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1.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 615-620, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025928

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of the use of second-generation and third-generation LED light-curing units (LCUs) on the degree of conversion (DC) and microhardness (VHN) of bulk-fill resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty cylindrical specimens (each n = 5) of Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill, Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Posterior Restorative, and SDR flow were prepared in metal molds (5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness) and cured with second-generation LED (SmartLite® Focus®, Dentsply Sirona) and third-generation LED (Bluephase® style, Ivoclar Vivadent) resulting in six groups. Degree of conversion was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and microhardness with Vickers microhardness tester. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD) test, and DC and microhardness were correlated using Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05). RESULTS: There was a significant difference between DC and VHN between all groups of bulk-fill which were cured by second-generation LED curing light and third-generation LED curing light. Then there is no significant difference between DC of the three composite bulk-fill resins by (second-generation LED vs third-generation LED curing light). CONCLUSION: The second-generation LED curing light can still be used to cure bulk-fill resin composites by increasing the duration of irradiation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In the microhardness test, there was a significant difference in the Filtek™ Bulk-Fill Posterior Restorative resin composites.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Luzes de Cura Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1310-1321, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016439

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a surge in the number of applications of Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the characterization of environmental samples and prediction of some of their properties whose measurement has traditionally involved time-consuming and costly methods. However, there are several different mid-infrared techniques available, and there is a gap in knowledge regarding the best-suited technique for recording informative spectra of different types of environmental samples. This study compared the three most widespread FTIR techniques using solid and liquid samples. A total of 11 environmental samples belonging to four categories were analyzed with attenuated total reflectance (ATR), photoacoustic (PAS), and diffuse reflectance (DR) FTIR spectroscopy. Overall, PAS-FTIR was the best technique, providing a greater amount of information, especially for opaque samples (i.e., organic waste, biochar, and soil), than ATR-FTIR and DR-FTIR spectroscopy. Attenuated total reflectance FTIR provided the best spectra for soft samples, such as plant materials, probably due to their ability to achieve good optical contact with the ATR crystal. Finally, DR-FTIR performed relatively well for most samples but was found to be more sensitive to moisture in the samples, resulting in noise in specific areas, and was less sensitive in bond vibrations related to Si.


Assuntos
Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126827, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957271

RESUMO

Herein, ultrasonication (US)-assisted novel nanomaterial Ti3C2Tx MXene was utilized as a selective adsorbent for treatment of synthetic dyes in model wastewater. Two types of US frequencies, 28 and 580 kHz, were applied to disperse MXene to evaluate the feasibility of US-assisted MXene for wastewater treatment. The physico-chemical properties of MXene after US were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and zeta potential. According to FTIR and XPS, 28 kHz US-assisted MXene had a greater amount of oxygenated functional groups and dispersion compared to 580 kHz US-assisted and pristine MXene. Subsequently, US-assisted MXene was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of positively charged methylene blue (MB) and negatively charged methyl orange. Both 28 and 580 kHz US-assisted MXene showed better adsorption performance for only MB compared to stirring-assisted MXene based on kinetics, isotherms, and several water chemistry factors including solution pH, temperature, ionic strength, and humic acid. Advantages of US-assisted MXene for water treatment are its fast kinetics at low dose and high selectivity for positively charged target compounds (i.e., MB). The main adsorption mechanism between MXene and MB was electrostatic interaction (attraction); however, physical properties (i.e., aggregation kinetics and hydrodynamic diameter), measured via dynamic light scattering, were also found to be critical factors in controlling the adsorption performance of the system. Lastly, US-assisted MXene exhibited a high regeneration property, based on 4th adsorption-desorption cycles.


