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1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1547-1558, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915308

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and thus characterization of miRNAs and investigation of the relative abundance and specificity of tissue expression are essential for understanding gene expression in the golden snub-nosed monkey (GSM, Rhinopithecus roxellanae). Here, we report the first dataset of GSM miRNAs where we identified 460 miRNAs in seven tissues, with 246 conserved known mature miRNAs and 214 novel mature miRNAs. We determined miRNA abundance and expression in the seven tissues using a Tissue Specificity Index score and found that most novel GSM miRNAs showed a highly tissue-specific expression pattern. In particular, 67 novel miRNAs and the miR-34 family were expressed in abundance only in the lung. Five known miRNAs were highly abundant in digestive organs such as the pancreas and liver, and four novel miRNAs were highly expressed in the heart and muscle. Annotation of target genes of GSM miRNAs indicated that target genes were enriched in many important pathways, such as the HIF-1 signaling pathway and xenobiotic biodegradation-related pathways. Collectively, these results emphasize that miRNAs play important roles in GSM diet and high-elevation adaptation regulation. In summary, this study provides essential information on GSM miRNAs and will benefit further investigations of the function and mechanism of miRNAs in controlling gene expression in the GSM.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Colobinae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4459, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900997

RESUMO

The origins of multicellular physiology are tied to evolution of gene expression. Genes can shift expression as organisms evolve, but how ancestral expression influences altered descendant expression is not well understood. To examine this, we amalgamate 1,903 RNA-seq datasets from 182 research projects, including 6 organs in 21 vertebrate species. Quality control eliminates project-specific biases, and expression shifts are reconstructed using gene-family-wise phylogenetic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Expression shifts following gene duplication result in more drastic changes in expression properties than shifts without gene duplication. The expression properties are tightly coupled with protein evolutionary rate, depending on whether and how gene duplication occurred. Fluxes in expression patterns among organs are nonrandom, forming modular connections that are reshaped by gene duplication. Thus, if expression shifts, ancestral expression in some organs induces a strong propensity for expression in particular organs in descendants. Regardless of whether the shifts are adaptive or not, this supports a major role for what might be termed preadaptive pathways of gene expression evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Família Multigênica , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Proteínas/genética , RNA-Seq , Especificidade da Espécie , Vertebrados/classificação , Vertebrados/genética
3.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933047

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The worldwide transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is spreading like wildfire, affecting almost every country in the world. In the past 100 years, the globe did not face a microbial pandemic similar in scale to COVID-19. Taken together, both previous outbreaks of other members of the coronavirus family (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV)) did not produce even 1% of the global harm already inflicted by COVID-19. There are also four other CoVs capable of infecting humans (HCoVs), which circulate continuously in the human population, but their phenotypes are generally mild, and these HCoVs received relatively little attention. These dramatic differences between infection with HCoVs, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 raise many questions, such as: Why is COVID-19 transmitted so quickly? Is it due to some specific features of the viral structure? Are there some specific human (host) factors? Are there some environmental factors? The aim of this review is to collect and concisely summarize the possible and logical answers to these questions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores Etários , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Internalização do Vírus
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5151-5158, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Magnetic stimulation is used in the treatment of a diversity of diseases, but a complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action requires further investigation. We examined the effect of static magnetic stimulation (SMS) in different cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A culture plate holder with attached NeFeB magnets was developed. Different magnetic field intensities and periods were tested in tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines. To verify the cellular responses to SMS, cell viability, cell death, cell cycle and BDNF expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to SMS for 24 hours led to a decrease in cell viability. Analysis 24 h after stimulation revealed a decrease in apoptotic and double-positive cells, associated with an increase in the number of necrotic cells. CONCLUSION: The effects of SMS on cell viability are cell type-specific, inducing a decrease in cell viability in SH-SY5Y cells. This suggests that SMS may be a potential tool in the treatment of neuronal tumors.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos da radiação
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2190-2199, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940572

