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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 9355-9367, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828515

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease in cattle that is transmissible to humans, distributed worldwide, and considered endemic throughout much of England and Wales. Mid-infrared (MIR) analysis of milk is used routinely to predict fat and protein concentration, and is also a robust predictor of several other economically important traits including individual fatty acids and body energy. This study predicted bTB status of UK dairy cows using their MIR spectral profiles collected as part of routine milk recording. Bovine tuberculosis data were collected as part of the national bTB testing program for Scotland, England, and Wales; these data provided information from over 40,500 bTB herd breakdowns. Corresponding individual cow life-history data were also available and provided information on births, movements, and deaths of all cows in the study. Data relating to single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) skin-test results, culture, slaughter status, and presence of lesions were combined to create a binary bTB phenotype labeled 0 to represent nonresponders (i.e., healthy cows) and 1 to represent responders (i.e., bTB-affected cows). Contemporaneous individual milk MIR spectral data were collected as part of monthly routine milk recording and matched to bTB status of individual animals on the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test date (±15 d). Deep learning, a sub-branch of machine learning, was used to train artificial neural networks and develop a prediction pipeline for subsequent use in national herds as part of routine milk recording. Spectra were first converted to 53 × 20-pixel PNG images, then used to train a deep convolutional neural network. Deep convolutional neural networks resulted in a bTB prediction accuracy (i.e., the number of correct predictions divided by the total number of predictions) of 71% after training for 278 epochs. This was accompanied by both a low validation loss (0.71) and moderate sensitivity and specificity (0.79 and 0.65, respectively). To balance data in each class, additional training data were synthesized using the synthetic minority over sampling technique. Accuracy was further increased to 95% (after 295 epochs), with corresponding validation loss minimized (0.26), when synthesized data were included during training of the network. Sensitivity and specificity also saw a 1.22- and 1.45-fold increase to 0.96 and 0.94, respectively, when synthesized data were included during training. We believe this study to be the first of its kind to predict bTB status from milk MIR spectral data. We also believe it to be the first study to use milk MIR spectral data to predict a disease phenotype, and posit that the automated prediction of bTB status at routine milk recording could provide farmers with a robust tool that enables them to make early management decisions on potential reactor cows, and thus help slow the spread of bTB.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Lactação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escócia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7238-7248, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534926

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among milk fatty acid (FA) concentrations in New Zealand dairy cattle. Concentrations of each of the most common FA, expressed as a percentage of the total FA, were determined by gas chromatography on a specific cohort of animals. Using this data set, prediction equations were derived using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy data collected from the same samples. These prediction equations were applied to a large data set of MIR measurements in 34,141 milk samples from 3,445 Holstein-Friesian, 2,935 Jersey, and 3,609 crossbred Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows, sampled an average of 3.42 times during the 2007-2008 season. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate repeatability animal models. Heritability of predicted FA concentration in milk fat ranged from 0.21 to 0.42, indicating that genetic selection could be used to change the FA composition of milk. The de novo synthesized FA (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0) showed strong positive genetic correlations with each other, ranging from 0.24 to 0.99. Saturated FA were negatively correlated with unsaturated (-0.93) and polyunsaturated (-0.84) FA. The saturated FA were positively correlated with milk fat yield and fat percentage, whereas the unsaturated FA were negatively associated with fat yield and fat percentage. Our results indicate that bovine milk FA composition can be changed through genetic selection using MIR as a phenotypic proxy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Nova Zelândia , Fenótipo , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7540-7546, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505395

