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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 927-939, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031071

RESUMO

UV/Vis spectrometers are powerful tools for online monitoring of wastewater constituents and processes. However, most studies only focus on typical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids. This work presents a multi-parameter approach for calibration of a UV/Vis spectrometer for online monitoring of sewer systems. Parameters studied include soluble and total COD, nitrate, ammonium, sulphate and orthophosphate, as well as total dissolved sulphide, bisulphide and hydrogen sulphide, because they are one of the main causes for odour and corrosion in sewer systems. Two calibration methods are compared: multiple linear regression included in the manufacturer's software, and partial least square (PLS) computed using the pls package of the R library. Performance of the methods is evaluated for calibration and validation data sets employing four different criteria: relative root mean square error (RMSErel), RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percentage bias. A method-parameter dependency was revealed during the calibration phase but, when predicting new data, the PLS method showed higher robustness for almost all parameters. Both methods were able to predict concentration trends associated with sewer processes, some of which are strongly correlated to the sulphide species.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Calibragem , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461328, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797818

RESUMO

Ferric oxide/carbon (Fe2O3@C) was fabricated via direct carbonization of metal-organic framework of iron (MOF-235) under argon atmosphere. The magnetic Fe2O3 nanoparticles are evenly embedded in porous carbon matrix, while original morphology of MOF-235 was well-maintained. The synthesized Fe2O3@C was used as magnetic sorbent for extracting five benzoylurea insecticides (BUs). The materials exhibited excellent extraction performance, which benefited not only from the strong π-π interaction and hydrophobic interaction (π-conjugated system), but also to the abundant adsorption sites and flexible transport channel (the interconnected 3D porous structure). A three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was selected to optimize three greatly influential parameters: amount of adsorbent (A), desorption time (B) and volume of desorption solvent (C) by response surface methodology. The established method coupled to HPLC-UV detection showed wide linearity with the range of 0.2-450 µg•L-1, relatively low limits of detection (0.05-0.10 µg•L-1) with the relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 7) lower t than 5.47%. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to analyze BUs in tea samples and investigate the removal effect of different washing on BUs residues from tea leaf. These results indicated that the synthesized Fe2O3@C is a promising adsorbent material for magnetic solid phase extraction of BUs at trace concentrations from tea samples.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Chá/química , Ureia/análise , Adsorção , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Compostos Férricos/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/normas , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade , Padrões de Referência , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Chá/metabolismo , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/isolamento & purificação , Ureia/normas
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461346, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797826

RESUMO

A molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized and characterized to be used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for simultaneous chlorpyrifos and diazinon and their oxon derivatives. Several imprinted polymers were prepared and evaluated in a retention study of these analytes compared with a non-printed polymer. Several parameters affecting the extraction of imprinted polymer such as washing solvent, composition and volume of the eluting solvent and sample volume, were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method provided satisfactory limits of detection ranging between 0.07 µg L-1 to 0.12 µg L-1 and the material showed an excellent reusability (> 50 reuses). The method was applied to the extraction and preconcentration of these analytes in water samples. The average recoveries ranged from 79 ± 6 to 104 ± 3 %.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Impressão Molecular , Praguicidas/análise , Clorpirifos/análise , Clorpirifos/isolamento & purificação , Diazinon/análise , Diazinon/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/análise , Limite de Detecção , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Polímeros/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461374, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797852

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the development of a compact, modular, cost-effective separation system configured to address a specific separation problem. The principles of the separation are based on gradient capillary liquid chromatography where the system consists of precision stepper motor-driven portable syringe pumps with interchangeable glass syringes (100 µL to 1000 µL). Excellent flow-rate precision of < 1% RSD was achieved with typical flow-rates ranging from 1 µL/min to 100 µL/min, which was ideal for capillary columns. A variable external loop volume and electrically actuated miniature injection valve was used for sample introduction. Detection was based upon a commercial Z-type UV absorbance flow-cell housed within a custom-built cooling enclosure (40 mm x 40 mm) which also contained a UV-LED light-source and a photodiode. System and chromatographic performance was evaluated using linear gradient elution, with day to day repeatability of <1.5% RSD (n = 6) for peak area, and < 0.4% RSD (n = 6) for retention time, for the separation of a 5 component mixture using a 50 mm X 530 µm ID C18 3 µm particle capillary column. The system can run any commercial or in-house packed columns from 50 mm to 100 mm length with IDs ranging from 200 to 700 µm. The developed portable system was operated using custom-built windows-based chromatography software, complete with data acquisition and system control.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cafeína/análise , Carbamazepina/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício , Limite de Detecção , Miniaturização , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Sulfametazina/análise
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461386, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797858