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in millions of patients infected worldwide and indirectly affecting even more individuals through disruption of daily living. Long-term adverse outcomes have been reported with similar diseases from other coronaviruses, namely Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 adversely affects different systems in the human body. This review summarizes the current evidence on the short-term adverse health outcomes and assesses the risk of potential long-term adverse outcomes of COVID-19. Major adverse outcomes were found to affect different body systems: immune system (including but not limited to Guillain-Barré syndrome and paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome), respiratory system (lung fibrosis and pulmonary thromboembolism), cardiovascular system (cardiomyopathy and coagulopathy), neurological system (sensory dysfunction and stroke), as well as cutaneous and gastrointestinal manifestations, impaired hepatic and renal function. Mental health in patients with COVID-19 was also found to be adversely affected. The burden of caring for COVID-19 survivors is likely to be huge. Therefore, it is important for policy makers to develop comprehensive strategies in providing resources and capacity in the healthcare system. Future epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate the long-term impact on COVID-19 survivors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735612

RESUMO

Halophyte Lobularia maritima LmSAP encodes an A20AN1 zinc-finger stress-associated protein which expression is up-regulated by abiotic stresses and heavy metals in transgenic tobacco. To deepen our understanding of LmSAP function, we isolated a 1,147 bp genomic fragment upstream of LmSAP coding sequence designated as PrLmSAP. In silico analyses of PrLmSAP revealed the presence of consensus CAAT and TATA boxes and cis-regulatory elements required for abiotic stress, phytohormones, pathogen, and wound responses, and also for tissue-specific expression. The PrLmSAP sequence was fused to the ß-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene and transferred to rice. Histochemical GUS staining showed a pattern of tissue-specific expression in transgenic rice, with staining observed in roots, coleoptiles, leaves, stems and floral organs but not in seeds or in the root elongation zone. Wounding strongly stimulated GUS accumulation in leaves and stems. Interestingly, we observed a high stimulation of the promoter activity when rice seedlings were exposed to NaCl, PEG, ABA, MeJA, GA, cold, and heavy metals (Al3+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+). These results suggest that the LmSAP promoter can be a convenient tool for stress-inducible gene expression and is a potential candidate for crop genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Engenharia Genética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética
7.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(8): 503-513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741900

RESUMO

Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serve as biomarkers for skeletal muscle injury in preclinical toxicity studies, but have a limitation regarding tissue specificity. Circulating miR-206 was recently reported to be a useful biomarker for skeletal muscle disorders in humans. Here, we sought to determine whether serum miR-206 can be used as a biomarker in preclinical toxicity studies to detect drug-induced skeletal muscle injury with higher sensitivity and specificity than the biomarkers CK, LDH, skeletal troponin I (sTnI), and myosin light chain 3 (Myl3). We established rat models of skeletal muscle injury through treatment with the muscle toxicant 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) as well as four in-house compounds. We found that serum miR-206 levels significantly increased after treatment with TMPD, and tended to be higher in rats treated with in-house compounds than in control rats. ROC analysis revealed that the specificity of serum miR-206 for detection of skeletal muscle injury was higher compared with those of other markers. Further, serum miR-206 levels were unchanged in rats with isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity. These findings demonstrate that serum miR-206 may serve as a highly specific biomarker for preclinical analysis of rats with drug-induced skeletal muscle injuries.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/sangue , Músculo Esquelético , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Picolinas/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Curva ROC , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 775-782, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755537

RESUMO

The recent emergence of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19, is a new warning of the risk to public health represented by viral zoonoses and in particular by coronaviruses. Mainly described as being able to infect the upper and lower respiratory tract, coronaviruses can also infect the central and peripheral nervous systems as many other respiratory viruses, such as influenza or respiratory syncytial virus. Viral infections of the nervous system are a major public health concern as they can cause devastating illnesses up to death, especially when they occur in the elderly, who are more susceptible to these infections. Knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of recently emerging coronaviruses (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and how they reach the central nervous system are very sketchy and the work in progress aims in particular to better understand their biology and the mechanisms associated with neurological damage. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge on the neurotropism of human coronaviruses and the associated mechanisms by developing in particular the latest data concerning SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Coronaviridae/patogenicidade , Coronaviridae/fisiologia , Coronaviridae/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Coronaviridae/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
9.
Gene ; 763: 144956, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739586