Assuntos
Corantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Corantes/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Cinética , Azul de Metileno/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Titânio/análise , Águas Residuárias/química
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(2): 255-265, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941167

RESUMO

This study sought a new way to utilize sludge as a low cost and efficient adsorbent. Preparation of sludge adsorbent by hydrothermal carbonization was done at different temperatures (160-250 °C). Various characterization techniques were used in this study including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption performance of the organic matter was analyzed by adsorption experiments with the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). Results showed that as the hydrothermal temperature increased, the solid yield of hydrochar decreased from 84.73% to 55.19%, and the maximum specific surface area was 11.9 m2/g. Elemental analysis showed that the hydrochar contains more aromatic carbon than the raw sludge. It was found using the FT-IR and XPS that the hydrochar retains a large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface after hydrothermal treatment. Hydrochar can be used as an organic-pollutant adsorbent in water; it has a good adsorption effect on BPA and the removal rate can reach 96%. The adsorbed hydrochar can be hydrothermally retreated and returned to the sewage treatment plant for reuse.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Adsorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(4): 673-682, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970620

RESUMO

Loess is a typical natural mineral particle distributed widely around the world, and it is inexpensive, readily accessible, and harmless to the environment. In this study, loess was modified by surface grafting copolymerization of functional monomers, such as acrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent, which afforded a novel loess-based grafting copolymer (LC-PAVP). After being characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, its adsorption capacity and mechanism of removing lead ions (Pb2+) were investigated. With the study of the optimal experimental conditions, it was demonstrated that the removal rate of Pb2+ by LC-PAVP can reach up to 99.49% in 60 min at room temperature. It was also found that the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption capacity due to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the thermodynamics conformed well with the Freundlich model. In summary, as a lost-cost and eco-friendly loess-based adsorbent, LC-PAVP is a good potential material for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Acrilatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Polímeros , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica , Águas Residuárias
6.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(4): 715-731, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970624

RESUMO

In the present work, native chitosan (Ch) along with its chemically and physico-chemically modified versions, namely sulphate cross-linked chitosan (SCC) and sulphate cross-linked chitosan-bentonite composite (SCC-B), were employed as potential adsorbents for the removal of an anionic dye, Alizarin Red S (ARS) from aqueous solutions. All three adsorbents were extensively characterized using techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and pH point of zero charge. Various parameters were optimized, including pH of dye solution, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration and temperature of adsorption. Four adsorption isotherm models were studied and it was found that the Freundlich model was best-fit for all three systems. Maximum adsorption capacities towards adsorption of ARS were found to be 42.48, 109.12 and 131.58 mg g-1 for Ch, SCC and SCC-B, respectively. Kinetics of adsorption was examined by employing three well-known models in order to deduce the mechanism of adsorption. Thermodynamic studies show that the process is spontaneous and exothermic for all adsorbents employed. Furthermore, it was observed that for large sample volumes, the column adsorption method was more effective compared to the batch method.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Antraquinonas , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Deficiência Energética Relativa no Esporte , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(4): 747-758, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970626

RESUMO

The eco-friendly and non-toxic natural organic substance, insolubilized humic acid (IHA), was used to remove Mn(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption characteristics were studied through a series of static adsorption tests. The results show that conditions such as the dose, the pH of the solution and the initial concentration of Mn(II) all affect removal efficiency, and the optimal pH value was 5.5. The sorption process for Mn(II) on IHA conforms to the pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model and intra-particle diffusion is not the only factor affecting the adsorption rate. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models can describe this adsorption behavior, and the experimental maximum adsorption capacity of IHA was 52.87 mg/g under optimal conditions. The thermodynamic analysis of adsorption shows that the adsorption process is a non-spontaneous endothermic physical reaction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the samples, it was found that as IHA successfully adsorbed Mn(II), the surface morphology of IHA changed after the adsorption reaction. The adsorption mechanism for Mn(II) on IHA is to provide electron pairs for carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl and other functional groups to form stable complexes with Mn(II).