RESUMO

In this study, the microcrystalline cellulose/metal-organic framework 199 hybrid (MCC/MOF-199) was applied as sorbent for the dispersive micro-solid phase-extraction (D-µSPE) of chlorophenols. The D-µSPE method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography- ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed to determine of four chlorophenols including 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,3-dichlorophenol (2,3-DCP), and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) in aqueous. The main parameters of the D-µSPE process that influence the extraction (i.e. the amount of sorbent, elution condition, extraction time, and pH) were investigated and optimized. Based on the outputs, the presence of MCC on the surface of MOF-199 leads to improve the properties of MOF-199 and the MCC/MOF-199 has the highest sorption capacity, durability, and porosity in comparison with MCC and MOF-199. According to the validation study at the optimized conditions, the linearity for the analytes was achieved in the range from 0.1 to 200 ng mL-1 for 2-CP and 4-CP and 0.15 to 200 ng mL-1 for 2,3-DCP and 2,5-DCP with correlation coefficients between 0.9928 and 0.9965. The limits of detection calculated at S/N=3 were in the range of 0.03-0.05 ng mL-1. Besides, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for three spiking levels (0.2, 10,100 ng mL-1) do not exceed 6.8% and extraction recoveries are between 81.0% and 88.3%. Finally, the D-µSPE-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the analysis of CPs in real water samples (mineral, river and wastewater samples) with good recoveries (95.8 to 99.5%) and satisfactory precisions (RSD < 6.8%).


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Clorofenóis/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Clorofenóis/química , Clorofenóis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Rios/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Águas Residuárias/análise
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461414, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823112

RESUMO

Various techniques have been evaluated for the extraction and cleanup of pesticides from environmental samples. In this work, a Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) method for pesticides was developed using a Thermo Fisher Scientific Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) system. This instrument was compared to the newly introduced (2017) extraction instrument, the Energized Dispersive Guided Extraction (EDGE) system, which combines Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (dSPE). We first optimized the SPLE method using the ASE instrument for pesticide extraction from alfalfa leaves using layers of Florisil and graphitized carbon black (GCB) downstream of the leaf homogenate in the extraction cell (Layered ASE method). We then compared results obtained for alfalfa and citrus leaves with the Layered ASE method to those from a method in which the leaf homogenate and sorbents were mixed (Mixed ASE method) and to similar methods modified for use with EDGE (Layered EDGE and Mixed EDGE methods). The ASE and EDGE methods led to clear, colorless extracts with low residual lipid weight. No significant differences in residual lipid masses were observed between the methods. The UV-Vis spectra showed that Florisil removed a significant quantity of the light-absorbing chemicals, but that GCB was required to produce colorless extracts. Recoveries of spiked analytes into leaf homogenates were generally similar among methods, but in several cases, significantly higher recoveries were observed in ASE extracts. Nonetheless, no significant differences were observed among pesticide concentrations in field samples when calculated with the isotope dilution method in which labelled surrogates were added to samples before extraction. The extraction time with the ASE methods was ~45 minutes, which was ~4.5 times longer than with the EDGE methods. The EDGE methods used ~10 mL more solvent than the ASE methods. Based on these results, the EDGE is an acceptable extraction instrument and, for most compounds, the EDGE had a similar extraction efficiency to the ASE methods.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Lipídeos/química , Medicago sativa/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5083-5095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764938

