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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4165, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230464

RESUMO

Insects use sex pheromones as a reproductive isolating mechanism to attract conspecifics and repel heterospecifics. Despite the profound knowledge of sex pheromones, little is known about the coevolutionary mechanisms and constraints on their production and detection. Using whole-genome sequences to infer the kinship among 99 drosophilids, we investigate how phylogenetic and chemical traits have interacted at a wide evolutionary timescale. Through a series of chemical syntheses and electrophysiological recordings, we identify 52 sex-specific compounds, many of which are detected via olfaction. Behavioral analyses reveal that many of the 43 male-specific compounds are transferred to the female during copulation and mediate female receptivity and/or male courtship inhibition. Measurement of phylogenetic signals demonstrates that sex pheromones and their cognate olfactory channels evolve rapidly and independently over evolutionary time to guarantee efficient intra- and inter-specific communication systems. Our results show how sexual isolation barriers between species can be reinforced by species-specific olfactory signals.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Drosophila/fisiologia , Feromônios/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Copulação/fisiologia , Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281291

RESUMO

The dynamic evolution of mitochondrial gene and intron content has been reported across the angiosperms. However, a reference mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is not available in Rubiaceae. The phylogenetic utility of mitogenome data at a species level is rarely assessed. Here, we assembled mitogenomes of six Damnacanthus indicus (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae) representing two varieties (var. indicus and var. microphyllus). The gene and intron content of D. indicus was compared with mitogenomes from representative angiosperm species and mitochondrial contigs from the other Rubiaceae species. Mitogenome structural rearrangement and sequence divergence in D. indicus were analyzed in six individuals. The size of the mitogenome in D. indicus varied from 417,661 to 419,435 bp. Comparing the number of intact mitochondrial protein-coding genes in other Gentianales taxa (38), D. indicus included 32 genes representing several losses. The intron analysis revealed a shift from cis to trans splicing of a nad1 intron (nad1i728) in D. indicus and it is a shared character with the other four Rubioideae taxa. Two distinct mitogenome structures (type A and B) were identified. Two-step direct repeat-mediated recombination was proposed to explain structural changes between type A and B mitogenomes. The five individuals from two varieties in D. indicus diverged well in the whole mitogenome-level comparison with one exception. Collectively, our study elucidated the mitogenome evolution in Rubiaceae along with D. indicus and showed the reliable phylogenetic utility of the whole mitogenome data at a species-level evolution.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma de Planta , Rubiaceae/classificação , Rubiaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Rearranjo Gênico , Variação Genética , Íntrons , Filogenia , Rubiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trans-Splicing
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4247, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253727

RESUMO

The gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis belongs to the ancient, enigmatic gnetophyte lineage. It is a unique desert plant with extreme longevity and two ever-elongating leaves. We present a chromosome-level assembly of its genome (6.8 Gb/1 C) together with methylome and transcriptome data to explore its astonishing biology. We also present a refined, high-quality assembly of Gnetum montanum to enhance our understanding of gnetophyte genome evolution. The Welwitschia genome has been shaped by a lineage-specific ancient, whole genome duplication (~86 million years ago) and more recently (1-2 million years) by bursts of retrotransposon activity. High levels of cytosine methylation (particularly at CHH motifs) are associated with retrotransposons, whilst long-term deamination has resulted in an exceptionally GC-poor genome. Changes in copy number and/or expression of gene families and transcription factors (e.g. R2R3MYB, SAUR) controlling cell growth, differentiation and metabolism underpin the plant's longevity and tolerance to temperature, nutrient and water stress.


Assuntos
Cycadopsida/genética , Clima Desértico , Genoma de Planta , África , Metilação de DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Meristema/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/genética , Chuva , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198975

RESUMO

The past decade has seen growing interest in marine natural pigments for biotechnological applications. One of the most abundant classes of biological pigments is the tetrapyrroles, which are prized targets due their photodynamic properties; porphyrins are the best known examples of this group. Many animal porphyrinoids and other tetrapyrroles are produced through heme metabolic pathways, the best known of which are the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin. Eulalia is a marine Polychaeta characterized by its bright green coloration resulting from a remarkably wide range of greenish and yellowish tetrapyrroles, some of which have promising photodynamic properties. The present study combined metabolomics based on HPLC-DAD with RNA-seq transcriptomics to investigate the molecular pathways of porphyrinoid metabolism by comparing the worm's proboscis and epidermis, which display distinct pigmentation patterns. The results showed that pigments are endogenous and seemingly heme-derived. The worm possesses homologs in both organs for genes encoding enzymes involved in heme metabolism such as ALAD, FECH, UROS, and PPOX. However, the findings also indicate that variants of the canonical enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway can be species- and organ-specific. These differences between molecular networks contribute to explain not only the differential pigmentation patterns between organs, but also the worm's variety of novel endogenous tetrapyrrolic compounds.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metabolômica/métodos , Poliquetos/genética , Tetrapirróis/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Epiderme/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Tetrapirróis/genética
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202061

