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1.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 127-139.e6, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007253

RESUMO

Human spliceosomes contain numerous proteins absent in yeast, whose functions remain largely unknown. Here we report a 3D cryo-EM structure of the human spliceosomal C complex at 3.4 Å core resolution and 4.5-5.7 Å at its periphery, and aided by protein crosslinking we determine its molecular architecture. Our structure provides additional insights into the spliceosome's architecture between the catalytic steps of splicing, and how proteins aid formation of the spliceosome's catalytically active RNP (ribonucleoprotein) conformation. It reveals the spatial organization of the metazoan-specific proteins PPWD1, WDR70, FRG1, and CIR1 in human C complexes, indicating they stabilize functionally important protein domains and RNA structures rearranged/repositioned during the Bact to C transition. Structural comparisons with human Bact, C∗, and P complexes reveal an intricate cascade of RNP rearrangements during splicing catalysis, with intermediate RNP conformations not found in yeast, and additionally elucidate the structural basis for the sequential recruitment of metazoan-specific spliceosomal proteins.


Assuntos
Fatores de Processamento de RNA/química , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Catálise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4943, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009384

RESUMO

Despite their high vulnerability, insular ecosystems have been largely ignored in climate change assessments, and when they are investigated, studies tend to focus on exposure to threats instead of vulnerability. The present study examines climate change vulnerability of islands, focusing on endemic mammals and by 2050 (RCPs 6.0 and 8.5), using trait-based and quantitative-vulnerability frameworks that take into account exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Our results suggest that all islands and archipelagos show a certain level of vulnerability to future climate change, that is typically more important in Pacific Ocean ones. Among the drivers of vulnerability to climate change, exposure was rarely the main one and did not explain the pattern of vulnerability. In addition, endemic mammals with long generation lengths and high dietary specializations are predicted to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Our findings highlight the importance of exploring islands vulnerability to identify the highest climate change impacts and to avoid the extinction of unique biodiversity.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ilhas , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4970, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009414

RESUMO

Communicating species identity is a key component of many animal signals. However, whether selection for species recognition systematically increases signal diversity during clade radiation remains debated. Here we show that in woodpecker drumming, a rhythmic signal used during mating and territorial defense, the amount of species identity information encoded remained stable during woodpeckers' radiation. Acoustic analyses and evolutionary reconstructions show interchange among six main drumming types despite strong phylogenetic contingencies, suggesting evolutionary tinkering of drumming structure within a constrained acoustic space. Playback experiments and quantification of species discriminability demonstrate sufficient signal differentiation to support species recognition in local communities. Finally, we only find character displacement in the rare cases where sympatric species are also closely related. Overall, our results illustrate how historical contingencies and ecological interactions can promote conservatism in signals during a clade radiation without impairing the effectiveness of information transfer relevant to inter-specific discrimination.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Ecossistema , Teoria da Informação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria
4.
Med Mycol J ; 61(3): 33-48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863327

RESUMO

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory disease that was identified by Professor Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1961. Candida albicans-derived substances (CADS) such as the hot water extract of C. albicans and Candida water-soluble fractions (CAWS) induce coronary vasculitis similar to KD in mice. An increasing proportion of deep-seated candidiasis cases are caused by non-albicans Candida and are often resistant to antifungal drugs. We herein investigated whether the mannoprotein fractions (MN fractions) of clinically isolated Candida species induce vasculitis in mice. We prepared MN fractions from 26 strains of Candida species by conventional hot water extraction and compared vasculitis in DBA/2 mice. The results obtained revealed that the induction of vasculitis and resulting heart failure were significantly dependent on the species; namely, death rates on day 200 were as follows: Candida krusei (100%), Candida albicans (84%), Candida dubliniensis (47%), Candida parapsilosis (44%), Candida glabrata (32%), Candida guilliermondii (20%), and Candida tropicalis (20%). Even for C. albicans, some strains did not induce vasculitis. The present results suggest that MN-induced vasculitis is strongly dependent on the species and strains of Candida, and also that the MN fractions of some non-albicans Candida induce similar toxicity to those of C. albicans.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/química , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase , Vasos Coronários/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/efeitos adversos , Vasculite/microbiologia , Animais , Candida albicans/classificação , Fracionamento Celular , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Dis Model Mech ; 13(9)2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887790

