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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008120, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804935

RESUMO

Complexity of cell-type composition has created much skepticism surrounding the interpretation of bulk tissue transcriptomic studies. Recent studies have shown that deconvolution algorithms can be applied to computationally estimate cell-type proportions from gene expression data of bulk blood samples, but their performance when applied to brain tissue is unclear. Here, we have generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) dataset for five major cell-types from brain tissue of 70 individuals, who also have bulk cortical gene expression data. With the IHC data as the benchmark, this resource enables quantitative assessment of deconvolution algorithms for brain tissue. We apply existing deconvolution algorithms to brain tissue by using marker sets derived from human brain single cell and cell-sorted RNA-seq data. We show that these algorithms can indeed produce informative estimates of constituent cell-type proportions. In fact, neuronal subpopulations can also be estimated from bulk brain tissue samples. Further, we show that including the cell-type proportion estimates as confounding factors is important for reducing false associations between Alzheimer's disease phenotypes and gene expression. Lastly, we demonstrate that using more accurate marker sets can substantially improve statistical power in detecting cell-type specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Encéfalo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Célula Única
2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(2): 263-269, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703421

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recently announced that pandemic status has been achieved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Exponential increases in patient numbers have been reported around the world, along with proportional increases in the number of COVID-19-related deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in a population is expected to be influenced by social practices, availability of vaccines or prophylactics, and the prevalence of susceptibility genes in the population. Previous work revealed that cellular uptake of SARS-CoV-2 requires Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and a cellular protease. The spike (S) protein on SARS-CoV-2 binds ACE-2, which functions as an entry receptor. Following receptor binding, transmembrane protease serine 2 (encoded by TMPRSS2) primes the S protein to allow cellular uptake. Therefore, individual expression of TMPRSS2 may be a crucial determinant of SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility. Here, we utilized multiple large genome databases, including the GTEx portal, SNP nexus, and Ensembl genome project, to identify gene expression profiles for TMPRSS2 and its important expression quantitative trait loci. Our results show that four variants (rs464397, rs469390, rs2070788 and rs383510) affect expression of TMPRSS2 in lung tissue. The allele frequency of each variant was then assessed in regional populations, including African, American, European, and three Asian cohorts (China, Japan and Taiwan). Interestingly, our data shows that TMPRSS2-upregulating variants are at higher frequencies in European and American populations than in the Asian populations, which implies that these populations might be relatively susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Internacionalidade , Pulmão/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Ásia/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
3.
Nature ; 583(7815): 296-302, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612232

RESUMO

The mammalian immune system implements a remarkably effective set of mechanisms for fighting pathogens1. Its main components are haematopoietic immune cells, including myeloid cells that control innate immunity, and lymphoid cells that constitute adaptive immunity2. However, immune functions are not unique to haematopoietic cells, and many other cell types display basic mechanisms of pathogen defence3-5. To advance our understanding of immunology outside the haematopoietic system, here we systematically investigate the regulation of immune genes in the three major types of structural cells: epithelium, endothelium and fibroblasts. We characterize these cell types across twelve organs in mice, using cellular phenotyping, transcriptome sequencing, chromatin accessibility profiling and epigenome mapping. This comprehensive dataset revealed complex immune gene activity and regulation in structural cells. The observed patterns were highly organ-specific and seem to modulate the extensive interactions between structural cells and haematopoietic immune cells. Moreover, we identified an epigenetically encoded immune potential in structural cells under tissue homeostasis, which was triggered in response to systemic viral infection. This study highlights the prevalence and organ-specific complexity of immune gene activity in non-haematopoietic structural cells, and it provides a high-resolution, multi-omics atlas of the epigenetic and transcriptional networks that regulate structural cells in the mouse.


