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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141202, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853929

RESUMO

Pollution from heavy metals in urban environments is a topic of growing concern because many metals, including Pb and Cr, are a human health hazard. Exposure to Pb and Cr has been linked to the inhibition of neurological development as well as toxic effects on many organs. Yellow traffic paint (YTP) is a mixture that contains organic polymers, binders, and pigments, which in some cases consist of crocoite (PbCrO4) that may be coated by silica. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the crocoite pigment grains within YTP and their silica coatings in simulated environmental and human body conditions. To do this, both YTP and asphalt were collected in Philadelphia, PA, USA. These samples as well as a standard PbCrO4 were investigated with powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Using this multi-analytical approach, mineral phases were determined in the YTP, their shape, dimensional distributions, crystallinity, and chemical composition, as well as elemental distributions before and after experimental interactions. Three batch dissolution experiments with YTP, asphalt, and standard PbCrO4 were performed to simulate ingestion, inhalation, and environmental interaction with rainwater. Elemental releases were determined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and results indicated that little (ingestion) to no (environmental and inhalation) Pb and Cr were leached from the YTP during the three experimental procedures. This is likely due to the silica coating that encapsulates the crocoite particles, which persisted during all interactions. The ESEM results for YTP showed dimensional reductions after interactions with all three fluids. The silica coating must be further explored to determine how it breaks down in real environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Pintura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Dióxido de Silício , Espectrometria por Raios X
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142351, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) concentration in bone is a reliable biomarker for cumulative Pb exposure and studying associated health outcomes. However, the standard K-shell fluorescence (KXRF) bone Pb measurement technology has limitations in large-scale population studies. OBJECTIVE: We compared measurements from a portable XRF device and a KXRF device. METHODS: We measured bone Pb concentrations in vivo using portable XRF and KXRF, each measured at the mid-tibia bone in 71 people, 38-95 years of age (mean ± SD = 63 ± 11 years) living in or near three Indiana communities, US; 10 participants were occupationally exposed. We estimated the correlation between bone Pb concentrations measured by both devices. We also examined the extent to which the detection limit (DL) of the portable XRF was influenced by scan time and overlying soft tissue thickness. Finally, we quantified the associations of estimated bone Pb concentration with age and age with soft tissue thickness. RESULTS: The mean bone Pb concentration measured via portable XRF was 12.3 ± 16.7 mg Pb/kg dry bone. The uncertainty of a 3-minute (N = 60) in vivo portable XRF measurement ranged from 1.8 to 6.3 mg/kg, in the context of soft tissue thickness ranging from 2 to 6 mm. This uncertainty was reduced by a factor of 1.4 with 5-minute measurements (N = 11). Bone Pb measurements via portable XRF and KXRF were significantly correlated: r = 0.48 for all participants, and r = 0.73 among participants with soft tissue thickness < 6 mm (72% of the sample). Bone Pb concentrations were higher among participants who were older or were occupationally exposed to Pb. Soft tissue thickness decreased with age. CONCLUSION: With its ease of use, portability, and comparable sensitivity with conventional KXRF systems, the portable XRF could be a valuable tool for non-invasive quantification of bone Pb in vivo, especially for people with thinner soft tissue.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Chumbo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Indiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria por Raios X , Tíbia
3.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128201, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113663

RESUMO

In this work, Ti/SnO2-RuO2 dimensionally stable anode has been successfully fabricated via thermal decomposition method and further used for highly efficient electrocatalytic degradation of alizarin cyanin green (ACG) dye wastewater. The morphology, crystal structure and composition of Ti/SnO2-RuO2 electrode are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), respectively. The result of accelerated life test suggests that as-prepared Ti/SnO2-RuO2 anode exhibits excellent electrochemical stability. Some parameters, such as reaction temperature, initial pH, electrode spacing and current density, have been investigated in detail to optimize the degradation condition of ACG. The results show that the decolorization efficiency and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of ACG reach up to 80.4% and 51.3% after only 40 min, respectively, under the optimal condition (reaction temperature 25 °C, pH 5, electrode spacing 1.0 cm and current density 3 mA cm-2). Furthermore, the kinetics analysis reveals that the process of electrocatalytic degradation of ACG follows the law of quasi-first-order kinetics. The excellent electrochemical activity demonstrates that the Ti/SnO2-RuO2 electrode presents a favorable application prospect in the electrochemical treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/química , Carbocianinas/química , Eletrodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Corantes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oxirredução , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Temperatura , Compostos de Estanho/química , Titânio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Difração de Raios X
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 472-482, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016429