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Substâncias Húmicas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(3): 492-502, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960794

RESUMO

In this work, a user-friendly chitin-based adsorbent (CT-PmPD) was synthesized by in-situ polymerization of m-phenylenediamine on chitin bead, which could effectively remove Cr(VI) from water. The structure and morphology of the CT-PmPD were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, zeta potential and XPS. Specifically, the effect of adsorbed dosage, pH, contact time, adsorption temperature and coexisting salt on the adsorption of Cr(VI) were studied. Besides, the adsorption mechanism of CT-PmPD toward Cr(VI) were also analyzed. Consequently, CT-PmPD exhibited a monolayer adsorption and the Langmuir model fitted a Cr(VI) adsorption capacity reaching 185.4 mg/g at 298 K. The high adsorption capacity was attributed to the abundant amino groups of CT-PmPD, which could be protonated to boost the electrostatic attraction of Cr(VI) oxyanions, thus providing electron to reduce Cr(VI). Additionally, the CT-PmPD revealed a good regeneration and reusability capacity, maintaining most of its adsorption capacity even after five cycles of adsorption-desorption. This high adsorption capacity and excellent regeneration performance highlighted the great potential of CT-PmPD for the removal of Cr(VI).


Assuntos
Quitina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Cromo , Cinética , Fenilenodiaminas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140210, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783841

RESUMO

Microplastics are present in almost all seas and oceans, including the Southern Ocean. To the south of the Antarctic Polar Front, microplastics are present mainly west to the Antarctic Peninsula, but information is scarce about their impact on the pelagic food web. Here, we analysed 42 scats of male Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) collected in late summer at Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), which allowed us to assess the presence of microplastics in the pelagic food web of the Bransfield Strait (Western Antarctica). Furthermore, we analysed the hard remains of prey in the scats to characterize the diet of fur seals. Hard remains recovered from the scats revealed that male Antarctic fur seals foraged on krill and myctophid fishes during late summer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that none of the seven fragments and three fibres recovered from their scats were microplastics, but rather were silicate minerals and chitin. These results suggest that the levels of microplastic pollution in the pelagic food web of the Bransfield Strait are extremely low.


Assuntos
Otárias , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Atividades Humanas , Masculino , Microplásticos , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(11): 2300-2310, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784275

RESUMO

Phosphorus crystallization-filtration (PCF) was devised as a novel tertiary process for phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater. The results obtained showed that during the PCF process, high pH and excessive calcium dosage conditions were required to obtain effluents with total phosphorus (T-P) and suspended solid (SS) concentrations below 0.2 and 10 mg/L, respectively, within 2 h of operation. Phosphorus was precipitated during the pre-treatment step, and thereafter it crystallized on the surface of the fixed seed material in the PCF reactor. Furthermore, the addition of Ca2+ resulted in phosphorus removal efficiencies >95%, and pH, residual Ca2+, filtration depth, and linear velocity were identified as the main design and operation parameters of the PCF process. Following the pilot-scale PCF process, the average concentrations of T-P, PO4-P, and SS in the effluent were 0.05, 0.04, and 1.1 mg/L, respectively, corresponding to removal efficiencies of 90.9, 86.5, and 79.7%, respectively. The investigation of the backwashing sludge characteristics of the PCF process using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared vacuum spectrometry (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that owing to its high contents in calcite and hydrated phosphorus compounds, PCF sludge could be used as an alternative soil amendment resource.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Águas Residuárias , Cristalização , Durapatita , Esgotos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(11): 2322-2336, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784277