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was (1) to predict the quantitative concentration of vitamin B12 in milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, and (2) to evaluate the potential of MIR spectra to discriminate different clusters of records based on their B12 concentration. Milk samples were collected from 4,340 Holstein cows between 3 and 592 d in milk and located in 100 herds. Samples were taken using in-line milk meters and divided into 2 aliquots: one for MIR spectrometry and the other for B12 concentration reference analyses by radioassay. Analyses were performed on 311 selected spectral wavelengths. A partial least squares regression model was built to quantify B12 concentration. Discriminant analysis was used to isolate B12 concentration clusters. A B12 concentration threshold was set at 442 ng/dL, because this represents the cutoff value for a 250-mL glass of milk to fulfill 46% of the daily vitamin B12 recommended dietary allowance for individuals 14 yr or older. For each analysis, records coming from two-thirds of herds were used to calibrate prediction equations, and the remaining records (one-third of herds for validation) were used to assess the prediction performance. In the case of discriminant analysis, validation sets were divided into evaluation sets (one-third of herds) to obtain alternate probability cutoffs and in test sets (two-thirds of herds) to validate equations. Spectral and B12 concentration outliers were identified by calculating standardized Mahalanobis distance and with a residual analysis, respectively (n = 3,154). Regarding quantitative B12 concentration, cross-validation and validation coefficients of determination averaged 0.51 and 0.46, respectively, which are relatively low, which would limit the potential use of the developed quantitative equations. In addition, root mean square errors of prediction of cross validation and validation sets averaged 88.9 and 94.7 ng/dL, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of test sets averaged 0.81 based on the 442 ng/dL threshold, which could be considered to represent good accuracy of classification. However, the false discovery rate averaged 36%. In summary, models predicting quantitative B12 concentration had low cross-validation and validation coefficients of determination, limiting their use, but the proposed discriminant models could be used to identify milk samples with naturally high B12.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Complexo Vitamínico B/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Lactação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitamina B 12/análise
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6422-6438, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389474

RESUMO

In high-yielding dairy cattle, severe postpartum negative energy balance is often associated with metabolic and infectious disorders that negatively affect production, fertility, and welfare. Mobilization of adipose tissue associated with negative energy balance is reflected through an increased level of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood plasma. Earlier, identification of negative energy balance through detection of increased blood plasma NEFA concentration required laborious and stressful blood sampling. More recently, attempts have been made to predict blood NEFA concentration from milk samples. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a model to predict blood plasma NEFA concentration using the milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra that are routinely measured in the context of milk recording. To this end, blood plasma and milk samples were collected in wk 2, 3, and 20 postpartum for 192 lactations in 3 herds. The blood plasma samples were taken in the morning, and representative milk samples were collected during the morning and evening milk sessions on the same day. To predict plasma NEFA concentration from the milk MIR spectra, partial least squares regression models were trained on part of the observations from the first herd. The models were then thoroughly validated on all other observations of the first herd and on the observations of the 2 independent herds to explore their robustness and wide applicability. The final model could accurately predict blood plasma NEFA concentrations <0.6 mmol/L with a root mean square error of prediction of <0.143 mmol/L. However, for blood plasma with >1.2 mmol/L NEFA, the model clearly underestimated the true level. Additionally, we found that morning blood plasma NEFA levels were predicted with significantly higher accuracy using MIR spectra of evening milk samples compared with MIR spectra of morning samples, with root mean square error of prediction values of, respectively, 0.182 and 0.197 mmol/L, and R2 values of 0.613 and 0.502. These results suggest a time delay between variations in blood plasma NEFA and related milk biomarkers. Based on the MIR spectra of evening milk samples, cows at risk for negative energy status, indicated by detrimental morning blood plasma NEFA levels (>0.6 mmol/L), could be identified with a sensitivity and specificity of, respectively, 0.831 and 0.800. As this model can be applied to millions of historical and future milk MIR spectra, it opens an opportunity for regular metabolic screening and improved resilience phenotyping.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6258-6270, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418684

RESUMO

The use of test-day models to model milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra for genetic purposes has already been explored; however, little attention has been given to their use to predict milk MIR spectra for management purposes. The aim of this paper was to study the ability of a test-day mixed model to predict milk MIR spectra for management purposes. A data set containing 467,496 test-day observations from 53,781 Holstein dairy cows in first lactation was used for model building. Principal component analysis was implemented on the selected 311 MIR spectral wavenumbers to reduce the number of traits for modeling; 12 principal components (PC) were retained, explaining approximately 96% of the total spectral variation. Each of the retained PC was modeled using a single trait test-day mixed model. The model solutions were used to compute the predicted scores of each PC, followed by a back-transformation to obtain the 311 predicted MIR spectral wavenumbers. Four new data sets, containing altogether 122,032 records, were used to test the ability of the model to predict milk MIR spectra in 4 distinct scenarios with different levels of information about the cows. The average correlation between observed and predicted values of each spectral wavenumber was 0.85 for the modeling data set and ranged from 0.36 to 0.62 for the scenarios. Correlations between milk fat, protein, and lactose contents predicted from the observed spectra and from the modeled spectra ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 for the modeling set and from 0.32 to 0.73 for the scenarios. Our results demonstrated a moderate but promising ability to predict milk MIR spectra using a test-day mixed model. Current and future MIR traits prediction equations could be applied on the modeled spectra to predict all MIR traits in different situations instead of developing one test-day model separately for each trait. Modeling MIR spectra would benefit farmers for cow and herd management, for instance through prediction of future records or comparison between observed and expected wavenumbers or MIR traits for the detection of health and management problems. Potential resulting tools could be incorporated into milk recording systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Lactação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 5992-6002, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331888