RESUMO

Background: ß-glucans are chiral polysaccharides with well-defined immunological properties and supramolecular wrapping ability of its chiral feature. However, the exploitation of chiral properties of these nanoparticles in drug delivery systems was seldom conducted. Methods: ß-glucan molecules with different chain lengths were extracted from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thereafter modified. In a conformation transition process, these ß-glucan molecules were then self-assembled with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin into nanoparticles to construct drug delivery systems. The chiral interactions between the drug and carriers were revealed by circular dichroism spectra, ultraviolet and visible spectrum, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The immune-potentiation properties of modified ß-glucan nanoparticles were evaluated by analysis of the mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cell model. Further, the antitumor efficacy of the nanoparticles against the human breast cancer were studied in MCF-7 cell model by cellular uptake and cytotoxicity experiments. Results: ß-glucan nanoparticles can activate macrophages to produce immune enhancing cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ). A special chirality of the carriers in diameter of 50~160 nm can also associate with higher drug loading ability of 13.9% ~38.2% and pH-sensitive release with a change of pH from 7.4 to 5.0. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity experiments also prove that the chiral-active ß-glucan nanoparticles can be used in anti-cancer nanomedicine. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that ß-glucans nanoparticles with special chiral feature which leading to strong immunopotentiation ability and high drug loading efficiency can be developed as a novel type of nanomedicine for anti-cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estereoisomerismo , beta-Glucanas/química
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5389-5403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801695

RESUMO

Hypothesis: Developing oral formulations to enable effective release of poorly water-soluble drugs like progesterone is a major challenge in pharmaceutics. Coaxial electrospray can generate drug-loaded nanoparticles of strategic compositions and configurations to enhance physiological dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug progesterone. Experiments: Six formulations comprising nanoparticles encapsulating progesterone in different poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrix configurations and compositions were fabricated and characterized in terms of morphology, molecular crystallinity, drug encapsulation efficiency and release behavior. Findings: A protocol of fabrication conditions to achieve 100% drug encapsulation efficiency in nanoparticles was developed. Scanning electron microscopy shows smooth and spherical morphology of 472.1±54.8 to 588.0±92.1 nm in diameter. Multiphoton Airyscan super-resolution confocal microscopy revealed core-shell nanoparticle configuration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed presence of PLGA and progesterone in all formulations. Diffractometry indicated amorphous state of the encapsulated drug. UV-vis spectroscopy showed drug release increased with hydrophilic copolymer glycolide ratio while core-shell formulations with progesterone co-dissolved in PLGA core exhibited enhanced release over five hours at 79.9±1.4% and 70.7±3.5% for LA:GA 50:50 and 75:25 in comparison with pure progesterone without polymer matrix in the core at 67.0±1.7% and 57.5±2.8%, respectively. Computational modeling showed good agreement with the experimental drug release behavior in vitro.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5417-5432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801697

RESUMO

Introduction: Green-based materials have been increasingly studied to circumvent off-target cytotoxicity and other side-effects from conventional chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Here, cellulose fibers (CF) were isolated from rice straw (RS) waste by using an eco-friendly alkali treatment. The CF network served as an anticancer drug carrier for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The physicochemical and thermal properties of CF, pure 5-FU drug, and the 5-FU-loaded CF (CF/5-FU) samples were evaluated. The samples were assessed for in vitro cytotoxicity assays using human colorectal cancer (HCT116) and normal (CCD112) cell lines, along with human nasopharyngeal cancer (HONE-1) and normal (NP 460) cell lines after 72-hours of treatment. Results: XRD and FTIR revealed the successful alkali treatment of RS to isolate CF with high purity and crystallinity. Compared to RS, the alkali-treated CF showed an almost fourfold increase in surface area and zeta potential of up to -33.61 mV. SEM images illustrated the CF network with a rod-shaped structure and comprised of ordered aggregated cellulose. TGA results proved that the thermal stability of 5-FU increased within the drug carrier. Based on UV-spectroscopy measurements for 5-FU loading into CF, drug loading encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 83 ±0.8%. The release media at pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 showed a maximum drug release of 79% and 46%, respectively, over 24 hours. In cytotoxicity assays, CF showed almost no damage, while pure 5-FU killed most of the both normal and cancer cells. Impressively, the drug-loaded sample of CF/5-FU at a 250 µg/mL concentration demonstrated a 58% inhibition against colorectal cancer cells, but only a 23% inhibition against normal colorectal cells. Further, a 62.50 µg/mL concentration of CF/5FU eliminated 71% and 39% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and normal nasopharyngeal cells, respectively. Discussion: This study, therefore, showed the strong potential anticancer activity of the novel CF/5-FU formulations, warranting their further investigation.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fluoruracila/farmacocinética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5473-5489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801701