RESUMO

Sox transcription factors play essential roles in a variety of critical physiological processes. Still, members of the sox gene family have not yet been genome-wide identified in shrimps. In this study, a total of five members of the sox gene family were identified from the genome of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and classified into three subgroups based on the conserved HMG-box domain. Among them, three belong to the SoxB subgroup (one in B1 and two in B2), one in the SoxC subgroup, and one in the SoxE subgroup. The five sox genes had different sex-biased expression in some tissues. Sox21, soxB1, and sox14 had a higher expression in ovary than in testis. In comparison, sox4 had a male-biased specific expression in the gonad, hepatopancreas, gill, and eyestalk. There was no difference in soxE gene expression between testis and ovary. During embryonic development, the expression level of three sox genes (soxB1, sox21, and soxE) was higher in gastrulation stage compared to previous stages, declined in limb bud stage and then increased in intramembrane nauplius stage; the expression of sox4 was detected in blastula stage and continued to increase in the following two stages and then surged in intramembrane nauplius stage; the highest expression of sox14 was in the fertilized egg stage, and the expression level decreased with the development of the embryo. These results suggest that the shrimp sox gene family may be involved in gametogenesis, tridermogenesis, and neurogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Brânquias/embriologia , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/embriologia , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ovário/embriologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Penaeidae/embriologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/metabolismo , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4222, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839436

RESUMO

Our understanding of Na+ homeostasis has recently been reshaped by the notion of skin as a depot for Na+ accumulation in multiple cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. The proposed water-independent nature of tissue Na+ could induce local pathogenic changes, but lacks firm demonstration. Here, we show that tissue Na+ excess upon high Na+ intake is a systemic, rather than skin-specific, phenomenon reflecting architectural changes, i.e. a shift in the extracellular-to-intracellular compartments, due to a reduction of the intracellular or accumulation of water-paralleled Na+ in the extracellular space. We also demonstrate that this accumulation is unlikely to justify the observed development of experimental hypertension if it were water-independent. Finally, we show that this isotonic skin Na+ excess, reflecting subclinical oedema, occurs in hypertensive patients and in association with aging. The implications of our findings, questioning previous assumptions but also reinforcing the importance of tissue Na+ excess, are both mechanistic and clinical.


Assuntos
Edema/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Edema/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Concentração Osmolar , Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008120, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804935

RESUMO

Complexity of cell-type composition has created much skepticism surrounding the interpretation of bulk tissue transcriptomic studies. Recent studies have shown that deconvolution algorithms can be applied to computationally estimate cell-type proportions from gene expression data of bulk blood samples, but their performance when applied to brain tissue is unclear. Here, we have generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) dataset for five major cell-types from brain tissue of 70 individuals, who also have bulk cortical gene expression data. With the IHC data as the benchmark, this resource enables quantitative assessment of deconvolution algorithms for brain tissue. We apply existing deconvolution algorithms to brain tissue by using marker sets derived from human brain single cell and cell-sorted RNA-seq data. We show that these algorithms can indeed produce informative estimates of constituent cell-type proportions. In fact, neuronal subpopulations can also be estimated from bulk brain tissue samples. Further, we show that including the cell-type proportion estimates as confounding factors is important for reducing false associations between Alzheimer's disease phenotypes and gene expression. Lastly, we demonstrate that using more accurate marker sets can substantially improve statistical power in detecting cell-type specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Encéfalo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Célula Única
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although infrequent, distant metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer is the main cause of mortality in patients and mostly involves the lung, bone, and brain. Distant metastases to other sites in differentiated thyroid cancer patients are rare, thus, the clinical course of unusual metastases has not been adequately researched. In the present study, the clinico-pathological findings and treatment outcomes of unusual metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer patients in Korea were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of differentiated thyroid cancer patients with unusual metastases in four Korean tertiary hospitals (Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Asan Medical Center, Busan National University Hospital, Severance Hospital). Unusual metastases were diagnosed using (1) cytology or histology and/or (2) imaging studies including fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography/computed tomography and/or iodine 131 whole body scans with simultaneously elevated serum levels of thyroglobulin. The pathological findings of primary thyroid cancer, diagnostic method for unusual metastases, and treatment responses of unusual metastases were examined. RESULTS: In all, 25 unusual metastatic foci of 19 patients were analyzed; 13 patients (68.4%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma including 4 follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas. The median time interval between the first diagnosis of primary thyroid cancer and unusual metastases diagnosis was 110 months (11.0-138.0 months). Only 4 patients (21.1%) had synchronous unusual metastases and 6 patients (31.6%) were symptomatic. Unusual metastases included 19 metastases to solid organs (6 to kidney, 5 to liver, 4 to pancreas, 3 to adrenal gland, and 1 to ovary) and 6 to the skin and muscles. Unusual metastases were pathologically proven in 10 patients (52.6%) and 11 of 16 patients (68.8%) who received iodine 131 whole body scans had radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Among 5 patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, 4 treated with lenvatinib showed stable disease or a partial response at the first treatment response. Six patients (31.6%) died due to disease progression during the median 20.0-month follow-up period (11.0-55.0 months). CONCLUSION: Unusual metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer are thought to be underestimated due to disease rarity and their metachronous nature with other distant metastases. The most of unusual metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer patients are existed with usual distant metastasis and clinical outcomes of those could not be significantly different from the prognosis of usual distant metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Papilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Carcinoma Papilar/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/terapia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/terapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Imagem Corporal Total
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18858-18868, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694206