Assuntos
Endotélio/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Endotélio/citologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenoma/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
Nature ; 583(7817): 596-602, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669715

RESUMO

Ageing is the single greatest cause of disease and death worldwide, and understanding the associated processes could vastly improve quality of life. Although major categories of ageing damage have been identified-such as altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis and eroded mitochondrial function1-these deleterious processes interact with extraordinary complexity within and between organs, and a comprehensive, whole-organism analysis of ageing dynamics has been lacking. Here we performed bulk RNA sequencing of 17 organs and plasma proteomics at 10 ages across the lifespan of Mus musculus, and integrated these findings with data from the accompanying Tabula Muris Senis2-or 'Mouse Ageing Cell Atlas'-which follows on from the original Tabula Muris3. We reveal linear and nonlinear shifts in gene expression during ageing, with the associated genes clustered in consistent trajectory groups with coherent biological functions-including extracellular matrix regulation, unfolded protein binding, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory and immune response. Notably, these gene sets show similar expression across tissues, differing only in the amplitude and the age of onset of expression. Widespread activation of immune cells is especially pronounced, and is first detectable in white adipose depots during middle age. Single-cell RNA sequencing confirms the accumulation of T cells and B cells in adipose tissue-including plasma cells that express immunoglobulin J-which also accrue concurrently across diverse organs. Finally, we show how gene expression shifts in distinct tissues are highly correlated with corresponding protein levels in plasma, thus potentially contributing to the ageing of the systemic circulation. Together, these data demonstrate a similar yet asynchronous inter- and intra-organ progression of ageing, providing a foundation from which to track systemic sources of declining health at old age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Feminino , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000745, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667908

RESUMO

Mutations create genetic variation for other evolutionary forces to operate on and cause numerous genetic diseases. Nevertheless, how de novo mutations arise remains poorly understood. Progress in the area is hindered by the fact that error rates of conventional sequencing technologies (1 in 100 or 1,000 base pairs) are several orders of magnitude higher than de novo mutation rates (1 in 10,000,000 or 100,000,000 base pairs per generation). Moreover, previous analyses of germline de novo mutations examined pedigrees (and not germ cells) and thus were likely affected by selection. Here, we applied highly accurate duplex sequencing to detect low-frequency, de novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) directly from oocytes and from somatic tissues (brain and muscle) of 36 mice from two independent pedigrees. We found mtDNA mutation frequencies 2- to 3-fold higher in 10-month-old than in 1-month-old mice, demonstrating mutation accumulation during the period of only 9 mo. Mutation frequencies and patterns differed between germline and somatic tissues and among mtDNA regions, suggestive of distinct mutagenesis mechanisms. Additionally, we discovered a more pronounced genetic drift of mitochondrial genetic variants in the germline of older versus younger mice, arguing for mtDNA turnover during oocyte meiotic arrest. Our study deciphered for the first time the intricacies of germline de novo mutagenesis using duplex sequencing directly in oocytes, which provided unprecedented resolution and minimized selection effects present in pedigree studies. Moreover, our work provides important information about the origins and accumulation of mutations with aging/maturation and has implications for delayed reproduction in modern human societies. Furthermore, the duplex sequencing method we optimized for single cells opens avenues for investigating low-frequency mutations in other studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Animais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Deriva Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , Taxa de Mutação , Nucleotídeos/genética , Linhagem
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3232, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591530

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 has emerged as a powerful technology that relies on Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) to target and edit DNA. However, many therapeutic targets cannot currently be accessed due to the lack of carriers that can deliver RNPs systemically. Here, we report a generalizable methodology that allows engineering of modified lipid nanoparticles to efficiently deliver RNPs into cells and edit tissues including muscle, brain, liver, and lungs. Intravenous injection facilitated tissue-specific, multiplexed editing of six genes in mouse lungs. High carrier potency was leveraged to create organ-specific cancer models in livers and lungs of mice though facile knockout of multiple genes. The developed carriers were also able to deliver RNPs to restore dystrophin expression in DMD mice and significantly decrease serum PCSK9 level in C57BL/6 mice. Application of this generalizable strategy will facilitate broad nanoparticle development for a variety of disease targets amenable to protein delivery and precise gene correction approaches.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes , Nanopartículas/química , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Cátions , DNA de Neoplasias/isolamento & purificação , Distrofina/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2865, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513961