RESUMO

Introduction: Biofilms protect bacteria from antibiotics and this can produce drug-resistant strains, especially the main pathogen of periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Carbon quantum dots with various biomedical properties are considered to have great application potential in antibacterial and anti-biofilm treatment. Methods: Tinidazole carbon quantum dots (TCDs) and metronidazole carbon quantum dots (MCDs) were prepared by a hydrothermal method with the clinical antibacterial drugs tinidazole and metronidazole, respectively. Then, TCDs and MCDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. The antibacterial effects were also investigated under different conditions. Results: The TCDs and MCDs had uniform sizes. The results of UV-visible and energy-dispersive spectrometry confirmed their important carbon polymerization structures and the activity of the nitro group, which had an evident inhibitory effect on P. gingivalis, but almost no effect on other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Prevotella nigrescens. Importantly, the TCDs could penetrate the biofilms to further effectively inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis under the biofilms. Furthermore, it was found that the antibacterial effect of TCDs lies in its ability to impair toxicity by inhibiting the major virulence factors and related genes involved in the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, thus affecting the self-assembly of biofilm-related proteins. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate a promising new method for improving the efficiency of periodontitis treatment by penetrating the P. gingivalis biofilm with preparations of nano-level antibacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Coelhos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tinidazol/química , Tinidazol/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4063-4078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606664

RESUMO

Background: Among various theories for the origin of cancer, the "stemness phenotype model" suggests a dynamic feature for tumor cells in which non-cancer stem cells (non-CSCs) can inter-convert to CSCs. Differentiation with histone-deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat (SAHA), can induce stem cells to differentiate as well as enforces non-CSCs to reprogram to CSCs. To avoid this undesirable effect, one can block the Wnt-ßcatenin pathway. Thus, a dual delivery system of SAHA and a Wnt-ßcatenin blocker will be beneficial in the induction of differentiation of CSCs. Protein corona (PC) formation in nanoparticle has a biologic milieu, and despite all problematic properties, it can be employed as a medium for dual loading of the drugs. Materials and Methods: We prepared sphere gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with human plasma protein corona loaded with SAHA as differentiating agent and PKF118-310 (PKF) as a Wnt-ßcatenin antagonist. The MCF7 breast cancer stem cells were treated with NPs and the viability and differentiation were evaluated by Western blotting and sphere formation assay. Results: We found that both drugs loaded onto corona-capped GNPs had significant cytotoxicity in comparison to bare GNP-corona. Data demonstrated an increase in stem cell population and upregulation of mesenchymal marker, Snail by SAHA-loaded GNPs treatment; however, the combination of PKF loaded GNPs along with SAHA-loaded GNPs resulted in a reduction of stem cell populations and Snail marker. We have shown that in MCF7 and its CSCs simultaneous treatment with SAHA and PKF118-310 induced differentiation and inhibition of Snail induction. Conclusion: Our study reveals the PC-coated GNPs as a biocompatible career for both hydrophilic (PKF) and hydrophobic (SAHA) agents which can decrease breast cancer stem cell populations along with reduced stemness state regression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Coroa de Proteína/química , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Proteínas Wnt/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanosferas/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , beta Catenina/metabolismo
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4091-4104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606666