RESUMO

The spread of the novel virus SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was explosive, with cases first identified in December 2019, and >22 million people infected and >775,000 deaths as of August 2020. SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe respiratory disease in humans leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The development of effective clinical interventions, such as antivirals and vaccines that can limit or even prevent the burden and spread of SARS-CoV-2, is a global health priority. Testing of leading antivirals, monoclonal antibody therapies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 will require robust animal and cell models of viral pathogenesis. In this Special Article, we discuss the cell-based and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis that have been described as of August 2020. We also outline the outstanding questions for which researchers can leverage animal and cell-based models to improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and protective immunity. Taken together, the refinement of models of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be critical to guide the development of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to end the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Especificidade da Espécie , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111043, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888597

RESUMO

Intraspecific difference in toxicity brings uncertainty to ecological risk assessment (ERA) and water quality criteria (WQC) of chemicals. Here, we compared intraspecies sensitivity to toxicants for Mesocyclops leuckarti of which toxicity data was obtained from published literatures, and zebrafish Danio rerio of which toxicity data was done in this study). Due to the internal concentration of chemicals not measured, simplified toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) models were used, and we investigated whether TK-TD parameters estimated by Bayesian method might represent the differences in sensitivity between life-stages of 2 species. The results demonstrated that the difference in TK-TD parameters (background mortality m0, no effect concentration NEC, the killing rate ks, and the dominant rate kd) could represent the toxicity difference between life-stages of individual species. The TK-TD model could predict toxicity in individual species (Cyprinus carpio L., Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hyalella Azteca) exposed to different chemical concentrations and successfully extrapolate toxicity between different life stages of Mesocyclops leuckarti and Danio rerio by scaling several TK-TD parameters. The modified TK-TD model on the extrapolation toxicity of chemicals between life stages for species could be useful for the ERA and for deriving and revising WQC for chemicals.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Copépodes/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bioacumulação , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxicocinética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111033, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888611

RESUMO

Diamide insecticides, such as chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and tetrachlorantraniliprole, are a new class of insecticides that selectively target insects by affecting calcium homeostasis. While this class of insecticides are effective on a wide range of insect pests, the toxicities of diamide insecticides vary among species and life stages. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the different responses of Plutella xylostella and Pieris rapae to diamide insecticides. The susceptibility to insecticides of P. xylostella and P. rapae larvae was assessed 2 and 4 days after exposure to chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and tetrachlorantraniliprole. P. xylostella larvae treated with distilled water (Group A), chlorantraniliprole (Group B), cyantraniliprole (Group C), and tetrachlorantraniliprole (Group D) and P. rapae larvae treated with distilled water (Group E), chlorantraniliprole (Group F), cyantraniliprole (Group G) and tetrachlorantraniliprole (Group H) were subjected to metabolomics analysis. The differential metabolites in the B vs. F, C vs. G, and D vs. H groups were analyzed, followed by pathway enrichment analysis. Chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and tetrachlorantraniliprole all showed high toxicities for P. xylostella and P. rapae larvae. P. rapae larvae were more sensitive to the diamide insecticides than P. xylostella larvae. There were 65 overlapped differential metabolites between P. xylostella and P. rapae larvae treated with these three diamide insecticides. Pathway analysis showed that the differential metabolites were closely related with fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism-related pathways. The differential regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism may contribute to the different response to diamide insecticides in P. xylostella and P. rapae.