RESUMO

Franche-Comté is the primary producing region of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses in France. Normally, mid-infrared (MIR) prediction models for cheese-making property (CMP) traits are developed using individual bovine milks. However, considering the requests of all actors in the dairy sector, the present study aimed to assess the feasibility of MIR spectroscopy to develop CMP equations of Montbéliarde herd and dairy vat milks. For this purpose, 22 CMP traits were analyzed on samples collected in 2016 (half in February-March and half in May-June) from 100 commercial herds and 70 dairy vats (55 cheese dairies) located in Franche-Comté. These characteristics included 11 rennet coagulation traits and 8 lactic acidification traits measured in either soft cheese or pressed cooked cheese conditions and 3 laboratory curd yields. Models of MIR prediction for each of the 22 CMP traits were built using partial least squares regression with external validation by dividing the data set into calibration (70%) and validation (30%) sets. We confirmed that the variability of milk traits depends largely on the production scale and is higher for individual milk than for herd milk and even higher for vat milk. The best prediction models were obtained in herd milk samples for curd yields expressed in dry matter or fresh, with a coefficient of determination (R2) in external validation of 0.78 and 0.77, respectively. As with individual milk, these traits are closely related to the gross composition of the milk and therefore easier to predict by MIR spectroscopy. However, these curd yield traits were poorly predicted (R2 = 0.58) in vat milk samples due to their lower variability. In herd milk samples, prediction models of other CMP traits were poorly accurate except for the ratio of the time to obtain a standard firmness to the rennet coagulation time in soft cheese or pressed cooked cheese conditions, which showed R2 > 0.66 in external validation. Such trait is important in qualifying the behavior of milk during cheese production. Prediction models of other CMP traits for either herd or vat milk samples had poor accuracy, and further work is needed to improve their performance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Queijo/análise , Leite/normas , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Calibragem , Quimosina/análise , Feminino , França , Geografia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenótipo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3264-3274, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037165

RESUMO

Pregnancy diagnosis is an essential part of successful breeding programs on dairy farms. Milk composition alters with pregnancy, and this is well documented. Fourier-transform mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is a rapid and cost-effective method for providing milk spectra that reflect the detailed composition of milk samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the ability of MIR spectroscopy to predict the pregnancy status of dairy cows. The MIR spectra and insemination records were available from 8,064 Holstein cows of 19 commercial dairy farms in Australia. Three strategies were studied to classify cows as open or pregnant using partial least squares discriminant analysis models with random cow-independent 10-fold cross-validation and external validation on a cow-independent test set. The first strategy considered 6,754 MIR spectra after insemination used as independent variables in the model. The results showed little ability to detect the pregnancy status as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.63 and 0.65 for cross-validation and testing, respectively. The second strategy, involving 1,664 records, aimed to reduce noise in the MIR spectra used as predictors by subtracting a spectrum before insemination (i.e., open spectrum) from the spectrum after insemination. The accuracy was comparable with the first approach, showing no superiority of the method. Given the limited results for these models when using combined data from all stages after insemination, the third strategy explored separate models at 7 stages after insemination comprising 348 to 1,566 records each (i.e., progressively greater gestation) with single MIR spectra after insemination as predictors. The models developed using data recorded after 150 d of pregnancy showed promising prediction accuracy with the average value of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 and 0.76 obtained through cross-validation and testing, respectively. If this can be confirmed on a larger data set and extended to somewhat earlier stages after insemination, the model could be used as a complementary tool to detect fetal abortion.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Leite/química , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Análise de Fourier , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Gravidez , Curva ROC
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2434-2441, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980227