RESUMO

Manure elemental composition determination is essential to develop farm nutrient budgets and assess environmental risk. Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometers could facilitate hazardous waste-free, rapid, and cost-effective elemental concentration determinations. However, sample moisture is a problem for elemental concentration determination by X-ray methods. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of sample moisture content, predict moisture content, and correct for moisture effect on elemental concentration determinations in livestock manure. Oven-dried manure samples (n = 40) were ground and adjusted to five moisture ranges of (w/w moisture) <10%, 10-20%, 20-30%, 40-50%, and 60-70%. Samples were scanned by PXRF for 180 s using a vacuum (<1,333 Pa) and without a filter. The presence of moisture negatively affected elemental determination in manure samples. Calibrations (n = 200) were prepared using random forest regression with detector channel counts as independent variables. A three-step validation was performed using all the data, random cross-validation and external validation. The back end of the spectrum (14-15 keV) had strong predictive power (r2  = .98) for moisture content. The random forest approach increased r2 between PXRF and wet chemical methods from <.66 to >.90 for P, K, and Mg and from .78 to .98 for Fe, compared with linear, nonlinear, and Lucas-Tooth and Price equations. These results indicated that elemental concentration can accurately be measured in dried and moist manure samples using PXRF and expands the potential applications of PXRF to in situ elemental determinations for agricultural and environmental samples.


Assuntos
Esterco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espectrometria por Raios X
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107988, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890471

RESUMO

In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released from the PTD was also found to be within the prescribed limit of 0.1 ppm-level. Later we dropped the PTD and tested its larvicidal activity against the IVth instar larva stage of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species. We found 100% larvicidal mortality in 24 h of exposure to the designed PTD and the amount of silver released from the porous disc was found to be 0.0343 ppm. Further from the histopathological studies of dead larvae revealed that the silver ions from the PTD have substantially damaged the exoskeleton of larvae.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Nanopartículas Metálicas/normas , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Animais , Ecossistema , Química Verde , Larva , Nanopartículas Metálicas/economia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/provisão & distribução , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Oryza , Prata , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 21914-21920, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848065

RESUMO

The structure-function relationship is at the heart of biology, and major protein deformations are correlated to specific functions. For ferrous heme proteins, doming is associated with the respiratory function in hemoglobin and myoglobins. Cytochrome c (Cyt c) has evolved to become an important electron-transfer protein in humans. In its ferrous form, it undergoes ligand release and doming upon photoexcitation, but its ferric form does not release the distal ligand, while the return to the ground state has been attributed to thermal relaxation. Here, by combining femtosecond Fe Kα and Kß X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), we demonstrate that the photocycle of ferric Cyt c is entirely due to a cascade among excited spin states of the iron ion, causing the ferric heme to undergo doming, which we identify. We also argue that this pattern is common to a wide diversity of ferric heme proteins, raising the question of the biological relevance of doming in such proteins.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/química , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Cinética , Domínios Proteicos , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101768, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738701

RESUMO

We investigated the application of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectrometry (EDX) analysis to the detection of aluminum (Al), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn) as the electric conductor in experimental electrical injury. Experimental electrical injury was caused by exposure to alternating current at 100 V for 10 s. The peaks of Al, Sn, and Zn were detected by EDX in formalin-fixed skin samples of each current exposure group. Histological examination revealed blister formation in all samples of each current exposure group. EDX analysis technique can be applied to detect Al, Sn, and Zn as the electric conductor, and is useful in the diagnosis of electrocution.