Assuntos
Borboletas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diamida/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Borboletas/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4654, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943640

RESUMO

The shift from maternal to embryonic control is a critical developmental milestone in preimplantation development. Widespread transcriptomic and epigenetic remodeling facilitate this transition from terminally differentiated gametes to totipotent blastomeres, but the identity of transcription factors (TF) and genomic elements regulating embryonic genome activation (EGA) are poorly defined. The timing of EGA is species-specific, e.g., the timing of murine and human EGA differ significantly. To deepen our understanding of mammalian EGA, here we profile changes in open chromatin during bovine preimplantation development. Before EGA, open chromatin is enriched for maternal TF binding, similar to that observed in humans and mice. During EGA, homeobox factor binding becomes more prevalent and requires embryonic transcription. A cross-species comparison of open chromatin during preimplantation development reveals strong similarity in the regulatory circuitry underlying bovine and human EGA compared to mouse. Moreover, TFs associated with murine EGA are not enriched in cattle or humans, indicating that cattle may be a more informative model for human preimplantation development than mice.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Genoma , Animais , Blastômeros , Bovinos/embriologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Fertilização , Humanos , Camundongos , Oócitos , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4461, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929068

RESUMO

Protected areas (PAs) are the cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation efforts, but to fulfil this role they must be effective at conserving the ecosystems and species that occur within their boundaries. Adequate monitoring datasets that allow comparing biodiversity between protected and unprotected sites are lacking in tropical regions. Here we use the largest citizen science biodiversity dataset - eBird - to quantify the extent to which protected areas in eight tropical forest biodiversity hotspots are effective at retaining bird diversity. We find generally positive effects of protection on the diversity of bird species that are forest-dependent, endemic to the hotspots, or threatened or Near Threatened, but not on overall bird species richness. Furthermore, we show that in most of the hotspots examined this benefit is driven by protected areas preventing both forest loss and degradation. Our results provide evidence that, on average, protected areas contribute measurably to conserving bird species in some of the world's most diverse and threatened terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Geografia , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000843, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866143

RESUMO

Interactions between species generate the functions on which ecosystems and humans depend. However, we lack an understanding of the risk that interaction loss poses to ecological communities. Here, we quantify the risk of interaction loss for 4,330 species interactions from 41 empirical pollination and seed dispersal networks across 6 continents. We estimate risk as a function of interaction vulnerability to extinction (likelihood of loss) and contribution to network feasibility, a measure of how much an interaction helps a community tolerate environmental perturbations. Remarkably, we find that more vulnerable interactions have higher contributions to network feasibility. Furthermore, interactions tend to have more similar vulnerability and contribution to feasibility across networks than expected by chance, suggesting that vulnerability and feasibility contribution may be intrinsic properties of interactions, rather than only a function of ecological context. These results may provide a starting point for prioritising interactions for conservation in species interaction networks in the future.


Assuntos
Biota , Simbiose , Animais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111016, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888590

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is considered a beneficial element to higher plants based on its regulation of antioxidative system under abiotic or biotic stresses. However, the limit of beneficial and toxic physiological effects of Se is very narrow. In the present study, the antioxidant performance, nutritional composition, long-distance transport of Se, photosynthetic pigments, and growth of Coffea arabica genotypes in response to Se concentration in solution were evaluated. Five Coffea arabica genotypes (Obatã, IPR99, IAC125, IPR100 and Catucaí) were used, which were grown in the absence and presence of Se (0 and 1.0 mmol L-1) in nutrient solution. The application of 1 mmol L-1 Se promoted root browning in all genotypes. There were no visual symptoms of leaf toxicity, but there was a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus and sulfur in the shoots of plants exposed to high Se concentration. Except for genotype Obatã, the coffee seedlings presented strategies for regulating Se uptake by reducing long-distance transport of Se from roots to shoots. The concentrations of total chlorophyll, total pheophytin, and carotenoids were negatively affected in genotypes Obatã, IPR99, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se at 1 mmol L-1. H2O2 production was reduced in genotypes IPR99, IPR100, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se, resulting in lower activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These results suggest that antioxidant metabolism was effective in regulating oxidative stress in plants treated with Se. The increase in sucrose, and decrease in SOD, CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, as well as Se compartmentalization in the roots, were the main biochemical and physiological modulatory effects of coffee seedlings under stress conditions due to excess of Se.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Coffea/genética , Coffea/metabolismo , Coffea/fisiologia , Genótipo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Selênio/análise , Selênio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3359-3368, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893331