RESUMO

Prediction of detailed milk fatty acid (FA) composition by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) offers possibilities for high-throughput indirect measurements of detailed milk compositional parameters through the milk testing system, which can be used to differentiate the FA profile by genetics or specific management or on dairies for milk quality evaluation. Since 2015, milk samples from all Danish dairy cows under milk testing have been recorded using MIRS. The MIRS software from the FOSS Application Note 64 was used to predict contents of 7 FA groups and 4 individual FA. Data generated from the application note have been used to estimate breeding values for sires for percentage of saturated fat (SFA%) in milk. To investigate whether extreme SFA% breeding values of sires were reflected in the detailed milk FA profile from their daughters, milk samples from 194 cows in 7 organic herds were collected and the detailed FA composition measured by gas chromatography. From each cow, milk samples were collected twice to explore specific seasonal effects of pasture-based diets in relation to sires' estimated breeding value (EBV) for MIRS-predicted SFA% (MIRS-SFA%). The results showed a significant difference in SFA% measured from GC (GC-SFA%) in milk from daughters of sires having high SFA% EBV compared with daughters of sires having low SFA% EBV. The EBV group (low or high) also significantly affected most FA except C13:0, C15:0, C17:0, and C18:1 trans-11. Contents of SFA with even chain-lengths were all higher in the high EBV group, whereas C14:1, C16:1, and the other unsaturated C18 FA had a higher content in the low EBV group. All FA were significantly affected by season. The SFA% decreased from indoor spring feeding to summer pasture, as did FA with chain length ≤16 carbons, whereas long-chain FA (>C17) all increased during summer pasture. The results show that use of MIRS-predicted EBV for SFA% will most likely display a correlated response on the detailed FA composition in milk. In the current study, the combined action of feeding and genetics resulted in a 10 percentage-point difference on average when comparing milk SFA% from daughters of high SFA% EBV sires during indoor spring feeding from one farm to milk SFA% from daughters of low SFA% EBV sires during summer from another farm.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Agricultura Orgânica , Estações do Ano , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
9.
Meat Sci ; 159: 107915, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470197

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to calibrate chemometric models to predict beef M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) sensory and textural values using visible-near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy. Spectra were collected on the cut surface of LTL steaks both on-line and off-line. Cooked LTL steaks were analysed by a trained beef sensory panel as well as undergoing WBSF analysis. The best coefficients of determination of cross validation (R2CV) in the current study were for textural traits (WBSF = 0.22; stringiness = 0.22; crumbly texture = 0.41: all 3 models calibrated using 48 h post-mortem spectra), and some sensory flavour traits (fatty mouthfeel = 0.23; fatty after-effect = 0.28: both calibrated using 49 h post-mortem spectra). The results of this experiment indicate that VISNIR spectroscopy has potential to predict a range of sensory traits (particularly textural traits) with an acceptable level of accuracy at specific post-mortem times.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Sensação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 2024-2039, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864736

RESUMO

Since heritability of CH4 emissions in ruminants was demonstrated, various attempts to generate large individual animal CH4 data sets have been initiated. Predicting individual CH4 emissions based on equations using milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra is currently considered promising as a low-cost proxy. However, the CH4 emission predicted by MIR in individuals still has to be confirmed by measurements. In addition, it remains unclear how low CH4 emitting cows differ in intake, digestion, and efficiency from high CH4 emitters. In the current study, putatively low and putatively high CH4 emitting Brown Swiss cows were selected from the entire Swiss herdbook population (176,611 cows), using an MIR-based prediction equation. Eventually, 15 low and 15 high CH4 emitters from 29 different farms were chosen for a respiration chamber (RC) experiment in which all cows were fed the same forage-based diet. Several traits related to intake, digestion, and efficiency were quantified over 8 d, and CH4 emission was measured in 4 open circuit RC. Daily CH4 emissions were also estimated using data from 2 laser CH4 detectors (LMD). The MIR-predicted CH4 production (g/d) was quite constant in low and high emission categories, in individuals across sites (home farm, experimental station), and within equations (first available and refined versions). The variation of the MIR-predicted values was substantially lower using the refined equation. However, the predicted low and high emitting cows (n = 28) did not differ on average in daily CH4 emissions measured either with RC or estimated using LMD, and no correlation was found between CH4 predictions (MIR) and CH4 emissions measured in RC. When individuals were recategorized based on CH4 yield measured in RC, differences between categories of 10 low and 10 high CH4 emitters were about 20%. Low CH4 emitting cows had a higher feed intake, milk yield, and residual feed intake, but they differed only weakly in eating pattern and digesta mean retention times. Low CH4 emitters were characterized by lower acetate and higher propionate proportions of total ruminal volatile fatty acids. We concluded that the current MIR-based CH4 predictions are not accurate enough to be implemented in breeding programs for cows fed forage-based diets. In addition, low CH4 emitting cows have to be characterized in more detail using mechanistic studies to clarify in more detail the properties that explain the functional differences found in comparison with other cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Metano/análise , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , Lasers , Metano/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2514-2522, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882213