RESUMO

Introduction: Humans are intentionally exposed to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) where they are used in variety of biomedical applications as imaging and drug delivery agents as well as diagnostic and therapeutic agents currently in clinic and in a variety of upcoming clinical trials. Consequently, it is critical that we gain a better understanding of how physiochemical properties such as size, shape, and surface chemistry drive cellular uptake and AuNP toxicity in vivo. Understanding and being able to manipulate these physiochemical properties will allow for the production of safer and more efficacious use of AuNPs in biomedical applications. Methods and Materials: Here, AuNPs of three sizes, 5 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm, were coated with a lipid bilayer composed of sodium oleate, hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, and hexanethiol. To understand how the physical features of AuNPs influence uptake through cellular membranes, sum frequency generation (SFG) was utilized to assess the interactions of the AuNPs with a biomimetic lipid monolayer composed of a deuterated phospholipid 1.2-dipalmitoyl-d62-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (dDPPC). Results and Discussion: SFG measurements showed that 5 nm and 10 nm AuNPs are able to phase into the lipid monolayer with very little energetic cost, whereas, the 20 nm AuNPs warped the membrane conforming it to the curvature of hybrid lipid-coated AuNPs. Toxicity of the AuNPs were assessed in vivo to determine how AuNP curvature and uptake influence cell health. In contrast, in vivo toxicity tested in embryonic zebrafish showed rapid toxicity of the 5 nm AuNPs, with significant 24 hpf mortality occurring at concentrations ≥20 mg/L, whereas the 10 nm and 20 nm AuNPs showed no significant mortality throughout the five-day experiment. Conclusion: By combining information from membrane models using SFG spectroscopy with in vivo toxicity studies, a better mechanistic understanding of how nanoparticles (NPs) interact with membranes is developed to understand how the physiochemical features of AuNPs drive nanoparticle-membrane interactions, cellular uptake, and toxicity.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Ouro/toxicidade , Lipídeos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Análise Espectral , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
13.
Food Chem ; 333: 127432, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659661

RESUMO

The sensory qualities and shelf life of tea beverage strongly affected by tea cream that forms by the interaction of polyphenols and protein. The study aimed to investigate the effects of the interactions between tea polyphenols (TPs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on tea cream formation at different concentrations. The tea cream formation increased with TPs and BSA concentration increased. The optimal concentration (TPs: 800 mg/L, BSA: 40 mg/L), for high clarities and contents of phytochemicals, was selected by the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (C = 0.7572). The interaction mechanism of TPs-BSA was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular docking. TPs interacted with BSA via static quenching process, affecting tryptophan and tyrosine residue microenvironment of BSA. Ester catechins had more binding affinity than non-ester catechins. Hydrogen bonds were the main interaction forces of TPs-BSA.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Chá/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Precipitação Química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Chá/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127395, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615385

RESUMO

This paper describes a simple, efficient and rapid analytical method for extraction and determination of nitrite in meat and chicken products by vortex-assisted supramolecular solvent-based liquid phase microextraction (VA-SUPRAS-LPME) prior to spectrophotometric detection. The SUPRAS was rapidly formed by the addition of a colloidal decanoic acid suspension to tetrahydrofuran (THF). The validation studies were carried out in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), matrix effects, robustness, uncertainty measurement, precision, accuracy, and certified reference material (CRM) analysis using optimized experimental conditions. The LOD, LOQ, linearity and matrix effect were 0.035 ng mL-1, 0.1 ng mL-1, 0.1-300 ng mL-1, and 9.6% respectively, with high preconcentration factor (200). The method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in processed products. Moreover, the results obtained by the proposed method were compared to the standard Griess method, and showed no significant differences in term of Student's t-test.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Química Verde , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3983-3999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606660

