feed safety with key applications for regulated compounds including quantification of tissue concentrations, kinetic parameters and the setting of safe exposure levels on an internal dose basis. The development and application of these models requires data for physiological, anatomical and chemical specific parameters. Here, we present the results of a structured data collection of anatomical and physiological parameters in three key farm animal species (swine, cattle and sheep). We performed an extensive literature search and meta-analyses to quantify intra-species variability and associated uncertainty of the parameters. Parameters were collected for organ weights and blood flows in all available breeds from 110 scientific publications, of which 29, 48 and 33 for cattle, sheep, and swine, respectively. Organ weights were available in literature for all three species. Blood flow parameter values were available for all organs in sheep but were scarcer in swine and cattle. Furthermore, the parameter values showed a large intra-species variation. Overall, the parameter values and associated variability provide reference values which can be used as input for generic PBK models in these species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/anatomia & histologia
8.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 131: 107346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706115

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported to promote symbiotic metabolism in bacteria by accelerating interspecies electron transfer. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated or proven in a cocultures system. In this study, multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) were added into Geobacter cocultures systems with the ability of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET). Results showed that addition of MWCNTs accelerated the metabolic rate of the cocultures. Succinate production rate in a test with 1.0gL-1 MWCNTs was 1.12mM d-1, 1.67 times higher than without MWCNTs. However, the biotoxicity effect became evident with the addition of much higher levels of MWCNTs addition. This study supports the possibility that carbon nanotubes accelerate interspecies electron transfer and provides a theoretical basis for the MWCNTs application in the process of anaerobic wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Geobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Aderência Bacteriana , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura , Transporte de Elétrons , Etanol/metabolismo , Geobacter/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 33-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625281

RESUMO

Mismatches between species distributions and their optimal habitat are predicted by ecological theory and will affect species responses to changing climate. However, empirical tests lack consensus on the prevalence of such mismatches and their underlying mechanisms. Here we present a conceptual framework to quantify the mismatch between optimal conditions for species occurrence and multiple measures of population and individual performance (density, adult growth and survival, and recruitment) and the associated performance reduction, or cost. We quantified these mismatches for 59 tree species in the western US along a soil water balance gradient and found high variability in mismatches among species and among performance measures, often resulting in high costs. We used functional traits to explore how dispersal limitation, migration lags, and competitive exclusion may cause mismatches. Overall, the large variability in mismatches, their costs and the relationship with functional traits highlight the nuanced relationships between species' performance and their distributions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Clima , Solo , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124915, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563105

RESUMO

In animal livestock heavy metals are widely used as feed additives to control enteric bacterial infections as well as to enhance the integrity of the immune system. As these metals are only partially adsorbed by animals, the content of heavy metals in manure and wastewaters causes soil and ground water contamination, with Zn2+ and Cu2+ being the most critical output from pig livestock. Phytoremediation is considered a valid strategy to improve the purity of wastewaters. This work studied the effect of Zn2+ and Cu2+ on the morphology and protein expression in Thelypteris palustris and Typha latifolia plants, cultured in a wetland pilot system. Despite the absence of macroscopic alterations, remodeling of cell walls and changes in carbohydrate metabolism were observed in the rhizomes of both plants and in leaves of Thelypteris palustris. However, similar modifications seemed to be determined by the alterations of different mechanisms in these plants. These data also suggested that marsh ferns are more sensitive to metals than monocots. Whereas toleration mechanisms seemed to be activated in Typha latifolia, in Thelypteris palustris the observed modifications appeared as slight toxic effects due to metal exposure. This study clearly indicates that both plants could be successfully employed in in situ phytoremediation systems, to remove Cu2+ and Zn2+ at concentrations that are ten times higher than the legal limits, without affecting plant growth.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Typhaceae/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacocinética , Gado , Esterco , Projetos Piloto , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos , Traqueófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Typhaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas , Zinco/farmacocinética
11.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 133-142, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740981