RESUMO

It has been shown that milk infrared (IR) spectroscopy can be used to predict detailed milk fat composition. In addition, polymorphisms with substantial effects on milk fat composition have been identified. In this study, we investigated the combined use of milk IR spectroscopy and genotypes of dairy cows on the accuracy of predicting milk fat composition. Milk fat composition data based on gas chromatography and milk IR spectra were available for 1,456 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. In addition, genotypes for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) A293V polymorphisms and a SNP located in an intron of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene were available. Adding SCD1 genotypes to the milk IR spectra resulted in a considerable improvement of the prediction accuracy for the unsaturated fatty acids C10:1, C12:1, C14:1 cis-9, and C16:1 cis-9 and their corresponding unsaturation indices. Adding DGAT1 genotypes to the milk IR spectra resulted in an improvement of the prediction accuracy for C16:1 cis-9 and C16 index. Adding genotypes of the FASN SNP to the IR spectra did not improve prediction of milk fat composition. This study demonstrated the potential of combining milk IR spectra with genotypic information from 3 polymorphisms to predict milk fat composition. We hypothesize that prediction accuracy of milk fat composition can be further improved by combining milk IR spectra with genomic breeding values.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Gorduras/análise , Genótipo , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Polimorfismo Genético
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2487-2497, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882218

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (LF) and milk fat globule (MFG) are 2 biologically active components of milk with great economical and nutritional value in the dairy industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1) the heritability of mid-infrared (MIR)-predicted LF and MFG size (MFGS) and (2) the genetic correlations between predicted LF and MFGS with milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score in first-parity Canadian Holstein cattle. A total of 109,029 test-day records from 22,432 cows and 1,572 farms for MIR-predicted LF and 109,212 test-day records from 22,424 cows and 1,559 farms for MIR-predicted MFGS were used in the analyses. Four separate 5-trait random regression test-day models were used. The models included days in milk, herd test date, and a polynomial regression on DIM nested in age-season of calving classes as fixed effects, random polynomial regressions on DIM nested in herd-year of calving, animal additive genetic and permanent environment classes, and a residual effect. Regression curves were modeled using orthogonal Legendre polynomials of order 4 for the fixed age-season of calving effect and of order 5 for the random effects. Moderate overall heritability estimates of 0.34 and 0.46 were estimated for the MIR-predicted LF and MIR-predicted MFGS, respectively. These heritability estimates were similar to the ones estimated for the direct measure of MFGS in a previous study. The genetic correlations between predicted MFGS and fat percentage (0.53) and between predicted LF and protein percentage (0.41) were both moderate and positive. Predicted LF and somatic cell score showed a weaker correlation (0.06) compared with other studies. The moderate genetic correlation between MIR-predicted MFGS and fat percentage and between MIR-predicted LF and protein percentage suggests that MIR predictions of MFGS and LF are not simply a function of the amount of fat and protein percentage, respectively, in the milk (i.e., the prediction equations are not simply predicting fat or protein percentages). Thus, these MIR-predicted values may provide additional information for selecting for fine milk components in Holstein cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Lactação , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Leite/química , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Padrões de Herança , Lactação/genética , Lactoferrina/química , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2534-2544, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882209

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of milk infrared spectra to predict cow lameness score (LMS) for use as an indicator of cow health on Australian dairy farms, or as an indicator trait for genetic evaluation purposes. The study involved 3,771 cows from 10 farms in Australia. Milk infrared spectra collected during the monthly herd testing were available in all the farms involved in the study. Lameness score was measured once in each herd, within 72 h from a test day, and merged to the closest spectra records. Lameness score was expressed on a scale from 0 to 3, where 0 is assigned to sound cows and scores 1 to 3 are assigned to cows with increased lameness severity. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to develop prediction models for classifying sound (score 0) and not-sound cows (i.e., cows walking unevenly, score greater than 0). Discriminant models were tested in a 10-fold random cross-validation process. Milk infrared spectra correctly classified only 57% of the cows walking unevenly and only 59% of the sound cows. When additional predictors (parity, age at calving, days in milk, and milk yield) were included in the prediction model, the model correctly classified 57% of the cows walking unevenly and 62% of the sound cows. The same model applied only to the cows in the first third of lactation correctly classified 66% of the cows walking unevenly and 57% of the sound cows. When the prediction model was used to identify lame cows (scores 2 and 3), only 49% of them were classified as such. These results are considered to be too poor to envisage a practical application of these models in the near future as on-farm tools to provide an indication of LMS. To investigate whether, at this stage, predictions of the LMS could be useful as large-scale phenotypes for animal breeding purposes, we estimated (co)variance components for actual and predicted LMS using 2,670 and 24,560 records, respectively. As the genetic correlation between actual and predicted LMS was not significantly different from zero, predictions of lameness from milk spectra and additional on-farm variables cannot be used, at this stage, as an indicator trait for actual LMS. More research is needed to find better strategies to predict lameness.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Lactação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11169-11179, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587910