RESUMO

Acanthocephalans are multi-host endoparasites, many of which use freshwater amphipods as intermediate hosts for their larval stages (e.g., cystacanths) while adults live in the intestines of vertebrates, including waterfowl. In central Alberta, Canada, several co-occurring species of the acanthocephalan genus Polymorphus use the amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars, 1863 as an intermediate host. We applied DNA barcoding and morphometric analysis to differentiate cystacanth larvae from G. lacustris sampled from 17 Albertan water bodies. We slide-mounted specimens and measured morphological traits relating to proboscis hooks. We sequenced the standard DNA barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Morphometric analysis suggested that the acanthocephalans we collected belonged to four morphologically different groups that keyed to Polymorphus contortus (Bremser, 1821) Travassos, 1926; P. marilis Van Cleave, 1939; P. paradoxus Connel et Corner, 1957; and P. strumosoides (Lundström, 1942) Amin, 2013. Our Bayesian tree based on COI sequences generally corroborated the morphological results and supported that the specimens assigned to P. cf. contortus and P. cf. strumosoides belong to two distinct species. In contrast, the Bayesian tree showed that specimens of P. cf. marilis were nested as a cluster within the P. cf. paradoxus clade. Similarly, small pairwise genetic distance (< 2%) between specimens identified as P. cf. contortus and P. cf. strumosoides suggests that they are conspecific. Future studies should use morphology and sequence data from adult acanthocephalans to assess the taxonomic identity of the cystacanth-based Polymorphus taxa. Our study is the first to provide genetic information for the four Polymorphus taxa and emphasizes the importance of applying multiple approaches to differentiate parasite species.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Alberta , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Água Doce/parasitologia , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prioritize the development of antiviral compounds, it is necessary to compare their relative preclinical activity and clinical efficacy. METHODS: We reviewed in vitro, animal model, and clinical studies of candidate anti-coronavirus compounds and placed extracted data in an online relational database. RESULTS: As of August 2020, the Coronavirus Antiviral Research Database (CoV-RDB; covdb.stanford.edu) contained over 2800 cell culture, entry assay, and biochemical experiments, 259 animal model studies, and 73 clinical studies from over 400 published papers. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV account for 85% of the data. Approximately 75% of experiments involved compounds with known or likely mechanisms of action, including monoclonal antibodies and receptor binding inhibitors (21%), viral protease inhibitors (17%), miscellaneous host-acting inhibitors (10%), polymerase inhibitors (9%), interferons (7%), fusion inhibitors (5%), and host protease inhibitors (5%). Of 975 compounds with known or likely mechanism, 135 (14%) are licensed in the U.S. for other indications, 197 (20%) are licensed outside the U.S. or are in human trials, and 595 (61%) are pre-clinical investigational compounds. CONCLUSION: CoV-RDB facilitates comparisons between different candidate antiviral compounds, thereby helping scientists, clinical investigators, public health officials, and funding agencies prioritize the most promising compounds and repurposed drugs for further development.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Mamíferos , Modelos Animais , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Especificidade da Espécie , Interface Usuário-Computador
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 538-545, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968836