RESUMO

Over 50 genera of bees release pollen from flower anthers using thoracic vibrations, a phenomenon known as buzz-pollination. The efficiency of this process is directly affected by the mechanical properties of the buzzes, namely the duration, amplitude, and frequency. Nonetheless, although the effects of the former two properties are well described, the role of buzz frequency on pollen release remains unclear. Furthermore, nearly all of the existing studies describing vibrational properties of natural buzz-pollination are limited to bumblebees (Bombus) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa) constraining our current understanding of this behavior and its evolution. Therefore, we attempted to minimize this shortcoming by testing whether flower anthers exhibit optimal frequency for pollen release and whether bees tune their buzzes to match these (optimal) frequencies. If true, certain frequencies will trigger more pollen release and lighter bees will reach buzz frequencies closer to this optimum to compensate their smaller buzz amplitudes. Two strategies were used to test these hypotheses: (i) the use of (artificial) vibrational playbacks in a broad range of buzz frequencies and amplitudes to assess pollen release by tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and (ii) the recording of natural buzzes of Neotropical bees visiting tomato plants during pollination. The playback experiment indicates that although buzz frequency does affect pollen release, no optimal frequency exists for that. In addition, the recorded results of natural buzz-pollination reveal that buzz frequencies vary with bee genera and are not correlated with body size. Therefore, neither bees nor plants are tuned to optimal pollen release frequencies. Bee frequency of buzz-pollination is a likely consequence of the insect flight machinery adapted to reach higher accelerations, while flower plant response to buzz-pollination is the likely result of its pollen granular properties.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Polinização , Animais , Brasil , Pólen , Especificidade da Espécie , Vibração
12.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 86-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749703

RESUMO

Bacterial endosymbionts play important roles in ecological traits of aphids. In this study, we characterize the bacterial endosymbionts of A. gossypii collected in Karaj, Iran and their role in the performance of the aphid. Our results indicated that beside Buchnera aphidicola, A. gossypii, also harbors both Hamiltonella defensa and Arsenophonus sp. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results revealed that the populations of the endosymbionts increased throughout nymphal development up to adult emergence; thereafter, populations of Buchnera and Arsenophonus were diminished while the density of H. defensa constantly increased. Buchnera reduction caused prolonged development and no progeny production. Furthermore, secondary symbiont reduction led to reduction of the total life span and intrinsic rate of natural increase as well as appearance of the deformed dead offspring in comparison with the control insects. Reduction of the secondary symbionts did not affect parasitism rate of the aphid by the parasitic wasp Aphidius matricariae. Together these findings showed that H. defensa and Arsenophonus contributed to the fitness of A. gossypii by enhancing its performance, but not through parasitoid resistance.


Assuntos
Afídeos/microbiologia , Afídeos/fisiologia , Buchnera/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Simbiose , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irã (Geográfico) , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Reprodução , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(1): 263-271, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635913

RESUMO

As the saying goes, "cats are not small dogs." Throughout veterinary medicine history, most of the literature focus has been on the canine. Feline patients, however, now constitute a larger proportion of the pet population and are unique in many aspects. They differ anatomically and biomechanically from canines and have specific recovery needs and different pain-related behaviors. It is important that veterinary surgeons understand these differences and improve their knowledge base in the treatment of cats. This article highlights the differences in cats relevant to minimally invasive fracture repair and how they affect a surgeon's approach to fractures in cats.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/veterinária , Animais , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 885-890, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research focused on the evaluation of the impact of cover cropping on trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and nutrients in vineyard soils and Vitis vinifera L. For this purpose, two types of cover crops (Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L.) and their mixture were planted between vine rows of Muscat white in the vineyard in South Crimea. Trace elements, nutrients and other parameters were analyzed in the soil layers, leaves and grapevines of control and cover cropped plots. RESULTS: The effect of cover cropping was dependent on applied plant species. Ryegrass (L. perenne L.) seems to compete with V. vinifera L. for nutrients - these were lower in the soil and vines of the treated plot. In parallel, lead (Pb) bioconcentration in grapevines was reduced. In contrast, under lucerne (M. sativa L.), nitrogen in the soil and vines, and trace metal bioconcentration (Fe, Pb and Co) were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cover cropping can influence the chemical composition of soil and vines. This should be considered when selecting cover crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoelementos/análise , Vitis/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Medicago/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499218