RESUMO

The balance of body energy within and across lactations can have health and fertility consequences for the dairy cow. This study aimed to create a large calibration data set of dairy cow body energy traits across the cow's productive life, with concurrent milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data, to generate a prediction tool for use in commercial dairy herds. Detailed phenotypic data from 1,101 Holstein Friesian cows from the Langhill research herd (SRUC, Scotland) were used to generate energy balance (EB) and effective energy intake (EI), both in megajoules per day. Pretreatment of spectral data involved standardization to account for drift over time and machine. Body energy estimates were aligned with their spectral data to generate a prediction of these traits based on milk MIR spectroscopy. After data edits, partial least squares analysis generated prediction equations with a coefficient of determination from split sample 10-fold cross validation of 0.77 and 0.75 for EB and EI, respectively. These prediction equations were applied to national milk MIR spectra on over 11 million animal test dates (January 2013 to December 2016) from 4,453 farms. The predictions generated from these were subject to phenotypic analyses with a fixed regression model highlighting differences between the main dairy breeds in terms of energy traits. Genetic analyses generated heritability estimates for EB and EI ranging from 0.12 to 0.17 and 0.13 to 0.15, respectively. This study shows that MIR-based predictions from routinely collected national data can be used to generate predictions of dairy cow energy turnover profiles for both animal management and genetic improvement of such difficult and expensive-to-record traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenótipo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11751-11765, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587911

RESUMO

Currently, various attempts are being made to implement breeding schemes aimed at producing low methane (CH4) emitting cows. We investigated the persistence of differences in CH4 emission between groups of cows categorized as either low or high emitters over a 5-mo period. Two feeding regimens (pasture vs. indoors) were used. Early- to mid-lactation Holstein Friesian cows were categorized as low or high emitters (n = 10 each) retrospectively, using predictions from milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, before the start of the experiment. Data from MIR estimates and from measurements with the GreenFeed (GF; C-Lock Technology Inc., Rapid City, SD) system over the 5-mo experiment were combined into 7-, 14-, and 28-d periods. Feed intake, eating and ruminating behavior, and ruminal fluid traits were determined in two 7-d measurement periods in the grazing season. The CH4 emission data were analyzed using a split-plot ANOVA, and the repeatability of each of the applied methods for determining CH4 emission was calculated. Traits other than CH4 emission were analyzed for differences between low and high emitters using a linear mixed model. The initial category-dependent differences in daily CH4 production persisted over the subsequent 5 mo and across 2 feeding regimens with both methods. The repeatability analysis indicated that the biweekly milk control scheme, and even a monthly scheme as practiced on farms, might be sufficient for confirming category differences. However, the relationship between CH4 data estimated by MIR and measured with GF for individual cows was weak (R2 = 0.26). The categorization based on CH4 production also generated differences in CH4 emission per kilogram of milk; differentiation between cow categories was not persistent based on milk MIR spectra and GF. Compared with the high emitters, low emitters tended to show a lower acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal volatile fatty acids, whereas feed intake and ruminating time did not differ. Interestingly, the low emitters spent less time eating than the high emitters. In conclusion, the CH4 estimation from analyzing the milk MIR spectra is an appropriate proxy to form and regularly control categories of cows with different CH4 production levels. The categorization was also sufficient to secure similar and persistent differences in emission intensity when estimated by MIR spectra of the milk. Further studies are needed to determine whether MIR data from individual cows are sufficiently accurate for breeding.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Metano/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Lactação , Metano/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 192-198, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539796