RESUMO

Water-resistant magnetic graphene-anchored zeolite imidazolate (Fe3O4/ZIF-8-G) composite materials with the largest surface area are formed by directly growing a hydrophobic ZIF-8 skeleton onto a graphene support through self-assembly in methanol. Fe3O4/ZIF-8-G hybrid composite has water resistance and super strong adsorption capacity, and is used as an effective adsorbent for adsorption and removal of residual tetracycline in wastewater. The morphologies and structure, as well as water resistance of Fe3O4/ZIF-8-G, were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), N2 adsorption and pHPZC. The adsorption for tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich adsorption model with the simultaneous adsorption capacity for TC (382.58 mg g-1), OTC (565.94 mg g-1) and CTC (608.06 mg g-1) at pH 5-6 for 10 h. These were much higher than previously reported results for the removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions. The used Fe3O4/ZIF-8-G could be effectively reused and recycled at least five times without significant loss of adsorption capacity. The hydrophobic and π-π interaction between the aromatic rings of TCs and the aromatic imidazole rings of the ZIF-8-G framework were the main adsorption mechanism on the surface of Fe3O4/ZIF-8-G. Constructing a hydrophobic surface of ZIF-8/G framework resulted in a reduction of the hydrophilic sites of the surface. This can improve stability and selective adsorption of ZIF-8-G framework. In addition, the results show no significant difference in the adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity of Fe3O4/ZIF-8-G for TC, OTC and CTC in pure water and wastewater.


Assuntos
Grafite , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Zeolitas , Adsorção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tetraciclinas , Águas Residuárias , Água
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110953, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800227

RESUMO

Heavy metal acclimated bacteria are profoundly the preferred choice for bioremediation studies. Bacteria get acclimated to toxic concentrations of heavy metals by induction of specific enzymes and genetic selection favoring new metabolic abilities leading to activation of one or several of resistance mechanisms creating bacterial populations with differences in resistance profile and/or level. Therefore, to use in bioremediation processes, it is important to discriminate acclimated bacterial populations and choose a more resistant strain. In this study, we discriminated heavy metal acclimated bacteria by using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis methods namely Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). Two acclimation methods, acute and gradual, were used which cause differences in molecular changes resulting in bacterial populations with different molecular and resistance profiles. Brevundimonas sp., Gordonia sp., and Microbacterium oxydans were exposed to the toxic concentrations of Cd (30 µg/ml) or Pb (90 µg/ml) by using broth medium as a growth media. Our results revealed that PCA and HCA clearly discriminated the acute-acclimated, gradual-acclimated, and control bacteria from each other in protein, carbohydrate, and whole spectral regions. Furthermore, we classified acclimated (acute and gradual) and control bacteria more accurately by using SIMCA with 99.9% confidence. This study demonstrated that heavy metal acclimated and control group bacteria can be discriminated by using chemometric analysis of FTIR spectra in a powerful, cost-effective, and handy way. In addition to the determination of the most appropriate acclimation procedure, this approach can be used in the detection of the most resistant bacterial strains to be used in bioremediation studies.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Caulobacteraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Caulobacteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Meios de Cultura , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110962, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778272

RESUMO

In this work, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized with an average particle size of 35 nm, within 90s, using microwave and Sapindus mukorossi extract as a stabilizing agent. The AgNps were surface immobilized on eggshells (ES) to obtain Ag@ES, which was characterized by UV-Vis, UV-DRS, FT-IR, ICP-OES, TGA-DSC, SEM-EDX, XRD and XPS. Its applicability as an environmental catalyst was evaluated by Cr (VI) adsorption, photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, eriochrome black-T, methylene blue, rhodamine-B as model dyes and microbial inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The results revealed that Ag@ES exhibited maximum adsorption capacity of 93 mg/g for Cr (VI) ion and degradation efficiency of ~90-98% for removing anionic and cationic dyes. Further, it showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 15.6, 7.8 and 31.2 µg/mL for S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans respectively. Moreover, the Ag@ES being a heterogeneous catalyst can be regenerated and reused without significant loss in its efficiency.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Animais , Corantes , Casca de Ovo , Escherichia coli , Prata , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus , Água
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110910, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800245