Assuntos
Alumínio/análise , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/metabolismo , Eletricidade/efeitos adversos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Pele/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Estanho/análise , Zinco/análise , Animais , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Pele/patologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4145, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811825

RESUMO

In haemoglobin the change from the low-spin (LS) hexacoordinated haem to the high spin (HS, S = 2) pentacoordinated domed deoxy-myoglobin (deoxyMb) form upon ligand detachment from the haem and the reverse process upon ligand binding are what ultimately drives the respiratory function. Here we probe them in the case of Myoglobin-NO (MbNO) using element- and spin-sensitive femtosecond Fe Kα and Kß X-ray emission spectroscopy at an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). We find that the change from the LS (S = 1/2) MbNO to the HS haem occurs in ~800 fs, and that it proceeds via an intermediate (S = 1) spin state. We also show that upon NO recombination, the return to the planar MbNO ground state is an electronic relaxation from HS to LS taking place in ~30 ps. Thus, the entire ligand dissociation-recombination cycle in MbNO is a spin cross-over followed by a reverse spin cross-over process.


Assuntos
Heme/química , Hemoglobinas/química , Mioglobina/química , Heme/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Cinética , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756552

RESUMO

We investigated rock varnish, a thin, manganese- and iron-rich, dark surface crust, on basaltic lava flows and petroglyphs in the Owens and Rose Valleys (California) by portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and femtosecond laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICPMS). The major element composition of the varnish was consistent with a mixture of Mn-Fe oxyhydroxides and clay minerals. As expected, it contained elevated concentrations of elements that are typically enriched in rock varnish, e.g., Mn, Pb, Ba, Ce, and Co, but also showed unusually high enrichments in U, Cu, and Th. The rare earth and yttrium (REY) enrichment pattern revealed a very strong positive cerium (Ce) anomaly and distinct negative europium (Eu) and Y anomalies. The light rare earth elements (REE) were much more strongly enriched than the heavy REY. These enrichment patterns are consistent with a formation mechanism by leaching of Mn and trace elements from aeolian dust, reprecipitation of Mn and Fe as oxyhydroxides, and scavenging of trace elements by these oxyhydroxides. We inferred accumulation rates of Mn and Fe in the varnish from their areal densities measured by pXRF and the known ages of some of the lava flow surfaces. The areal densities of Mn and Fe, as well as their accumulation rates, were comparable to our previous results from the desert of Saudi Arabia. There was a moderate dependence of the Mn areal density on the inclination of the rock surfaces, but no relationship to its cardinal orientation. We attempted to use the degree of varnish regrowth on the rock art surfaces as an estimate of their age. While an absolute dating of the petroglyphs was not possible because of the lack of suitable calibration surfaces and a considerable amount of variability, the measured degree of varnish regrowth on the various petroglyphs was consistent with chronologies based on archeological and other archaeometric techniques. In particular, our results suggest that rock art creation in the study area continued over an extended period of time, possibly starting around the Pleistocene/Holocene transition and extending into the last few centuries.


Assuntos
Argila/química , Hidróxidos/análise , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , California , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Propriedades de Superfície , Erupções Vulcânicas , Ítrio/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127482, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640380

RESUMO

Speciation of respirable particles is becoming increasingly important from an epidemiological and analytical point of view to determine the potential effects of air pollution on human health. For this reason, current laws and analytical sampling methods focus on particle size, as it turns out to be the main factor for the greater or lesser penetration into the airways. In this sense, particles of less than 10 µm in diameter (<10 µm), referred to as PM10, are the particles that have a higher capacity for access to the respiratory tract and, therefore, more significant effect on them. In this sense, one of the most important factors that have a key role in the PM10 atmospheric pollution effect is the dispersion effect with the direct influence of natural effects such as wind, rain, topography apart from others. In this work, PM10 data extracted from the Basque Government environmental stations (19 sampling points) in the Biscay province (Basque Country, north of Spain) were combined with the results obtained from the use of self-made passive samplers (SMPS) in the same sampling points areas and subsequently, the sample analysis with a non-invasive elemental technique (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry) was carried out. Thanks to this methodology, it was possible to determine a wide variety of metals in PM10 such as Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ti, etc. Most of them present as oxides and others as part of natural aggregations such as quartz, aluminosilicates, phosphates etc.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Metais/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Chuva , Espanha , Espectrometria por Raios X , Vento
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(14): 8649-8657, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539367