RESUMO

In the present study, heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) level in the water, sediment, and crabs were analyzed from Noyyal and Chinnar Rivers of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu, India. Based on our results, Noyyal River is considered as polluted environment due to the discharge of contaminants by various anthropogenic activities, whereas, Chinnar River maintained as unpolluted one due to its tributary nature of Noyyal River located in Western Ghats hills. The results showed that the heavy metals in water and sediments were higher in Noyyal River. Also, the level of bioaccumulation of studied metals and biochemical constituents were higher in the crab Spiralothelphusa hydrodroma sampled from Noyyal River than Barytelphusa cunicularis collected from Chinnar River. The present findings revealed that the crab sampled from Noyyal River had elevated heavy metals which lead to a significant increase in biochemical constituents to overcome the stress.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Rios/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição Química da Água
16.
Protist ; 171(4): 125751, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890795

RESUMO

With highly specialized morphology and unexplored functional capacities, ciliates from extreme habitats are drawing increasing attention. During a microbial investigation of a solar saltern pond (salinity 240‰) on Mallorca, Spain, a previously unknown scuticociliate, Platynematum rossellomorai n. sp. was isolated, cultured and studied using a tripartite approach consisting of a morphological description, a molecular analysis and an ecophysiological characterization. The ciliate has distinct morphological characteristics and its main diagnostic features include a large anteriorly positioned oral area (occupying almost half of the body length), two caudal cilia and a small number of somatic kineties. However, due to the most important generic feature of Cinetochilidae, the consistency of the arrangement of the adoral membranes, the ciliate is classified as a new member of the genus Platynematum. Its 18S rRNA gene sequence shows a sequence similarity of 91.0% to the closest deposited relative, Platynematum salinarum, and a phylogenetic analysis reveals a close relationship to other members of the family Cinetochilidae Perty, 1852. Growth experiments identify the ciliate as a borderline halophile, with a tolerance range between 180 and 280‰ salinity. The ciliate apparently accumulates the compatible solutes glycine betaine and ectoine to counterbalance osmotic stress, however, other osmoregulatory mechanisms are not excluded.


Assuntos
Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Filogenia , Tanques/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Oligoimenóforos/citologia , Oligoimenóforos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Science ; 369(6510): 1431-1432, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943512
18.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 359-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959802

RESUMO

Current literature shows that secondary bacterial infections, although less frequent than in previous influenza pandemics, affect COVID-19 patients. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella pneumophila, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus and Klebsiella spp. are the main species isolated. Of note, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-COVID-19 coinfections are also reported. However, bacterial coinfection rates increase in patients admitted in the intensive care units, and those diseases can be due to super-infections by nosocomial antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This highlights the urgency to revise frequent and empiric prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in COVID-19 patients, with more attention to evidence-based studies and respect for the antimicrobial stewardship principles.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4459, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900997

RESUMO

The origins of multicellular physiology are tied to evolution of gene expression. Genes can shift expression as organisms evolve, but how ancestral expression influences altered descendant expression is not well understood. To examine this, we amalgamate 1,903 RNA-seq datasets from 182 research projects, including 6 organs in 21 vertebrate species. Quality control eliminates project-specific biases, and expression shifts are reconstructed using gene-family-wise phylogenetic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Expression shifts following gene duplication result in more drastic changes in expression properties than shifts without gene duplication. The expression properties are tightly coupled with protein evolutionary rate, depending on whether and how gene duplication occurred. Fluxes in expression patterns among organs are nonrandom, forming modular connections that are reshaped by gene duplication. Thus, if expression shifts, ancestral expression in some organs induces a strong propensity for expression in particular organs in descendants. Regardless of whether the shifts are adaptive or not, this supports a major role for what might be termed preadaptive pathways of gene expression evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Família Multigênica , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Proteínas/genética , RNA-Seq , Especificidade da Espécie , Vertebrados/classificação , Vertebrados/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4488, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901040

RESUMO

Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we establish high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and domestication. Fonio diversity is shaped by climatic, geographic, and ethnolinguistic factors. Two genes associated with seed size and shattering showed signatures of selection. Most known domestication genes from other cereal models however have not experienced strong selection in fonio, providing direct targets to rapidly improve this crop for agriculture in hot and dry environments.


Assuntos
Digitaria/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , África , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Digitaria/classificação , Domesticação , Grão Comestível/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
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