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to (1) characterize and compare the chemical composition at the surface, subsurface and in the bulk of thin plastic films used for portosystemic shunt attenuation in their native state and after plasma exposure. (2) Assess the presence, concentration and location of irritant compounds (e.g dicetyl phosphate) within the films. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to analyze thirteen thin plastic films. Sample thickness was visualized and measured using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sample thicknesses were compared using a one-way ANOVA. XPS reported low phosphorous concentrations (surrogate marker of dicetyl phosphate) between 0.01 and 0.19% wt at the sample surfaces (top 10 nm). There were significant differences between film thicknesses (P < .001) observed by SEM. The ATR-IR and ToF-SIMS identified four distinct surface and bulk chemical profiles: 1) Cellophane, 2) Polypropylene, 3) Modified Cellophane, and 4) Unique. Following plasma immersion for 6 weeks, samples showed little change in film thickness or chemical composition. This study confirmed that films used to attenuate portosystemic shunts were commonly not pure cellophane, with significant variations in surface and bulk chemistry. Suspected irritant compounds were not readily identifiable in significant proportions. Pronounced variability existed in both the thickness and chemical composition of these films (surface vs. bulk). The present findings lead to a legitimate question about the reproducibility of shunt occlusion when using thin plastic films from different origins.


Assuntos
Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/química , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica/veterinária , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/veterinária , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11298-11307, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521353

RESUMO

Dairy cows commonly experience an unbalanced energy status in early lactation, and this condition can lead to the onset of several metabolic disorders. Blood metabolic profile testing is a valid tool to monitor and detect the most common early lactation disorders, but blood sampling and analysis are time-consuming and expensive, and the procedure is invasive and stressful for the cows. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is routinely used to analyze milk composition, being a cost-effective and nondestructive method. The present study aimed to assess the feasibility of using routine milk MIR spectra for the prediction of main blood metabolites in dairy cows, and to investigate associations between measured blood metabolites and milk traits. Twenty herds of Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, or Simmental cows located in Northeast Italy were visited 1 to 4 times between December 2017 and June 2018, and blood and milk samples were collected from all lactating cows within 35 d in milk. Concentrations of main blood metabolites and milk MIR spectra were recorded from 295 blood and milk samples and used to develop prediction models for blood metabolic traits through backward interval partial least squares analysis. Blood ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), urea, and nonesterified fatty acids were the most predictable traits, with coefficients of determination of 0.63, 0.58, and 0.52, respectively. On the contrary, predictive performance for blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were not accurate. Associations of blood BHB and urea with their respective contents in milk were moderate to strong, whereas all other correlations were weak. Predicted blood BHB showed an improved performance in detecting cows with hyperketonemia (blood BHB ≥ 1.2 mmol/L), compared with commercial calibration equation for milk BHB. Results highlighted the opportunity of using milk MIR spectra to predict blood metabolites and thus to collect routine information on the metabolic status of early-lactation cows at a population level.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Lactação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenótipo
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10460-10470, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495611

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, MIR-derived traits including milk composition, milk fatty acids, and blood metabolic profiles (fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and urea), and other on-farm data for discriminating cows of good versus poor likelihood of conception to first insemination (i.e., pregnant vs. open). A total of 6,488 spectral and milk production records of 2,987 cows from 19 commercial dairy herds across 3 Australian states were used. Seven models, comprising different explanatory variables, were examined. Model 1 included milk production; concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose; somatic cell count; age at calving; days in milk at herd test; and days from calving to insemination. Model 2 included, in addition to the variables in model 1, milk fatty acids and blood metabolic profiles. The MIR spectrum collected before first insemination was added to model 2 to form model 3. Fat, protein, and lactose percentages, milk fatty acids, and blood metabolic profiles were removed from model 3 to create model 4. Model 5 and model 6 comprised model 4 and either fertility genomic estimated breeding value or principal components obtained from a genomic relationship matrix derived using animal genotypes, respectively. In model 7, all previously described sources of information, but not MIR-derived traits, were used. The models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis. The performance of each model was evaluated in 2 ways: 10-fold random cross-validation and herd-by-herd external validation. The accuracy measures were sensitivity (i.e., the proportion of pregnant cows that were correctly classified), specificity (i.e., the proportion of open cows that were correctly classified), and area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve. The results showed that in all models, prediction accuracy obtained through 10-fold random cross-validation was higher than that of herd-by-herd external validation, with the difference in AUC ranging between 0.01 and 0.09. In the herd-by-herd external validation, using basic on-farm information (model 1) was not sufficient to classify good- and poor-fertility cows; the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were around 0.66. Compared with model 1, adding milk fatty acids and blood metabolic profiles (model 2) increased the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC by 0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 unit, respectively (i.e., 0.65, 0.63, and 0.678). Incorporating MIR spectra into model 2 resulted in sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values of 0.73, 0.63, and 0.72, respectively (model 3). The comparable prediction accuracies observed for models 3 and 4 mean that useful information from MIR-derived traits is already included in the spectra. Adding the fertility genomic estimated breeding value and animal genotypes (model 7) produced the highest prediction accuracy, with sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values of 0.75, 0.66, and 0.75, respectively. However, removing either the fertility estimated breeding value or animal genotype from model 7 resulted in a reduction of the prediction accuracy of only 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates that MIR and other on-farm data could be used to classify cows of good and poor likelihood of conception with promising accuracy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Leite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Austrália , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Inseminação , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Ureia/sangue
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8907-8918, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351717