RESUMO

We report a size fractionation of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles absorbed from the environment and found within wild Dittrichia viscosa plants. The nanoparticles were isolated by extraction and isolation from distinct plant organs, as well as from the corresponding rhizosphere of wild, adult plants. The collected nanoparticles were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). More than 1200 TiO2 nanoparticles were analyzed by these techniques. The results indicated the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles with a wide range of sizes within the inspected plant organs and rhizospheres. Interestingly, a size selective process occurs during the internalization and translocation of these nanoparticles (e.g., foliar and root uptake), which favors the accumulation of mainly TiO2 nanoparticles with diameters <50 nm in the leaves, stems, and roots. In fact, our findings indicate that among the total number of TiO2 nanoparticles analyzed, the fraction of the particles with dimensions <50 nm were 52% of those within the rhizospheres, 88.5% of those within the roots, 90% of those within the stems, and 53% of those within the leaves. This significant difference observed in the size distribution of the TiO2 nanoparticles among the rhizosphere and the plant organs could have impacts on the food chain and further biologicals effects that are dependent on the size of the TiO2.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Titânio , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria por Raios X
12.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 59-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549727

RESUMO

We report a case of severe ocular injury and impaired vision after self-administration of alum. A 56-year-old female administered an alum substance in the left eye and experienced severe corneal thinning, a scar, and decreased vision. The active compounds in the alum substance were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. When topically administered, alum may cause severe ocular injury. Public awareness, early recognition of the injuries, and timely intervention may prevent permanent ocular damage.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/toxicidade , Compostos de Alúmen/toxicidade , Doenças da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Visão/induzido quimicamente , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Compostos de Alúmen/química , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Feminino , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoadministração , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Espectrometria por Raios X , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico
13.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127179, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554002

RESUMO

Hydrophobic membranes for desalination and toxic organic pollutant removal have been fabricated using polyamide - PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chemistries in a one-step protocol. The curing of polyamide and PDMS are orthogonal and co-curing both networks imparts hydrophobicity to the thin film composite membranes. The membranes exhibit increased adsorption of pesticides from the feed water along with maintaining excellent salt rejection capability (97% NaCl rejection), thus giving the membranes a multifunctional character. Three toxic pesticides have been used in this study to demonstrate the viability of combining osmosis desalination technology with organic matter adsorption. The membranes also show excellent resistance to fouling by toxic pesticides (85% salt rejection vs 67% for commercial membranes in the presence of pesticides) and significantly improved chlorine tolerance (93.8% salt rejection vs 86.5% for commercial membranes after 20 h of exposure to sodium hypochlorite solution).


Assuntos
Cloro/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nylons/química , Osmose , Espectrometria por Raios X , Termogravimetria , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 33075-33084, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529615

RESUMO

A large amount of oil-based mud drilling cuttings (OBMDC) are generated during shale gas extraction, which adversely affects the environment. In order to realize the resource utilization of waste, the object of this paper is to study the feasibility of OBMDC to produce cement clinker. The results showed that at relatively low calcination temperature, adding a certain amount of OBMDC can produce cement clinker successfully and reduce fuel consumption. The compressive strength, hydration performance, and physical characteristics of clinker with 0, 3, 6, and 9% OBMDC were investigated by chemical analysis methods, X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, mercury intrusion, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the formulated cement has good hydration performance and the compressive strength also meets relevant standards. The heavy metal ions leaching test showed that the preparation of cement clinker by a low amount of OBMDC could effectively reduce the toxicity of OBMDC. In general, the preparation of cement clinker by OBMDC can realize the resource utilization of waste, effectively reduce its toxicity, and play a positive role in environmental protection.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Gás Natural , Materiais de Construção , Espectrometria por Raios X , Difração de Raios X
15.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(3): 126086, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414515