RESUMO

Buried seedlings undergo dramatic developmental transitions when they emerge from soil into sunlight. As central transcription factors suppressing light responses, PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) actively function in darkness and must be promptly repressed upon light to initiate deetiolation. Microproteins are evolutionarily conserved small single-domain proteins that act as posttranslational regulators in eukaryotes. Although hundreds to thousands of microproteins are predicted to exist in plants, their target molecules, biological roles, and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we show that two microproteins, miP1a and miP1b (miP1a/b), are robustly stimulated in the dark-to-light transition. miP1a/b are primarily expressed in cotyledons and hypocotyl, exhibiting tissue-specific patterns similar to those of PIFs and EIN3 We demonstrate that PIFs and EIN3 assemble functional oligomers by self-interaction, while miP1a/b directly interact with and disrupt the oligomerization of PIFs and EIN3 by forming nonfunctional protein complexes. As a result, the DNA binding capacity and transcriptional activity of PIFs and EIN3 are predominantly suppressed. These biochemical findings are further supported by genetic evidence. miP1a/b positively regulate photomorphogenic development, and constitutively expressing miP1a/b rescues the delayed apical hook unfolding and cotyledon development of plants overexpressing PIFs and EIN3 Our study reveals that microproteins provide a temporal and negative control of the master transcription factors' oligomerization to achieve timely developmental transitions upon environmental changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Especificidade de Órgãos , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4457-4464, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Our previous studies suggested that oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulates the progression of various diseases via transformation of tissue-resident macrophages (MΦ). Recently, we characterized microglia transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-microglia) in vitro, and this response was similar to that observed in response to oral administration of LPS in vivo. Here, we examined the characteristics of peritoneal tissue-resident MΦ (pMΦ) transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-pMΦ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary pMΦ were treated with low-dose LPS (1 ng/ml) three times; subsequently, phagocytic activity and gene expression were evaluated. RESULTS: REPELL-pMΦ exhibited high phagocytic activity and elevated expression of Arg1, Gipr, Gdnf, and Fpr2. The gene expression profiles observed in REPELL-pMΦ were distinct from those of REPELL-microglia. CONCLUSION: REPELL-pMΦ have the potential to promote clearance of xenobiotics and to suppress inflammation. The present study also demonstrates the diversity of tissue-resident MΦ transformation that reflect their tissue origin.


Assuntos
Arginase/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Regulação para Cima
15.
Nature ; 583(7815): 296-302, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612232

RESUMO

The mammalian immune system implements a remarkably effective set of mechanisms for fighting pathogens1. Its main components are haematopoietic immune cells, including myeloid cells that control innate immunity, and lymphoid cells that constitute adaptive immunity2. However, immune functions are not unique to haematopoietic cells, and many other cell types display basic mechanisms of pathogen defence3-5. To advance our understanding of immunology outside the haematopoietic system, here we systematically investigate the regulation of immune genes in the three major types of structural cells: epithelium, endothelium and fibroblasts. We characterize these cell types across twelve organs in mice, using cellular phenotyping, transcriptome sequencing, chromatin accessibility profiling and epigenome mapping. This comprehensive dataset revealed complex immune gene activity and regulation in structural cells. The observed patterns were highly organ-specific and seem to modulate the extensive interactions between structural cells and haematopoietic immune cells. Moreover, we identified an epigenetically encoded immune potential in structural cells under tissue homeostasis, which was triggered in response to systemic viral infection. This study highlights the prevalence and organ-specific complexity of immune gene activity in non-haematopoietic structural cells, and it provides a high-resolution, multi-omics atlas of the epigenetic and transcriptional networks that regulate structural cells in the mouse.