RESUMO

Dacini fruit flies (Tephritidae: Diptera), including destructive pest species, are strongly affected in their reproductive behaviors by semiochemicals. Notably, male lures have been developed for pest management e.g., aromatic compounds for the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis and the melon fruit fly Zeugodacus cucurbitae; terpenic α-ionone analogs for the solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons. Other than those specific male attractants, 1-nonanol analogs have been noticed as major aliphatic components in the male rectal gland, which is considered as a secretory organ of male sex pheromones. Although multiple semiochemicals associated with the life cycle of Dacini fruit flies have been identified, their behavioral role(s) and chemosensory mechanisms by which the perception occurs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we conducted RNA sequencing analysis of the chemosensory organs of B. latifrons and Z. cucurbitae to identify the genes coding for chemosensory receptors. Because the skeletons of male attractants are different among Dacini fruit fly species, we analyzed phylogenetic relationships of candidate olfactory receptors (ORs) among the three species. We found that the OR phylogeny reflects the taxonomic relationships of the three species. We further characterized functional properties of OR74a in the three Dacini species to the 1-nonanol analogs related to components in the rectal glands. The three OR74a homologs responded to 1-nonanol, but their sensitivities differed from each other. The OR74a homologs identified from B. dorsalis and Z. cucurbitae responded significantly to 6-oxo-1-nonanol, but not to 1,3-nonanediol and nonyl acetate, indicating similar binding properties of the homologous ORs.


Assuntos
Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Glândula de Sal/metabolismo , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Animais , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Tephritidae/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629812

RESUMO

The present report describes a comprehensive study on comparative biochemical characterization of two lysosomal enzymes, acid phosphatase and ß-hexosaminidase in three different strains of Hydra; Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune, H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal and H. magnipapillata sf-1 (self-feeder-1). Since morphology and habitat of Hydra effect lysosomal enzymes and their response to environmental pollutants, it would be interesting to identify them in different Hydra strains so as to use them as toxicity testing. Preliminary studies revealed a differential expression of acid phosphatase, ß-hexosaminidase and ß-glucuronidase in three Hydra strains. Expression of all three lysosomal enzymes in H. vulgaris Ind-Pune was low in comparison to H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal and H. magnipapillata sf-1, while their expression is comparable in H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal and H. magnipapillata sf-1. The Michaelis-Menten (KM) values for lysosomal ß-hexosaminidase using 4-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide as substrate were found to be 1.3 mM, 1.1 mM and 0.8 mM, respectively for H. vulgaris Ind-Pune, H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal and H. magnipapillata sf-1. For acid phosphatase using 4-nitrophenyl-phosphate as substrate, the KM values were 0.38 mM, 1.2 mM and 0.52 mM respectively, for H. vulgaris Ind-Pune, H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal and sf-1 strains. The optimum temperature for ß-hexosaminidase was 60 °C for H. vulgaris Ind-Pune, while 50 °C was observed for H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal and sf-1 strains. The optimum pH for ß-hexosaminidase was found to be 6.0 for H. vulgaris Ind-Pune and H. vulgaris Naukuchiatal, and 5.0 for sf-1. The optimum temperature and pH of acid phosphatase was similar in all three strains, viz., 40 °C and 3.0, respectively. Preliminary localization studies using whole mount in situ hybridization revealed predominant endodermal expression of three enzymes in H. vulgaris Ind-Pune. Our results thus support the conservation of lysosomal hydrolases in Hydra.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Hydra/enzimologia , Lisossomos/enzimologia , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(12): 901-906, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826533