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and more abundant in the marine environment. Consequently, increasing focus has been put on MPs in oceans and seas, while little importance has been attached to their presence in freshwaters and soils. Therefore, this paper aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the occurrence, analysis and ecotoxicology of MPs. The abundance and distribution of MPs in several typical freshwater systems of China were summarized. It suggested that the surface water of Poyang Lake contained the highest concentration of 34 items/L MPs among all the 8 freshwater systems, and the content of MPs in sediments were higher than that of the surface water. Net-based zooplankton sampling methods are the most frequently utilized sampling methods for MPs, and density separation, elutriation and digestion are three major pretreatment methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are often used to identify the polymer types of MPs. Besides, MPs might damage the digestive tract of various organisms and negatively inhibit their growth, feeding and reproduction. The ways of human exposure to MPs are by ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, digestive and respiratory system might be adversely influenced. However, potential health risks of MPs to humans are remained insufficiently researched. Overall, by showing the presence of MPs in freshwaters and soils as well as possible ecotoxicological effects on the environment and humans, this paper provided a framework for future research in this field.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Animais , China , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lagos/química , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 85-92, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819702

RESUMO

This study focused on metal release from technosols induced by synthetic root exudate (SRE). The effect of SRE composition on metal release was studied using six technosols. This was done by treating the technosols with SRE solutions having varying concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), namely oxalic, citric, and malic acids. Consequently, the physico-chemical parameters (pH and electric conductivity), Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu release (by atomic absorption spectroscopy, AAS), chemical changes (by Fourier transform infrared, FT-IR), and organic parameters (by fluorescence) were investigated. Metal release showed to be dependent on the SRE composition and technosol characteristics. Citric acid selectively released Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu from technosols in a concentration-dependent manner; oxalic acid showed a significant role in the release of Mg and Fe. Under relatively high LMWOA concentrations, particulate organo-mineral complexes precipitated. Additionally, technosol weathering was seen by the dissolution of humic substances and ferriallophanes, which in turn caused metal release. However, re-precipitation of these phases showed to re-sorb metals, thus underestimating the role of LMWOAs in metal release. Therefore, the selective metal leaching was highly dependent on the SRE composition and LMWOA concentrations on one hand, and on the mineral, organic, and organo-mineral components of the technosols on the other. The understanding of such processes is crucial for proposing and implementing environmental management strategies to reduce metal leaching or for the beneficial re-usage of metals (e.g., for agromining) from technosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ácido Cítrico , Metais , Ácido Oxálico , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Waste Manag ; 116: 91-99, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799100

RESUMO

Co-combustion was proposed as an effective and complementary means for the co-treatment of low rank coal semicoke (LRCS) and oil sludge. The combustion, kinetics and gaseous pollutants emission characteristics during co-combustion of LRCS and oil sludge were investigated by thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). Results showed oil sludge had more complex weight loss characteristics than LRCS. Proper addition of oil sludge could effectively improve the ignition, burnout and comprehensive combustion performance of blends and 60% was a recommended oil sludge blend ratio. High heating rates could also enhance the combustion performance of blends. The activation energy determined by Coats-Redfern method gradually decreased with the increase of oil sludge blend ratio. DAEM kinetic analysis results showed the maximum activation energy of 113.4 kJ/mol was obtained when conversion rate was 0.4 due to the poor ignition performance of LRCS. All of the CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 emission gradually decreased with the increasing oil sludge blend ratio. LRCS had suppression effect on NOx emission during co-combustion while oil sludge was just the opposite. The low sulfur release rate of oil sludge resulted in the decreasing SO2 emission of blends although oil sludge had promotion effect on SO2 emission.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral/análise , Esgotos , Gases , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111421, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753205