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, the use of cost-effective, multifunctional, environmentally friendly and simple prepared nanomaterials/nanoparticles have been emerged considerably. In this manner, different synthesizing methods were reported and optimized, but there is still lack of a comprehensive method with multifunctional properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, we aim to synthesis the copper oxide nanoparticles using Achillea millefolium leaf extracts for the first time. Catalytic activity was investigated by in situ azide alkyne cycloaddition click and also A3 coupling reaction, and optimized in terms of temperature, solvent, and time of the reaction. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was screened in terms of degradation methylene blue dye. Biological activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of antibacterial and anti-fungal assessments against Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabili, C. diphtheriae and S. pyogenes bacteria's and G. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis and G. glabrata fungus. In the next step, the biosynthesized CuO-NPs were screened by MTT and NTU assays. Results: Based on our knowledge, this is a comprehensive study on the catalytic and biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesizing from Achillea millefolium, which presents great and significant results (in both catalytic and biological activities) based on a simple and green procedure. Conclusion: Comprehensive biomedical and catalytic investigation of the biosynthesized CuO-NPs showed the mentioned method leads to synthesis of more eco-friendly nanoparticles. The in vitro studies showed promising and considerable results, and due to the great stability of these nanoparticles in a green media, effective biological activity considered as an advantageous.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Cobre/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Achillea/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Cicloadição , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3621-3637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547018

RESUMO

Background: Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, the concentration of the AgNO3 and ratio of reactants act synergistically to influence the reaction kinetics, molecular mechanics, enzymatic catalysis and protein conformations that aid to affect the size, shape and biochemical corona of nanoparticles. The present study was performed to investigate the influence of reaction parameters on the bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using Mentha arvensis and to determine their potential to control the proliferation of colon cancer cells'. Methods: Plant-mediated method was used for the bio-fabrication and stabilization of AgNPs. Reaction parameters were arranged, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of AgNPs were collected by using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. NPs were characterized structurally and optically by using SEM, AFM, EDX and DLS techniques. AgNPs and plant aqueous extract were tested against HCT116 colon cancer cells by using SRB assay, Annexin V assay and cell cycle analysis. Results: Spectrophotometric comparison of various reaction conditions manifested that 5 mM of AgNO3, 60 °C in an acidic pH and a mixing ratio of 1:9 of plant extract and AgNO3, respectively, are the optimized conditions for AgNP synthesis. Structural evaluation by SEM, AFM and particle size analysis confirmed that the NPs are <100 nm and are anisotropic, spherical, triangular and moderately dispersed in the colloidal mixture. SRB assay expressed biomass-stabilized AgNPs as effective cytotoxic particles against HCT116 colon cancer cells, and the IC50 was measured at 1.7 µg/mL. Annexin V apoptosis assay further confirmed that the AgNPs induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Experimental evidence manifested that the AgNPs arrest cell cycle and expressed entrapment of a greater number of cells in the Sub-G1 phase, further verifying the anticancer abilities of AgNPs. Conclusion: These findings explain the synergistic effects of physicochemical parameters to optimize the phytosynthesis of biocompatible AgNPs to overcome the limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic treatments of colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Mentha/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Catálise , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temperatura
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3377-3389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494136

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of hepatic diseases all over the world. This necessitates the need to discover novel anti-HCV drugs to overcome emerging drug resistance and liver complications. Purpose: Total extract and petroleum ether fraction of the marine sponge (Amphimedon spp.) were used for silver nanoparticle (SNP) synthesis to explore their HCV NS3 helicase- and protease-inhibitory potential. Methods: Characterization of the prepared SNPs was carried out with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The metabolomic profile of different Amphimedon fractions was assessed using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Fourteen known compounds were isolated and their HCV helicase and protease activities assessed using in silico modeling of their interaction with both HCV protease and helicase enzymes to reveal their anti-HCV mechanism of action. In vitro anti-HCV activity against HCV NS3 helicase and protease was then conducted to validate the computation results and compared to that of the SNPs. Results: Transmission electron-microscopy analysis of NPs prepared from Amphimedon total extract and petroleum ether revealed particle sizes of 8.22-14.30 nm and 8.22-9.97 nm, and absorption bands at λmax of 450 and 415 nm, respectively. Metabolomic profiling revealed the richness of Amphimedon spp. with different phytochemical classes. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in the isolation of 14 known compounds with anti-HCV activity, initially revealed by docking studies. In vitro anti-HCV NS3 helicase and protease assays of both isolated compounds and NPs further confirmed the computational results. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Amphimedon, total extract, petroleum ether fraction, and derived NPs are promising biosources for providing anti-HCV drug candidates, with nakinadine B and 3,4-dihydro-6-hydroxymanzamine A the most potent anti-HCV agents, possessing good oral bioavailability and penetration power.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , DNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , Química Verde , Metabolômica , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poríferos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Alcanos/química , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oceano Índico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Food Chem ; 331: 127163, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593037