RESUMO

Linking epigenetic marks to clinical outcomes improves insight into molecular processes, disease prediction, and therapeutic target identification. Here, a statistical approach is presented to infer the epigenetic architecture of complex disease, determine the variation captured by epigenetic effects, and estimate phenotype-epigenetic probe associations jointly. Implicitly adjusting for probe correlations, data structure (cell-count or relatedness), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, improves association estimates and in 9,448 individuals, 75.7% (95% CI 71.70-79.3) of body mass index (BMI) variation and 45.6% (95% CI 37.3-51.9) of cigarette consumption variation was captured by whole blood methylation array data. Pathway-linked probes of blood cholesterol, lipid transport and sterol metabolism for BMI, and xenobiotic stimuli response for smoking, showed >1.5 times larger associations with >95% posterior inclusion probability. Prediction accuracy improved by 28.7% for BMI and 10.2% for smoking over a LASSO model, with age-, and tissue-specificity, implying associations are a phenotypic consequence rather than causal.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adulto , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Metilação de DNA/genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374731

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is critical to the growth and productivity of crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms influenced by N stress, we used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in root and leaf tissues of spinach. N stress negatively influenced photosynthesis, biomass accumulation, amino acid profiles, and partitioning of N across tissues. RNA-seq analysis revealed that N stress caused most transcriptomic changes in roots, identifying 1,346 DEGs. High-affinity nitrate transporters (NRT2.1, NRT2.5) and glutamine amidotransferase (GAT1) genes were strongly induced in roots in response to N deplete and replete conditions, respectively. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the functions associated with metabolic pathways and nutrient reservoir activity were enriched due to N stress. Whereas KEGG pathway enrichment analysis indicated the upregulation of DEGs associated with DNA replication, pyrimidine, and purine metabolism in the presence of high N in leaf tissue. A subset of transcription factors comprising bHLH, MYB, WRKY, and AP2/ERF family members was over-represented in both tissues in response to N perturbation. Interesting DEGs associated with N uptake, amino acid metabolism, hormonal pathway, carbon metabolism, along with transcription factors, were highlighted. The results provide valuable information about the underlying molecular processes in response to N stress in spinach and; could serve as a resource for functional analysis of candidate genes/pathways and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(12): 6685-6698, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442316

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous DNA segments capable of moving from one site to another within host genomes. The extant distributions of TEs in eukaryotic genomes have been shaped by both bona fide TE integration preferences in eukaryotic genomes and by selection following integration. Here, we compare TE target site distribution in host genomes using multiple de novo transposon insertion datasets in both plants and animals and compare them in the context of genome-wide transcriptional landscapes. We showcase two distinct types of transcription-associated TE targeting strategies that suggest a process of convergent evolution among eukaryotic TE families. The integration of two precision-targeting elements are specifically associated with initiation of RNA Polymerase II transcription of highly expressed genes, suggesting the existence of novel mechanisms of precision TE targeting in addition to passive targeting of open chromatin. We also highlight two features that can facilitate TE survival and rapid proliferation: tissue-specific transposition and minimization of negative impacts on nearby gene function due to precision targeting.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genoma/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Oryza/genética
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(12): 6740-6758, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463444

RESUMO

How genetic defects trigger the molecular changes that cause late-onset disease is important for understanding disease progression and therapeutic development. Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is an RNA-mediated disease caused by a trinucleotide CTG expansion in an intron within the TCF4 gene. The mutant intronic CUG RNA is present at one-two copies per cell, posing a challenge to understand how a rare RNA can cause disease. Late-onset FECD is a uniquely advantageous model for studying how RNA triggers disease because: (i) Affected tissue is routinely removed during surgery; (ii) The expanded CTG mutation is one of the most prevalent disease-causing mutations, making it possible to obtain pre-symptomatic tissue from eye bank donors to probe how gene expression changes precede disease; and (iii) The affected tissue is a homogeneous single cell monolayer, facilitating accurate transcriptome analysis. Here, we use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to compare tissue from individuals who are pre-symptomatic (Pre_S) to tissue from patients with late stage FECD (FECD_REP). The abundance of mutant repeat intronic RNA in Pre_S and FECD_REP tissue is elevated due to increased half-life in a corneal cells. In Pre_S tissue, changes in splicing and extracellular matrix gene expression foreshadow the changes observed in advanced disease and predict the activation of the fibrosis pathway and immune system seen in late-stage patients. The absolute magnitude of splicing changes is similar in pre-symptomatic and late stage tissue. Our data identify gene candidates for early drivers of disease and biomarkers that may represent diagnostic and therapeutic targets for FECD. We conclude that changes in alternative splicing and gene expression are observable decades prior to the diagnosis of late-onset trinucleotide repeat disease.


