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2.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 980-987, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the image quality of magnetic resonance 3D-sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different filp angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) sequence combined with different fusion methods in image fusion technology and the application value of fusion technology in preoperative evaluation of pituitary macroadenoma. METHODS: We collected MRI data of 43 patients with pituitary macroadenoma confirmed by Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, including collecting conventional MRI scan+enhancement, 3D-SPACE T2WI, and 3D-SPACE T1WI+C image data. 3D-SPACE sequence fusion was used in 6 combinations of 3D-SPACE T2WI/3D-SPACE T1WI+C, which were normal phase+normal phase, reverse phase+normal phase, normal phase+reverse phase, reverse phase+reverse phase, and normal phase pseudo color+normal phase, normal phase+normal phase pseudo color. Two senior radiologists used semi-quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the image quality of different combinations to obtain the best fusion mode. According to the degree of tumor invasion of the optic chiasma, oculomotor nerve, and cavernous sinus vessels, the MRI enhancement, 3D-SPACE T2WI, 3D-SPACE T1WI+C, and 2 3D-SPACE sequence fusion images were performed according to a three-level score system. Taking the intraoperative observation as the gold standard, Fisher probability exact method was used to compare different sequences to show the difference between the degree of invasion of the pituitary macroadenoma to the surrounding tissue and the intraoperative results. RESULTS: The Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test showed that among the 6 image fusion modes, 3D-SPACE T1WI+C normal phase pseudo-color and 3D-SPACE T2WI normal phase fusion images had the best quality (P<0.05). No significance was observed among the 4 groups in the evaluation of consistency between the intraoperative findings and the graphically displayed extent of tumor invasion into oculomotor nerve (both level I, II, and III, P>0.05). The 3D-SPACE T2WI/3D-SPACE T1WI+C fusion images and the 3D-SPACE T2WI images showed better performance in the evaluation of consistency between the intraoperative findings and the graphically displayed extent of tumor invasion into optic chiasma (level II and III) than that in other two kinds of imaging data of the MRI enhancement group and 3D-SPACE T1WI+C group (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), with no significance being observed in level I. The 3D-SPACE T2WI/3D-SPACE T1WI+C fusion images and the 3D-SPACE T1WI+C images showed better performance in the evaluation of consistency between the intraoperative findings and the graphically displayed extent of tumor invasion into cavernous sinus vessels (level II) than that in other two kinds of imaging data of the MRI enhancement group and 3D-SPACE T2WI group (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), with no significance being observed in level I and III. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance 3D-SPACE sequence combined with image fusion technology is better than conventional magnetic resonance sequence for showing pituitary macroadenoma invasion of skull base vascular nerves. The invasion is better than the 3D-SPACE sequence alone, showing that the relationship between tumor and cavernous sinus vascular grade II better than the 3D-SPACE sequence alone. It has good application prospects for preoperative risk assessment and surgical plan.


Assuntos
Aumento da Imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4940, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009411

RESUMO

The HUSH complex represses retroviruses, transposons and genes to maintain the integrity of vertebrate genomes. HUSH regulates deposition of the epigenetic mark H3K9me3, but how its three core subunits - TASOR, MPP8 and Periphilin - contribute to assembly and targeting of the complex remains unknown. Here, we define the biochemical basis of HUSH assembly and find that its modular architecture resembles the yeast RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex. TASOR, the central HUSH subunit, associates with RNA processing components. TASOR is required for H3K9me3 deposition over LINE-1 repeats and repetitive exons in transcribed genes. In the context of previous studies, this suggests that an RNA intermediate is important for HUSH activity. We dissect the TASOR and MPP8 domains necessary for transgene repression. Structure-function analyses reveal TASOR bears a catalytically-inactive PARP domain necessary for targeted H3K9me3 deposition. We conclude that TASOR is a multifunctional pseudo-PARP that directs HUSH assembly and epigenetic regulation of repetitive genomic targets.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Epigênese Genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Éxons/genética , Genoma , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , NAD/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Transcrição Genética
4.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 959-963, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve the methods to synthesize and purify of optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe of Gd-[4, 7-Bis-carboxymethyl-10-(2-fluorescein thioureaethyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraaza-cyclododec-1-yl]-acetic acid complexes. METHODS: Target compound (7), optical-magnetic bimodal molecular molecular probe, was synthesized by the use of 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane (1) as starting material via substitution reaction, hydrolysis reaction, coupling reaction and complexation reaction with metal. RESULTS: The synthetic route of Gd-[4, 7-Bis-carboxymethyl-10-(2-fluoresceinthioureaethyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraaza-cyclododec-1-yl]-acetic acid complexes was improved. The optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probes were synthesized by substitution reaction, hydrolysis reaction, coupling reaction and complex reaction with metal respectively. For the improved route, the total yield could reach 34.6% which was higher than the original route (18.0%). The structures of those compounds were identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry. The improved route could avoid the uncontrollable disadvantage of the substitution reaction, this process could reduce the formation of impurities and made the purification process easier, and in the aspect of purification and separation, the preparative high-performance liquid chromatography with less sample loading and high cost was improved to a column chromatography with many sample loads and being easy to operate. Therefore, the use of column chromatography could be more conducive to mass production of the optical-magnetic bimodal molecular molecular probe. CONCLUSION: The improved synthetic route improves the controllability of the reaction conditions and makes it easier to purify and separate the compounds. At the same time, the improved synthetic route can increase the total yield significantly. The optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe can combine the living magnetic resonance imaging with the in vitro optical imaging to realize the dual synchronous detection of magneto-optics, so that the detection results of the living magnetic resonance imaging and the in vitro optical imaging are mutually verified. In other words, this synthetic optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe will make the experimental results more accurate and reliable. In subsequent biological experimental studies, the optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe can be applied to related research of brain structure and function, and the probe can be used for the brain-related diseases researches, such as brain tumors. after intravenous administration, and thus the optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe can play an important role in medical treatment of brain tumors and cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sondas Moleculares
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1174-1177, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018196