Assuntos
Endotélio/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Endotélio/citologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenoma/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18110-18118, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669427

RESUMO

Mechanical patterns control a variety of biological processes in plants. The microviscosity of cellular structures effects the diffusion rate of molecules and organelles, thereby affecting processes such as metabolism and signaling. Spatial variations in local viscosity are also generated during fundamental events in the cell life cycle. While crucial to a complete understanding of plant mechanobiology, resolving subcellular microviscosity patterns in plants has remained an unsolved challenge. We present an imaging microviscosimetry toolbox of molecular rotors that yield complete microviscosity maps of cells and tissues, specifically targeting the cytosol, vacuole, plasma membrane, and wall of plant cells. These boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based molecular rotors are rigidochromic by means of coupling the rate of an intramolecular rotation, which depends on the mechanics of their direct surroundings, with their fluorescence lifetime. This enables the optical mapping of fluidity and porosity patterns in targeted cellular compartments. We show how apparent viscosity relates to cell function in the root, how the growth of cellular protrusions induces local tension, and how the cell wall is adapted to perform actuation surrounding leaf pores. These results pave the way to the noninvasive micromechanical mapping of complex tissues.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Células Vegetais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Viscosidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Organelas/metabolismo
17.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9841, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715628

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which poses an unprecedented worldwide health crisis, and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been suggested to be the key protein used by SARS-CoV-2 for host cell entry. In their recent work, Lindskog and colleagues (Hikmet et al, 2020) report that ACE2 is expressed at very low protein levels-if at all-in respiratory epithelial cells. Severe COVID-19, however, is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome and extensive damage to the alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Then, what is the role of the airway epithelium in the early stages of COVID-19, and which cells need to be studied to characterize the biological mechanisms responsible for the progression to severe disease after initial infection by the novel coronavirus?


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/enzimologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
18.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9610, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715618

RESUMO

The novel SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a global challenge on healthcare and society. For understanding the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cell type-specific expression of the host cell surface receptor is necessary. The key protein suggested to be involved in host cell entry is angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we report the expression pattern of ACE2 across > 150 different cell types corresponding to all major human tissues and organs based on stringent immunohistochemical analysis. The results were compared with several datasets both on the mRNA and protein level. ACE2 expression was mainly observed in enterocytes, renal tubules, gallbladder, cardiomyocytes, male reproductive cells, placental trophoblasts, ductal cells, eye, and vasculature. In the respiratory system, the expression was limited, with no or only low expression in a subset of cells in a few individuals, observed by one antibody only. Our data constitute an important resource for further studies on SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry, in order to understand the biology of the disease and to aid in the development of effective treatments to the viral infection.


Assuntos
Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Testículo/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3428, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647330

RESUMO

Accurately predicting chromatin loops from genome-wide interaction matrices such as Hi-C data is critical to deepening our understanding of proper gene regulation. Current approaches are mainly focused on searching for statistically enriched dots on a genome-wide map. However, given the availability of orthogonal data types such as ChIA-PET, HiChIP, Capture Hi-C, and high-throughput imaging, a supervised learning approach could facilitate the discovery of a comprehensive set of chromatin interactions. Here, we present Peakachu, a Random Forest classification framework that predicts chromatin loops from genome-wide contact maps. We compare Peakachu with current enrichment-based approaches, and find that Peakachu identifies a unique set of short-range interactions. We show that our models perform well in different platforms, across different sequencing depths, and across different species. We apply this framework to predict chromatin loops in 56 Hi-C datasets, and release the results at the 3D Genome Browser.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Genoma , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Células K562 , Especificidade de Órgãos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1017-1032, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651579

RESUMO

Although COVID-19 is most well known for causing substantial respiratory pathology, it can also result in several extrapulmonary manifestations. These conditions include thrombotic complications, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute coronary syndromes, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatocellular injury, hyperglycemia and ketosis, neurologic illnesses, ocular symptoms, and dermatologic complications. Given that ACE2, the entry receptor for the causative coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in multiple extrapulmonary tissues, direct viral tissue damage is a plausible mechanism of injury. In addition, endothelial damage and thromboinflammation, dysregulation of immune responses, and maladaptation of ACE2-related pathways might all contribute to these extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Here we review the extrapulmonary organ-specific pathophysiology, presentations and management considerations for patients with COVID-19 to aid clinicians and scientists in recognizing and monitoring the spectrum of manifestations, and in developing research priorities and therapeutic strategies for all organ systems involved.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/patologia , Trombose/virologia , Internalização do Vírus
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