Assuntos
Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/genética , Fator de Transcrição 4/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Córnea/metabolismo , Córnea/patologia , Feminino , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/patologia , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/terapia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 805-817, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442408

RESUMO

Despite strong transethnic genetic correlations reported in the literature for many complex traits, the non-transferability of polygenic risk scores across populations suggests the presence of population-specific components of genetic architecture. We propose an approach that models GWAS summary data for one trait in two populations to estimate genome-wide proportions of population-specific/shared causal SNPs. In simulations across various genetic architectures, we show that our approach yields approximately unbiased estimates with in-sample LD and slight upward-bias with out-of-sample LD. We analyze nine complex traits in individuals of East Asian and European ancestry, restricting to common SNPs (MAF > 5%), and find that most common causal SNPs are shared by both populations. Using the genome-wide estimates as priors in an empirical Bayes framework, we perform fine-mapping and observe that high-posterior SNPs (for both the population-specific and shared causal configurations) have highly correlated effects in East Asians and Europeans. In population-specific GWAS risk regions, we observe a 2.8× enrichment of shared high-posterior SNPs, suggesting that population-specific GWAS risk regions harbor shared causal SNPs that are undetected in the other GWASs due to differences in LD, allele frequencies, and/or sample size. Finally, we report enrichments of shared high-posterior SNPs in 53 tissue-specific functional categories and find evidence that SNP-heritability enrichments are driven largely by many low-effect common SNPs.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9723-9732, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332170

RESUMO

Pathway proteomics strategies measure protein expression changes in specific cellular processes that carry out related functions. Using targeted tandem mass tags-based sample multiplexing, hundreds of proteins can be quantified across 10 or more samples simultaneously. To facilitate these highly complex experiments, we introduce a strategy that provides complete control over targeted sample multiplexing experiments, termed Tomahto, and present its implementation on the Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometer platform. Importantly, this software monitors via the external desktop computer to the data stream and inserts optimized MS2 and MS3 scans in real time based on an application programming interface with the mass spectrometer. Hundreds of proteins of interest from diverse biological samples can be targeted and accurately quantified in a sensitive and high-throughput fashion. It achieves sensitivity comparable to, if not better than, deep fractionation and requires minimal total sample input (∼10 µg). As a proof-of-principle experiment, we selected four pathways important in metabolism- and inflammation-related processes (260 proteins/520 peptides) and measured their abundance across 90 samples (nine tissues from five old and five young mice) to explore effects of aging. Tissue-specific aging is presented here and we highlight the role of inflammation- and metabolism-related processes in white adipose tissue. We validated our approach through comparison with a global proteome survey across the tissues, work that we also provide as a general resource for the community.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Software , Animais , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Inflamação/genética , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Peptídeos/genética
13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008663, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243438

RESUMO

Previous studies have surveyed the potential impact of loss-of-function (LoF) variants and identified LoF-tolerant protein-coding genes. However, the tolerance of human genomes to losing enhancers has not yet been evaluated. Here we present the catalog of LoF-tolerant enhancers using structural variants from whole-genome sequences. Using a conservative approach, we estimate that individual human genomes possess at least 28 LoF-tolerant enhancers on average. We assessed the properties of LoF-tolerant enhancers in a unified regulatory network constructed by integrating tissue-specific enhancers and gene-gene interactions. We find that LoF-tolerant enhancers tend to be more tissue-specific and regulate fewer and more dispensable genes relative to other enhancers. They are enriched in immune-related cells while enhancers with low LoF-tolerance are enriched in kidney and brain/neuronal stem cells. We developed a supervised learning approach to predict the LoF-tolerance of all enhancers, which achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 98%. We predict 3,519 more enhancers would be likely tolerant to LoF and 129 enhancers that would have low LoF-tolerance. Our predictions are supported by a known set of disease enhancers and novel deletions from PacBio sequencing. The LoF-tolerance scores provided here will serve as an important reference for disease studies.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Sequência Conservada , Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
14.
Gene ; 747: 144671, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304782