RESUMO

The vast majority of environmental bacteria remain uncultured, despite two centuries of effort in cultivating microorganisms. Our knowledge of their physiology and metabolic activity depends to a large extent on methods capable of analyzing single cells. Bacterial identification is a key step required by all currently used single-cell imaging techniques and is typically performed by means of fluorescent labeling. However, fluorescent cells cannot be visualized by ion- and electron microscopy and thus only correlative, indirect, cell identification is possible. Here we present a new method of bacterial identification by in situ hybridization coupled to the deposition of elemental silver nanoparticles (silver-DISH). We show that hybridized cells containing silver can be directly visualized by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS), and confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy. Silver-DISH did not alter the isotopic (13C) and elemental composition of stable-isotope probed cells more than other available hybridization methods, making silver-DISH suitable for broad applications in stable-isotope labeling studies. Additionally, we demonstrate that silver-DISH can induce a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect, amplifying the Raman signal of biomolecules inside bacterial cells. This makes silver-DISH the only currently available method that is capable of delivering a SERS-active substrate inside specifically targeted microbial cells.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiologia Ambiental , Prata/química , Prata/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Hibridização In Situ , Marcação por Isótopo , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Imagem Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Prata/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Análise Espectral Raman
16.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126253, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443229

RESUMO

We developed a simple method of analyzing the strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) content of intact eggshell samples in support of a broader study of how dietary Sr uptake impacts waterfowl eggshell quality. We used wavelength dispersive - x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRF) to analyze eggshell pieces ranging in size from ∼6-mm2 fragments to intact half-shells. We verified this approach on a subset of reference shells by subjecting the same region and volume of shell material from which x-ray signals were measured to analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). An analysis of the sources of analytical uncertainty yielded total internal error estimates of ±0.3 and 5% relative for Ca and Sr, respectively, on the basis of which the chemistry of intact shell material analyzed by WD-XRF in this study is compared. The total external errors associated with the WD-XRF results of this study in relation to certified reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST] 1400 [a bone ash]) are ±9 and 13.5% relative for Ca and Sr, respectfully (95% CL). Our results demonstrate this method is acceptably accurate and precise for many wildlife management applications. WD-XRF analysis is a quick and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods for determining eggshell Sr and Ca that require acid digestion, allowing for generation of larger datasets that might otherwise be cost-prohibitive, while preserving sample material intact.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Casca de Ovo/química , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta , Minerais , Estrôncio/análise
17.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421002

RESUMO

Because of their unique properties, including an ultrathin thickness (3-4 nm), ultrahigh resistivity, fluidity and self-assembly ability, lipid bilayers can be readily functionalized and have been used in various applications such as bio-sensors and bio-devices. In this study, we introduced a planar organic molecule: copper (II) 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (CuPc) to dope lipid membranes. The CuPc/lipid hybrid membrane forms at the water/air interface by self-assembly. In this membrane, the hydrophobic CuPc molecules are located between the hydrophobic tails of lipid molecules, forming a lipid/CuPc/lipid sandwich structure. Interestingly, an air-stable hybrid lipid bilayer can be readily formed by transferring the hybrid membrane onto a Si substrate. We report a straightforward method for incorporating nanomaterials into a lipid bilayer system, which represents a new methodology for the fabrication of biosensors and biodevices.


Assuntos
Ar , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Água/química , Cobre/química , Indóis/química , Silício/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2567, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444803

RESUMO

Ambient particulate matter pollution is one of the leading causes of global disease burden. Epidemiological studies have revealed the connections between particulate exposure and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, until now, the real species of ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) in humans are still scarcely known. Here we report the discovery and characterization of exogenous nanoparticles (NPs) in human serum and pleural effusion (PE) samples collected from non-occupational subjects in a typical polluted region. We show the wide presence of NPs in human serum and PE samples with extreme diversity in chemical species, concentration, and morphology. Through chemical multi-fingerprinting (including elemental fingerprints, high-resolution structural fingerprints, and stable iron isotopic fingerprints) of NPs, we identify the sources of the NPs to be abiogenic, particularly, combustion-derived particulate emission. Our results provide evidence for the translocation of ambient UFPs into the human circulatory system, and also provide information for understanding their systemic health effects.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Pneumopatias/sangue , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Metais/análise , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanopartículas/análise , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/sangue , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria por Raios X
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2541-2553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368039