RESUMO

Herein, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced DNA biosensor has been developed for real-time detection of donkey meat marker using biotinylated reporter and streptavidin functionalized gold nanostars (Stre@GNSs). Compared to the direct detection assay, this sandwich format for the enhancement of the signal, resulted in 6-folds orders increase in the sensitivity. Target DNA could be detected with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.0 nM with a relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 3) of 0.85%. In addition, the fabricated SPR sensor showed good selectivity for the target analyte over full complementary, single-base mismatch, three base-mismatch and non-complementary oligonucleotides. Finally, the proposed sensor was successfully applied for detection of donkey meat adulteration with various percentages in homemade beef sausage, as a real sample. The results indicated that the proposed biosensor provides a high specificity, easy, good sensitivity and fast approach for identification of donkey meat adulteration in food samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Equidae/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , DNA/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Estreptavidina/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515655

RESUMO

To understand the effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on the conformation changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the binding mechanisms of EE2 with BSA were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and molecular docking. The quenching constants, binding constants, the number of binding sites, thermodynamic parameters, binding distance and the secondary structure changes of BSA were determined. The results of fluorescence quenching experiment suggested that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by EE was due to the formation of complex through static quenching, which was also confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the binding of EE2 to BSA was driven mainly by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. The conformation alterations of BSA upon EE2 binding were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and CD spectroscopy. The results of site marker competitive experiments and molecular docking showed that the binding sites of EE2 were mainly located within site I in the subdomain IIA of BSA.


Assuntos
Dicroísmo Circular/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Etinilestradiol/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Termodinâmica
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3405-3414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523340

RESUMO

Background: Fluorescent metallic nanodots (NDs) have become a promising nanoprobe for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because Ag NDs have a high tendency to be oxidized, their synthesis and storage are a big challenge. Thus, the method for preparing stable Ag NDs is urgently needed. Surface modification and functionalization can enrich the capability of Ag NDs. Methods: In this work, fluorescent Ag NDs were synthesized in deoxygenated water by using porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) as the stabilizing/capping agent. The absorption and fluorescence of PPA-protected Ag NDs (PPA@AgNDs) were measured with a spectrophotometer and a spectrofluorometer, respectively. The morphology of PPA@AgNDs was characterized by high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The biocompatibility of PPA@AgNDs was evaluated by tetrazolium (MTT)-based assay. PolyLys-Cys-SH (sequence: KKKKKKC) peptides were conjugated to PPA@AgNDs via heterobifunctional crosslinkers. PolyLys-Cys-linked PPA@AgNDs absorbed 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) by electrostatic interaction at physiological pH. The capability of tumor targeting was evaluated by intravenously injecting PPA@AgND-ALA into 4T1 breast cancer xenograft mouse models. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) against tumors was performed under 635 nm laser irradiation. Results: PPA@AgNDs emitted at 640 nm with quantum yield of 2.1%. The Ag NDs exhibited strong photostability over a long period and a fluorescence lifetime of 5.1 ns. PPA@AgNDs easily entered the cells to stain the nuclei, showing the capabilities of living cell imaging with negligible cytotoxicity. ALA-loaded PPA@AgNDs (PPA@AgND-ALA) presented the superiority of passive tumor targeting via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Tumors were visualized in the near-infrared (NIR) region with reduced background noise. ALA molecules released from PPA@AgND-ALA was converted into the photosensitizer (PS) of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) intracellularly and intratumorally, which greatly improved the PDT efficacy. Conclusion: Our approach opens a new way to design a novel theranostic nanoplatform of PPA@AgND-ALA for effective tumor targeting and fluorescence image-guided PDT.


Assuntos
Amilases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem Óptica , Fotoquimioterapia , Prata/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fluorescência , Humanos , Ácidos Levulínicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Suínos , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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