RESUMO

In diploid organisms, each gene locus is composed of two parental alleles, which would interact with each other for determining the phenotypic variation. Better understanding of the allele-specific expression (ASE) in farm animals is much important to explore the genetic basis underlying economically important traits, which have been poorly understood yet. In this study, genome-wide analysis was applied to explore the spatiotemporal pattern of ASE in the F1 hybrids of chicken. First, meat- and egg-type chickens were selected for producing a full-sib F1 hybrid population (n = 57). Then, genome resequencing of two parents and 38 offspring were performed and liver and breast muscle samples (n = 38) were subjected to strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq) for ASE detection at 1, 28, and 56 days of age, respectively. The results accurately identified a total of 465 informative genes that could be distinguished with respect to their parental origins. There were 0.4% - 4.1% of informative genes showing ASE, and 57 of them were found across different tissues and time points. Besides, most ASE genes in chickens were tissue-specific, and no matter what the time-point pattern of one ASE gene, the same parental allele of this gene almost showed consistently higher or lower expression across all time points in the same type tissue. In conclusion, this study indicated that most of ASE genes were tissue-specific and time-dependent.


Assuntos
Alelos , Galinhas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ovos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Hibridização Genética , Carne , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Metabolism ; 106: 154192, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112823

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is associated with adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction marked by cellular hypertrophy, inflammation, hypoxia and fibrosis. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase which regulates triglyceride storage. Recently, inhibition of ANGPTL4 has been suggested as potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluate ANGPTL4's role in diabetes and examine ANGPTL4 in relation to markers of AT dysfunction and fatty liver disease. MATERIALS & METHODS: We obtained a unique set of paired samples from subjects undergoing weight loss surgery including subcutaneous AT (SCAT), omental AT (OMAT), liver, thigh muscle biopsies and serum including a post-surgical SCAT biopsy after 9 months. RESULTS: SCAT ANGPTL4 expression and circulating protein levels were higher in people with diabetes and correlated with glucose levels and HOMA-IR but not BMI. At post-surgical follow up, SCAT ANGPTL4 declined in subjects with diabetes to levels of those without diabetes. ANGPTL4 expression correlated with HIF1A and inflammation (MCP-1, IL-6). CONCLUSIONS: We found that SCAT ANGPTL4 was closely linked with the expression of ANGPTL4 in the liver and represented a good proxy for liver steatosis. We suggest the elevation of ANGPTL4 levels in diabetes and the association with inflammation and hypoxia is due to a compensatory mechanism to limit further AT dysfunction. A reduction of ANGPTL4 for the treatment of T2DM as previously suggested is thus unlikely to be of further benefit.


Assuntos
Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/sangue , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Transcrição Genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1220, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139688

RESUMO

Astrocytes, a major cell type found throughout the central nervous system, have general roles in the modulation of synapse formation and synaptic transmission, blood-brain barrier formation, and regulation of blood flow, as well as metabolic support of other brain resident cells. Crucially, emerging evidence shows specific adaptations and astrocyte-encoded functions in regions, such as the spinal cord and cerebellum. To investigate the true extent of astrocyte molecular diversity across forebrain regions, we used single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis identifies five transcriptomically distinct astrocyte subtypes in adult mouse cortex and hippocampus. Validation of our data in situ reveals distinct spatial positioning of defined subtypes, reflecting the distribution of morphologically and physiologically distinct astrocyte populations. Our findings are evidence for specialized astrocyte subtypes between and within brain regions. The data are available through an online database (https://holt-sc.glialab.org/), providing a resource on which to base explorations of local astrocyte diversity and function in the brain.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Forma Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurogênese/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191748