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and drug susceptibility test (DST) of patients infected with different nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Methods: The patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NMLD) in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were studied retrospectively by analyzing the clinical characteristics, radiological features and DST results. A total of 201 NMLD patients [male 108, age(58±15) yrs] were enrolled into this study including 48 cases of M. Kansasii [male 13, age (52±16) yrs],46 cases of M. Abscess[male 46, age (57±16) yrs], 92 cases of M. Intracellulare [male 43, age (61±13) yrs], and 15 cases of M. Avium [male 6, age (67±10) yrs]. Clinical data were collected when the diagnosis was made and Chi-square test was used to compare the differences among 4 groups of patients. Bonferroni method was used for further pairwise comparisons. Results: There were significant differences among the 4 groups in the age(χ(2)=6.42, P<0.001) and the gender(χ(2)=49.18, P<0.001) of the patients. The history of bronchiectasis in the groups of M. Kansasii, M. Abscess, M. Intracellulare and M. Avium were 2/48, 31/46, 39/92 and 4/15 cases respectively(χ(2)=41.84, P<0.001). For the Gamma-interferon release assays (ELISA) (IGRA), the positive rate of IGRA in the groups of M. Kansasii, M. Abscess, M. Intracellulare and M. Avium were 83%(40/48), 30%(14/46), 23%(21/92) and 33% (5/15) respectively(χ(2)=50.96, P<0.001). The radiological features were significantly different in tree-in-bud(8/48, 35/46, 36/92 and 4/15 cases respectively, χ(2)=36.48, P<0.001), pleural thickness or mild effusion (21/48, 36/46, 69/92 and 7/15 cases, χ(2)=19.54, P<0.001), bronchiectasis (20/48, 39/46, 78/92 and 10/15 cases, P<0.001) and cavities (38/48, 21/46, 63/92 and 10/15 cases, χ(2)=12.38, P<0.001) among the 4 groups(M. Kansasii, M. Abscess, M. Intracellulare and M. Avium). The drug resistance rates of M. Kansasii to rifampin, ethambutanol and ofloxacin were 10%(5/48), 8%(4/48) and 15%(7/48) respectively; the resistance rates of M.Intracellulare to ethambutanol was 45%(41/92), and the resistance rates of M.Abscess were all over 80% to all anti-TB drugs. The results of pairwise comparisons showed that the male proportion(46/48) and IGRAs positive rate(40/48) of patients with M. Kansasii were higher than those of other groups, and the incidence of bronchiectasis(20/48) and pleural changes(21/48) was lower than those of other groups. The female ratio(33/46), history of bronchiectasis (31/46) and tree-in-bud sign of patients(35/46) with M. Abscess were higher than those of other groups. Conclusions: There were differences in the clinical manifestations and imaging features of 4 common NMLD diseases, which were helpful for clinical differentiation. The patients with M. Kansasii infection were mainly male, with a high IGRA positive rate and fewer lesions of bronchiectasis or pleural changes. Most of the patients with M. Abscess were female, with a previous history of bronchiectasis, and with most of the lesions showing tree-in-bud signs. The NTM species had a high rate of resistance to anti-TB drugs except M. Kansasii.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/tratamento farmacológico , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Etambutol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Ofloxacino/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 479-489, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833319

RESUMO

In the present study, we add genetic data of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum collected from the Japanese Islands to the established molecular phylogenetic knowledge in the mitochondrial COI gene of Cloeon mayflies. Cloeon dipterum is a typical cosmopolitan species that includes six intraspecific haplotype groups. The present phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotypes of the Japanese C. dipterum constitute a seventh group together with a haplotype from Korea. This East Asian group forms a sister group with previously known European and North American haplotype groups (i.e., the clade CT1 to CT3). The present phylogenetic analysis further revealed the occurrence of two described species (C. dipterum and Cloeon ryogokuensis) and possibly three species (Cloeon sp. 1 to 3) in Japan. Consideration is given to the degree of genetic differentiation, divergence time, and differentiation process among these seven genetic groups.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Japão , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 511-520, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833322

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of the effect of reproductive modes and swimming ability on ostracod distribution, we visited 111 randomly selected aquatic sites in Kirsehir province. A total of 35 ostracods were newly reported for the area. The number of species with and without swimming setae was not statistically different, but numbers of sexual species was significantly lower than parthenogenetics. Species without setae did not show a significant difference between sexual and parthenogenetic forms. Numbers of species with (out) setae were not significant among different elevational ranges. Distribution of parthenogenetic species was common in all 11 habitat types when sexual species were only found from three different types located from 690 to ca. 1400 m of elevational ranges. Numbers of parthenogenetic species with or without setae did not show a difference among the ranges, but sexual species without setae exhibited wider distributional ranges (690-1289 m) than species with swimming setae (690-1089 m). Species' co-occurrence revealed two positive, five negative, and 44 random pairs of co-occurrences. Wards cluster analyses portrayed three main clustering groups. While group I includes parthenogenetic and sexual species, group II covers mostly parthenogenetic species with and without setae. Group III consists of species without setae. CCA results displayed three environmental variables (water temperature, pH and elevation) effective on species distribution. Species distributed in all elevational ranges tend to show lower optimum and wider ecological tolerances. Parthenogenetic species with swimming setae and with relatively higher tolerance ranges were dominant over sexual species. The present results suggest that swimming mode has a greater effect on species distribution among the habitats than reproductive modes.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Natação/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
20.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
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