RESUMO

Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are the four most common human fungal pathogens isolated that can cause superficial and invasive infections. It has been shown that specific metabolites present in the secretomes of these fungal pathogens are important for their virulence. C. glabrata is the second most common isolate world-wide and has an innate resistance to azoles, xenobiotics and oxidative stress that allows this fungal pathogen to evade the immune response and persist within the host. Here, we analyzed and compared the C. glabrata secretome with those of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and the non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In C. glabrata, we identified a different number of metabolites depending on the growth media: 12 in synthetic complete media (SC), 27 in SC-glutamic acid and 23 in rich media (YPD). C. glabrata specific metabolites are 1-dodecene (0.09 ± 0.11%), 2,5-dimethylundecane (1.01 ± 0.19%), 3,7-dimethyldecane (0.14 ± 0.15%), and octadecane (0.4 ± 0.53%). The metabolites that are shared with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and S. cerevisiae are phenylethanol, which is synthesized from phenylalanine, and eicosane and nonanoic acid (identified as trimethylsilyl ester), which are synthesized from fatty acid metabolism. Phenylethanol is the most abundant metabolite in all fungi tested: 26.36 ± 17.42% (C. glabrata), 46.77 ± 15.58% (C. albicans), 49.76 ± 18.43% (C. tropicalis), 5.72 ± 0.66% (C. parapsilosis.) and 44.58 ± 27.91% (S. cerevisiae). The analysis of C. glabrata's secretome will allow us to further our understanding of the possible role these metabolites could play in its virulence.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214154

RESUMO

The hexagonal structure of the honey bee comb cell has been the source of many studies attempting to understand its structure and function. In the storage area of the comb, only honey is stored and no brood is reared. We predicted that honey bees may construct different hexagonal cells for brood rearing and honey storage. We used quantitative analyses to evaluate the structure and function of the natural comb cell in the Chinese bee, Apis cerana cerana and the Italian bee, A. mellifera ligustica. We made cell molds using a crystal glue solution and measured the structure and inclination of cells. We found that the comb cells of A. c. cerana had both upward-sloping and downward-sloping cells; while the A. m. ligustica cells all tilted upwards. Interestingly, the cells did not conform to the regular hexagonal prism structure and showed irregular diameter sizes. In both species, comb cells also were differentiated into worker, drone and honey cells, differing in their diameter and depth. This study revealed unique differences in the structure and function of comb cells and showed that honey bees design their cells with precise engineering to increase storage capacity, and to create adequate growing room for their brood.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Comportamento de Nidação , Ceras , Animais , Biometria , Feminino , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202843

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status of kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta) leaf under different N regimes tested three times in field conditions during the 2015 growing season in two cultivars ('Weiki' and 'Geneva'). Leaf total antioxidant capacity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP tests was evaluated in the years 2015 to 2017, which experienced different weather conditions. Both cultivars exhibited a significant fall in leaf L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as global content of these compounds during the growing season, while total phenolic contents slightly ('Weiki') or significantly ('Geneva') increased. There was a large fluctuation in antioxidative enzyme activity during the season. The correlation between individual antioxidants and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) depended on the plant development phase. The study revealed two peaks of an increase in TEAC at the start and end of the growing season. Leaf L-AA, global phenolics, APX, CAT and TEAC depended on the N level, but thiol compounds were not affected. Over the three years, TEAC decreased as soil N fertility increased, and the strength of the N effect was year dependent. The relationship between leaf N content and ABTS and FRAP tests was highly negative. The antioxidant properties of kiwiberry leaves were found to be closely related to the plant development phase and affected by soil N fertility.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Nitrogênio/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo/química , Actinidia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199898