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (MIRS) analysis of milk and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of feces with regard to their ability to predict the dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating grazing dairy cows. A data set comprising 1,074 records of DMI from 457 cows was available for analysis. Linear regression and partial least squares regression were used to develop the equations using the following variables: (1) milk yield (MY), fat percentage, protein percentage, body weight (BW), stage of lactation (SOL), and parity (benchmark equation); (2) MIRS wavelengths; (3) MIRS wavelengths, MY, fat percentage, protein percentage, BW, SOL, and parity; (4) NIRS wavelengths; (5) NIRS wavelengths, MY, fat percentage, protein percentage, BW, SOL, and parity; (6) MIRS and NIRS wavelengths; and (7) MIRS wavelengths, NIRS wavelengths, MY, fat percentage, protein percentage, BW, SOL, and parity. The equations were validated both within herd using animals from similar experiments and across herds using animals from independent experiments. The accuracy of equations was greater for within-herd validation compared with across-herds validation. Across-herds validation was deemed the more suitable method to assess equations for robustness and real-world application. The benchmark equation was more accurate [coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.60; root mean squared error (RMSE) = 1.68 kg] than MIRS alone (R2 = 0.30; RMSE = 2.23 kg) or NIRS alone (R2 = 0.16; RMSE = 2.43 kg). The combination of the benchmark equation with MIRS (R2 = 0.64; RMSE = 1.59 kg) resulted in slightly superior fitting statistics compared with the benchmark equation alone. The combination of the benchmark equation with NIRS (R2 = 0.58; RMSE = 1.71 kg) did not result in a more accurate prediction equation than the benchmark equation. The combination of MIRS and NIRS wavelengths resulted in superior fitting statistics compared with either method alone (R2 = 0.36; RMSE = 2.15 kg). The combination of the benchmark equation and MIRS and NIRS wavelengths resulted in the most accurate equation (R2 = 0.68; RMSE = 1.52 kg). A further analysis demonstrated that Holstein-Friesian cows could predict the DMI of Jersey × Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows using both MIRS and NIRS. Similarly, the Jersey × Holstein-Friesian animals could predict the DMI of Holstein-Friesian cows using both MIRS and NIRS. The equations developed in this study have the capacity to predict DMI of grazing dairy cows. From a practicality perspective, MIRS in combination with variables in the benchmark equation is the most suitable equation because MIRS is currently used on all milk-recorded milk samples from dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Herbivoria , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Lactação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Leite , Gravidez , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9512-9517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351724

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare measurements of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the breath of dairy cows kept in commercial conditions using the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR) methods. The measurement systems were installed in an automated milking system. Measurements were carried out for 5 d using both systems during milkings. The measurements were averaged per milking, giving 467 observations of CH4 and CO2 concentrations of 44 Holstein Friesian cows. The Pearson correlation between observations from the 2 systems was 0.86 for CH4, 0.84 for CO2, and 0.88 for their ratio. The repeatability of FTIR (0.53 for CH4, 0.57 for CO2, and 0.28 for their ratio) was somewhat higher than that of NDIR (0.57 for CH4, 0.47 for CO2, and 0.25 for their ratio). The coefficient of individual agreement was 0.98 for CH4, 0.89 for CO2, and 0.89 for their ratio; the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.48 for both gases and 0.24 for their ratio. We showed that FTIR and NDIR give similar results in commercial farm conditions. They can therefore be used interchangeably to generate a larger data set, which could then be further used for genetic evaluation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Metano/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/veterinária , Animais , Feminino
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