RESUMO

Microplastics are causing serious environmental threats worldwide. To evaluate the current state of microplastics pollution, 28 sediment samples were examined for microplastics and plastic debris contamination along Silver Beach, Southern India. Visual identification followed by FT-IR spectroscopy was used to estimate the overall distribution and characterization of plastic debris. The results reveal that white-colored (44%) and irregularly-shaped (82%) plastics are prevalent in the study area. Moreover, the dominant polymer in the study area is polyvinyl chloride (79%) followed by polyethylene (14%) and nylon (7%). Based on size fractions, mesoplastics are widely distributed in the beach sediments (65%), followed by microplastics (18%) and macroplastics (17%). The regional sources of plastic debris are tourism and fishing activities followed by storm water runoff through the Gadilam river and wave-induced deposition through high tides. Strict policy measures need to be implemented in recreational beaches like Silver beach to reduce plastic pollution.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Microplásticos , Prata , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Resíduos/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804936

RESUMO

Identification and quantification of plant flavonoids are critical to pharmacokinetic study and pharmaceutical quality control due to their distinct pharmacological functions. Here we report on a novel plant flavonoid electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective detection of dihydromyricetin (DMY) based on double- layered membranes consisting of gold nanoparticles (Au) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Both rGO-Au and MIPs membranes were directly formed on GCE via in-situ electrochemical reduction and polymerization processes step by step. The compositions, morphologies, and electrochemical properties of membranes were investigated with X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) combined with various electrochemical methods. The fabricated electrochemical sensor labeled as GCE│rGO-Au/MIPs exhibited excellent performance in determining of DMY under optimal experimental conditions. A wide linear detection range (LDR) ranges from 2.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-4 M together with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2×10-8 M (S/N = 3) were achieved. Moreover, the electrochemical sensor was employed to determine DMY in real samples with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Grafite/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Impressão Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461415, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823113

RESUMO

A molecularly imprinted polymeric monolith was synthesized in an aqueous environment in 15 min via UV-irradiation. The imprinted monolith was composed of hydroxyethyl methacrylate as monomer, dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate as functional monomer, methylene bisacrylamide and piperazine diacrylamide as crosslinkers and human serum albumin as template molecule. The synthesis took place in a PDMS-based device (2.5 cm long) yielding a micro-solid phase extraction column (3 × 5 mm) with two built-in fingertight connectors for an infusion pump and fraction collector. The imprinted monolith displayed the characteristic features of a porous polymeric monolith, had dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and human serum albumin as functional groups within the monolith and showed high permeability (0.51 × 10-13 m2). 85% of the imprinted cavities were readily available for rebinding of human serum albumin with an imprinting factor of 1.3. In comparison to a non-imprinted monolith, molecular imprinting increased human serum albumin adsorption by > 30%. Imprinted monolith displayed selectivity for human serum albumin over other competing proteins (human transferrin, ovalbumin and carbonic anhydrase) with similar or different isoelectric points and size. Human serum albumin was adsorbed (in dynamic mode) with > 98% selectivity from diluted human plasma using the imprinted monolith device. Device to device reproducibility and reusability of the device for 5 cycles showcase the imprinted monolith micro-device efficiency.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Adsorção , Etilaminas/química , Humanos , Metacrilatos/química , Permeabilidade , Polímeros/química , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Albumina Sérica Humana/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461423, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823118

RESUMO

A novel stationary phase co-modified with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and 3-aminophenylboronic acid copolymer on the silica was synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) reaction for performing mixed-mode and boronate affinity chromatography. The prepared functionalized silica was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The prepared column named Sil-PBA-NIPAM showed great separation performance for hydrophobic, hydrophilic, positional isomer, acidic and alkaline compounds. Besides, the mixture of cis-diol and non-cis-diol compounds was used to prove that the developed column also has potential to capture and enrich cis-diol compounds. The prepared column possesses merits of time-saving, high selectivity to cis-diol compounds and molecular-planarity selectivity compared with two commercial single-mode columns. The theoretical plates of material can reach to 57472 and the column has good hydrolysis stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. In summary, the prepared column possesses good hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, molecular-planarity selectivity and boronate affinity abilities for the analysis of various compounds.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Cromatografia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Ácido Benzoico/análise , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fenóis/análise , Polimerização , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
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