RESUMO

In both humans and animal models, consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet has been linked to vascular dysfunction and cognitive impairments. Laboratory animals provide excellent models for more invasive high-fat-diet-related research. However, the physiological differences between humans and common animal models in terms of how they react metabolically to high-fat diets need to be considered. Here, we review the factors that may affect the translatability of mechanistic research in animal models, paying special attention to the effects of a high-fat diet on vascular outcomes. We draw attention to the dissociation between metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia in rodents, unlike the state in humans, where the two commonly occur. We also discuss the differential vulnerability between species to the metabolic and vascular effects of macronutrients in the diet. Findings from animal studies are better interpreted as modeling specific aspects of dysfunction. We conclude that the differences between species provide an opportunity to explore why some species are protected from the detrimental aspects of high-fat-diet-induced dysfunction, and to translate these findings into benefits for human health.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Animais , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/complicações , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Roedores , Especificidade da Espécie , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
10.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 487-491, 2021 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235897

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Gonyosoma Wagler, 1828 is described herein based on six specimens from the Diaoluoshan Mountains, Hainan Island, Hainan Province, China. The new species, Gonyosoma hainanense sp. nov., is most similar to its continental sister species, Gonyosoma boulengeri (Mocquard, 1897). Both taxa have a scaled protrusion on the anterior portion of the rostrum, distinct from other congeners. However, Gonyosoma hainanense sp. nov. can be distinguished from G. boulengeri by two significant morphological characters: (1) black orbital stripe absent in adults (vs. present in G. boulengeri); and (2) two loreals (vs. one loreal in G. boulengeri). The new species is also genetically divergent and forms a unique clade from its sister species and all other congeners based on sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (cyt b).


Assuntos
Colubridae/anatomia & histologia , Colubridae/classificação , Animais , China , Colubridae/genética , DNA/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Masculino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 492-501, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235898

RESUMO

Fish morphological phenotypes are important resources in artificial breeding, functional gene mapping, and population-based studies in aquaculture and ecology. Traditional morphological measurement of phenotypes is rather expensive in terms of time and labor. More importantly, manual measurement is highly dependent on operational experience, which can lead to subjective phenotyping results. Here, we developed 3DPhenoFish software to extract fish morphological phenotypes from three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data. Algorithms for background elimination, coordinate normalization, image segmentation, key point recognition, and phenotype extraction were developed and integrated into an intuitive user interface. Furthermore, 18 key points and traditional 2D morphological traits, along with 3D phenotypes, including area and volume, can be automatically obtained in a visualized manner. Intuitive fine-tuning of key points and customized definitions of phenotypes are also allowed in the software. Using 3DPhenoFish, we performed high-throughput phenotyping for four endemic Schizothoracinae species, including Schizopygopsis younghusbandi, Oxygymnocypris stewartii, Ptychobarbus dipogon, and Schizothorax oconnori. Results indicated that the morphological phenotypes from 3DPhenoFish exhibited high linear correlation (>0.94) with manual measurements and offered informative traits to discriminate samples of different species and even for different populations of the same species. In summary, we developed an efficient, accurate, and customizable tool, 3DPhenoFish, to extract morphological phenotypes from point cloud data, which should help overcome traditional challenges in manual measurements. 3DPhenoFish can be used for research on morphological phenotypes in fish, including functional gene mapping, artificial selection, and conservation studies. 3DPhenoFish is an open-source software and can be downloaded for free at https://github.com/lyh24k/3DPhenoFish/tree/master.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Software , Animais , Peixes/classificação , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 656880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239815

RESUMO

Rapid and accurate differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species from other mycobacterium is essential for appropriate therapeutic management, timely intervention for infection control and initiation of appropriate health care measures. However, routine clinical characterization methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) species remain both, time consuming and labor intensive. In the present study, an innovative liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method for the identification of clinically most relevant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species is tested using a model set of mycobacterium strains. The methodology is based on protein profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, which are used as markers of differentiation. To test the resolving power, speed, and accuracy of the method, four ATCC type strains and 37 recent clinical isolates of closely related species were analyzed using this new approach. Using different deconvolution algorithms, we detected hundreds of individual protein masses, with a subpopulation of these functioning as species-specific markers. This assay identified 216, 260, 222, and 201 proteoforms for M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294™, M. microti ATCC 19422™, M. africanum ATCC 25420™, and M. bovis ATCC 19210™ respectively. All clinical strains were identified to the correct species with a mean of 95% accuracy. Our study successfully demonstrates applicability of this novel mass spectrometric approach to identify clinically relevant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species that are very closely related and difficult to differentiate with currently existing methods. Here, we present the first proof-of-principle study employing a fast mass spectrometry-based method to identify the clinically most prevalent species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis species complex.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203435