RESUMO

Among several studied strains, Streptomyces rochei IT20 and S. vinaceusdrappus SS14 showed a high level of inhibitory effect against Phytophthora capsici, the causal agent of pepper blight. The effect of two mentioned superior antagonists, as single or combination treatments, on suppression of stem and fruit blight diseases and reproductive growth promotion was investigated in pepper. To explore the induced plant defense reactions, ROS generation and transcriptional changes of selected genes in leaf and fruit tissues of the plant were evaluated. The plants exposed to the combination of two species responded differently in terms of H2O2 accumulation and expression ratio of GST gene compared to single treatments upon pathogen inoculation. Besides, the increment of shoot length, flowering, and fruit weight were observed in healthy plants compared to control. Likely, these changes depended on the coordinated relationships between PR1, ACCO genes and transcription factors WRKY40 enhanced after pathogen challenge. Our findings indicate that appropriate tissue of the host plant is required for inducing Streptomyces-based priming and relied on the up-regulation of SUS and differential regulation of ethylene-dependent genes.


Assuntos
Capsicum/microbiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Streptomyces/fisiologia , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007666, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182235

RESUMO

The nycthemeral transcriptome embodies all genes displaying a rhythmic variation of their mRNAs periodically every 24 hours, including but not restricted to circadian genes. In this study, we show that the nycthemeral rhythmicity at the gene expression level is biologically functional and that this functionality is more conserved between orthologous genes than between random genes. We used this conservation of the rhythmic expression to assess the ability of seven methods (ARSER, Lomb Scargle, RAIN, JTK, empirical-JTK, GeneCycle, and meta2d) to detect rhythmic signal in gene expression. We have contrasted them to a naive method, not based on rhythmic parameters. By taking into account the tissue-specificity of rhythmic gene expression and different species comparisons, we show that no method is strongly favored. The results show that these methods designed for rhythm detection, in addition to having quite similar performances, are consistent only among genes with a strong rhythm signal. Rhythmic genes defined with a standard p-value threshold of 0.01 for instance, could include genes whose rhythmicity is biologically irrelevant. Although these results were dependent on the datasets used and the evolutionary distance between the species compared, we call for caution about the results of studies reporting or using large sets of rhythmic genes. Furthermore, given the analysis of the behaviors of the methods on real and randomized data, we recommend using primarily ARS, empJTK, or GeneCycle, which verify expectations of a classical distribution of p-values. Experimental design should also take into account the circumstances under which the methods seem more efficient, such as giving priority to biological replicates over the number of time-points, or to the number of time-points over the quality of the technique (microarray vs RNAseq). GeneCycle, and to a lesser extent empirical-JTK, might be the most robust method when applied to weakly informative datasets. Finally, our analyzes suggest that rhythmic genes are mainly highly expressed genes.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Software , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Drosophila/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Science ; 367(6482)2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139519

RESUMO

The brain, with its diverse physiology and intricate cellular organization, is the most complex organ of the mammalian body. To expand our basic understanding of the neurobiology of the brain and its diseases, we performed a comprehensive molecular dissection of 10 major brain regions and multiple subregions using a variety of transcriptomics methods and antibody-based mapping. This analysis was carried out in the human, pig, and mouse brain to allow the identification of regional expression profiles, as well as to study similarities and differences in expression levels between the three species. The resulting data have been made available in an open-access Brain Atlas resource, part of the Human Protein Atlas, to allow exploration and comparison of the expression of individual protein-coding genes in various parts of the mammalian brain.


Assuntos
Atlas como Assunto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 955, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075962

RESUMO

The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) resource has provided insights into the regulatory impact of genetic variation on gene expression across human tissues; however, thus far has not considered how variation acts at the resolution of the different cell types. Here, using gene expression signatures obtained from mouse cell types, we deconvolute bulk RNA-seq samples from 28 GTEx tissues to quantify cellular composition, which reveals striking heterogeneity across these samples. Conducting eQTL analyses for GTEx liver and skin samples using cell composition estimates as interaction terms, we identify thousands of genetic associations that are cell-type-associated. The skin cell-type associated eQTLs colocalize with skin diseases, indicating that variants which influence gene expression in distinct skin cell types play important roles in traits and disease. Our study provides a framework to estimate the cellular composition of GTEx tissues enabling the functional characterization of human genetic variation that impacts gene expression in cell-type-specific manners.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genoma/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo
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