RESUMO

Background: In the emerging field of nanotechnology, copper oxide (CuO) nanomaterials are considered to be one of the most important transition metal oxides owing to its fascinating properties. Its synthesis from green chemistry principles is gaining importance as next-generation antibiotics due to its simplicity, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. In the present study, CuO nanorods (CuO NRs) were synthesized from the aqueous fruit extract of Momordica charantia and characterized using different analytical techniques. Further, the biomedical therapeutic potential was evaluated against multi-drug resistant microbial strains. Materials and Methods: To synthesize CuO NRs, 0.1M of CuSO4.5H2O solution was added to aqueous extract of Momordica charantia in a 1:3 (v/v) ratio (pH=11) and heated at 50°C followed by washing and drying. The synthesized CuO NRs were subjected to characterization using different analytical techniques such as UV visible spectroscopy, zeta sizer equipped with zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the application as a biomedical therapeutic potential was evaluated in vitro using well diffusion method against eleven multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial strains, a fungus- Trichophyton rubrum and in ovo against the R2B virus using haemagglutination (HA) test. Results: Characterization was preliminarily done by the spectral study that confirms the absorbance band at 245nm. FTIR analysis at 628 cm-1 peak identified copper oxide vibration. SEM analysis revealed agglomerated particle clusters. However, with TEM clear nanorods of average diameter of 61.48 ± 2 nm were observed. EDAX confirmed CuO formation while XRD showed a typical monoclinic structure with 6 nm crystallite size. Biological screening of CuO NRs showed significant results against both in vitro and in ovo methods. Significant inhibitory activity (p<0.0001) was noted against most of the resistant human pathogenic strains including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest efficacy was observed against Bacillus cereus with a 31.66 mm zone of inhibition. Besides, the therapeutic potential of CuO NRs against Corynebacterium xerosis, Streptococcus viridians and R2B strain of Newcastle disease is reported for the first time. Conclusion: Based on the present results, it could be expected that green synthesized CuO NRs would find potential applications in the field of nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Química Verde , Momordica charantia/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Difração de Raios X
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3071-3085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431502

RESUMO

Purpose: Recently, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are gaining tremendous attention as novel antibacterial platforms to combat against continuously evolving antimicrobial resistance levels. Among the family of 2D nanomaterials, black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets have demonstrated promising potential for biomedical applications. However, there is a need to gain nanoscale insights of the antibacterial activity of BP nanosheets which lies at the center of technical challenges. Methods: Ultra-large BP nanosheets were synthesized by liquid-exfoliation method in the eco-friendly deoxygenated water. Synthesized BP nanosheets were characterized by TEM, AFM, and Raman spectroscopy techniques and their chemical stability was evaluated by EDS and EELS elemental analysis. The antibacterial activity of BP nanosheets was evaluated at nanoscale by the ultramicrotome TEM technique. Further, HAADF-STEM image and EDS elemental line map of the damaged bacterium were utilized to analyze the presence of diagnostic ions. Supportive SEM and ATR-FTIR studies were carried out to confirm the bacterial cell wall damage. In vitro colony counting method was utilized to evaluate the antibacterial performance of ultra-large BP nanosheets. Results: Elemental EELS and EDS analysis of BP nanosheets stored in deoxygenated water confirmed the absence of oxygen peak. TEM studies indicate the various events of bacterial cell damage with the lost cellular metabolism and structural integrity. Colony counting test results show that as-synthesized BP nanosheets (100 µg/mL) can kill ~95% bacteria within 12 hours. Conclusion: TEM studies demonstrate the various events of E. coli membrane damage and the loss of structural integrity. These events include the BP nanosheets interaction with the bacterial cell wall, cytoplasmic leakage, detachment of cytoplasm from the cell membrane, reduced density of lipid bilayer and agglomerated DNA structure. The EDS elemental line mapping of the damaged bacterium confirms the disrupted cell membrane permeability and the lost cellular metabolism. SEM micrographs and ATR-FTIR supportive results confirm the bacterial cell wall damage.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Fósforo/química , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman , Água/química
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