RESUMO

Betacoronaviruses, responsible for the "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome" (SARS) and the "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome" (MERS), use the spikes protruding from the virion envelope to attach and subsequently infect the host cells. The coronavirus spike (S) proteins contain receptor binding domains (RBD), allowing the specific recognition of either the dipeptidyl peptidase CD23 (MERS-CoV) or the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2 (SARS-Cov, SARS-CoV-2) host cell receptors. The heavily glycosylated S protein includes both complex and high-mannose type N-glycans that are well exposed at the surface of the spikes. A detailed analysis of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of mannose-binding lectins from plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, revealed that, depending on their origin, they preferentially recognize either complex type N-glycans, or high-mannose type N-glycans. Since both complex and high-mannose glycans substantially decorate the S proteins, mannose-specific lectins are potentially useful glycan probes for targeting the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 virions. Mannose-binding legume lectins, like pea lectin, and monocot mannose-binding lectins, like snowdrop lectin or the algal lectin griffithsin, which specifically recognize complex N-glycans and high-mannose glycans, respectively, are particularly adapted for targeting coronaviruses. The biomedical prospects of targeting coronaviruses with mannose-specific lectins are wide-ranging including detection, immobilization, prevention, and control of coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Lectinas/farmacologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Cianobactérias/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Fungos/química , Humanos , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Lectinas/uso terapêutico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Ligação Proteica , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066572

RESUMO

The NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER FAMILY (NPF) genes, initially characterized as nitrate or peptide transporters in plants, are involved in the transport of a large variety of substrates, including amino acids, nitrate, auxin (IAA), jasmonates (JAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) and glucosinolates. A total of 169 potential functional NPF genes were excavated in Brassica napus, and they showed diversified expression patterns in 90 different organs or tissues based on transcriptome profile data. The complex time-serial expression changes were found for most functional NPF genes in the development process of leaves, silique walls and seeds, which indicated that the expression of Brassica napus NPF (BnaNPF) genes may respond to altered phytohormone and secondary metabolite content through combining with promoter element enrichment analysis. Furthermore, many BnaNPF genes were detected to respond to vernalization with two different patterns, and 20 BnaNPF genes responded to nitrate deficiency. These results will provide useful information for further investigation of the biological function of BnaNPF genes for growth and development in rapeseed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitratos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sintenia/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073255

RESUMO

Whole genome sequences of two Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates, 48-1789 and MAR24, revealed that they carry the KL106 and KL112 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis gene clusters, respectively, at the chromosomal K locus. The KL106 and KL112 gene clusters are related to the previously described KL11 and KL83 gene clusters, sharing genes for the synthesis of l-rhamnose (l-Rhap) and 6-deoxy-l-talose (l-6dTalp). CPS material isolated from 48-1789 and MAR24 was studied by sugar analysis and Smith degradation along with one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The structures of K106 and K112 oligosaccharide repeats (K units) l-6dTalp-(1→3)-D-GlcpNAc tetrasaccharide fragment share the responsible genes in the respective gene clusters. The K106 and K83 CPSs also have the same linkage between K units. The KL112 cluster includes an additional glycosyltransferase gene, Gtr183, and the K112 unit includes α l-Rhap side chain that is not found in the K106 structure. K112 further differs in the linkage between K units formed by the Wzy polymerase, and a different wzy gene is found in KL112. However, though both KL106 and KL112 share the atr8 acetyltransferase gene with KL83, only K83 is acetylated.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Desoxiaçúcares , Hexoses , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Acinetobacter baumannii/química , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Desoxiaçúcares/química , Desoxiaçúcares/genética , Desoxiaçúcares/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Hexoses/química , Hexoses/genética , Hexoses/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/genética , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073632

RESUMO

Recently, medaka has been used as a model organism in various research fields. However, even though it possesses several advantages over zebrafish, fewer studies were done in medaka compared to zebrafish, especially with regard to its behavior. Thus, to provide more information regarding its behavior and to demonstrate the behavioral differences between several species of medaka, we compared the behavioral performance and biomarker expression in the brain between four medaka fishes, Oryzias latipes, Oryzias dancena, Oryzias woworae, and Oryzias sinensis. We found that each medaka species explicitly exhibited different behaviors to each other, which might be related to the different basal levels of several biomarkers. Furthermore, by phenomics and genomic-based clustering, the differences between these medaka fishes were further investigated. Here, the phenomic-based clustering was based on the behavior results, while the genomic-based clustering was based on the sequence of the nd2 gene. As we expected, both clusterings showed some resemblances to each other in terms of the interspecies relationship between medaka and zebrafish. However, this similarity was not displayed by both clusterings in the medaka interspecies comparisons. Therefore, these results suggest a re-interpretation of several prior studies in comparative biology. We hope that these results contribute to the growing database of medaka fish phenotypes and provide one of the foundations for future phenomics studies of medaka fish.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Proteínas de Peixes , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , NADH Desidrogenase , Oryzias , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/biossíntese , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Oryzias/genética , Oryzias/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072976

RESUMO

In the natural environment, interactions between species are a common natural phenomena. The mechanisms of interaction between different species are mainly studied using genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic techniques. Metabolomics is a crucial part of system biology and is based on precision instrument analysis. In the last decade, the emerging field of metabolomics has received extensive attention. Metabolomics not only provides a qualitative and quantitative method for studying the mechanisms of interactions between different species, but also helps clarify the mechanisms of defense between the host and pathogen, and to explore new metabolites with various biological activities. This review focuses on the methods and progress of interspecies metabolomics. Additionally, the prospects and challenges of interspecies metabolomics are discussed.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Metabolômica/tendências , Proteômica/métodos
18.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 417-422, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075735

RESUMO

The Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in China. As wild populations have declined sharply in recent years, it is also a valuable model for research on sexual dimorphism, comparative biology, and conservation. However, the current lack of high-quality chromosome-level genome information for the species hinders the advancement of comparative genomic analysis and evolutionary studies. Therefore, we constructed the first high-quality chromosome-level reference genome for L. longirostris. The total genome was 703.19 Mb, with 389 contigs and contig N50 length of 4.29 Mb. Using high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data, the genome sequences (685.53 Mb) were scaffolded into 26 chromosomes ranging from 17.36 to 43.97 Mb, resulting in a chromosomal anchoring rate for the genome of 97.44%. In total, 23 708 protein-coding genes were identified in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that L. longirostris and its closest related species P. fulvidraco diverged approximately 26.6 million years ago. This high-quality reference genome of L. longirostris should pave the way for future genomic comparisons and evolutionary research.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Genoma , Animais , China , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 88-94, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103283

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the differences between the gene expression profiles of Leismania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes through comparative analysis of gene expressions. Methods: Cell culture of L. major (MHOM/IL/80) and L. infantum (MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP/263) cell lines was performed. Afterwards, total RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis were performed and fold changes in the expression levels of 30 genes that play a role in metabolic pathways and nucleic acid synthesis and co-expressed in two species were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Functions of genes were determined using LeishDB and KEGG databases. Results: In this study, profiles of protein-coding 30 genes expressed in L. major and L. infantum promastigotes were evaluated and significant differences were found between the two species (p<0.001). There was a significant fold change in the expression levels of 29% of genes common in the two species. The expression levels of nine genes in L. major were found to be markedly higher than those of L. infantum (fold change >1). These genes include phosphoglycan beta 1.3 galactosyltransferase-like, lathosterol oxidase-like, fatty acid elongase, 3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase, calpain-like cysteine peptidase, acetyl-coA synthetase, 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease, 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease precursor and 3-ketoacyl-coA thiolase-like. When the functions of the proteins that correspond to the genes common in the two species were examined in detail using the databases, it was determined that these genes play role in lipid, protein, carbohydrate and nucleic acid metabolic functions of the parasite. Conclusion: Alterations in the expression profiles of genes common to L. major and L. infantum species may cause differences in the virulence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment modality between these parasite species. In addition, evaluation of gene profiles is important in the selection of species-specific or common targets for vaccine and drug studies.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania major/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania major/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 423-427, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114755

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Troglonectes is described from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Troglonectes hechiensis sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from its congeners based on the following characters: eyes normal; whole body covered by scales except head, throat, and abdomen; lateral line incomplete; caudal fin concave; and color pattern present on body.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/classificação , Animais , China , Cipriniformes/anatomia & histologia , Cipriniformes/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
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