RESUMO

Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) tissue tagging offers an excellent solution for tracking deformation and is considered the reference standard for the quantification of strain. However, due to the requirements for a dedicated acquisition sequence and post-processing software, tagged MR acquisitions are performed much less frequently in routine clinical practice than the anatomical cine MR sequence. Using tagged MR as the reference standard, this study proposes an approach to evaluate a diffeomorphic image registration algorithm applied on cine MR images to compute the cardiac deformation. In contrast to previous evaluation methods that compared the final results, such as strain, computed from cine and tagged MR sequences, the proposed method performs a direct frame-to-frame comparison in the evaluation. To overcome the problem of misalignment between the tagged and cine MR images, the proposed approach performs transformations to and from the two-dimensional image pixel coordinates and three-dimensional space using the meta-information encoded in the MR images. Linear temporal interpolation is performed using the frame acquisition time since the last R-wave peak value of the electrocardiogram signal recorded in the meta-information. Several statistic measures are computed and reported for the registration error using the Euclidean distances between the corresponding set of points obtained using cine and tagged MR images.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas de Transporte , Citocinas , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1211-1216, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018205

RESUMO

We propose a robust technique for segmenting magnetic resonance images of post-atrial septal occlusion intervention in the cardiac chamber. The technique can be used to determine the surgical outcomes of atrial septal defects before and after implantation of a septal occluder, which intends to provide volume restoration of the right and left atria. A variant of the U-Net architecture is used to perform atrial segmentation via a deep convolutional neural network. The method was evaluated on a dataset containing 550 two-dimensional image slices, outperforming conventional active contouring regarding the Dice similarity coefficient, Jaccard index, and Hausdorff distance, and achieving segmentation in the presence of ghost artifacts that occlude the atrium outline. Moreover, the proposed technique is closer to manual segmentation than the snakes active contour model. After segmentation, we computed the volume ratio of right to left atria, obtaining a smaller ratio that indicates better restoration. Hence, the proposed technique allows to evaluate the surgical success of atrial septal occlusion and may support diagnosis regarding the accurate evaluation of atrial septal defects before and after occlusion procedures.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Comunicação Interatrial , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1580-1583, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018295

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance (MR) images are generally degraded by random noise governed by Rician distributions. In this study, we developed a modified adaptive high order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) method, taking consideration of the nonlocal self-similarity and weighted Schatten p-norm. We extracted 3D cubes from noise images and classified the similar cubes by the Euclidean distance between cubes to construction a fourth-order tensor. Each rank of unfolding matrices was adaptively determined by weighted Schatten p-norm regularization. The latent noise-free 3D MR images can be obtained by an adaptive HOSVD. Denoising experiments were tested on both synthetic and clinical 3D MR images, and the results showed the proposed method outperformed several existing methods for Rician noise removal in 3D MR images.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Razão Sinal-Ruído
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1584-1587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018296

RESUMO

High spatial resolution of Magnetic Resonance images (MRI) provide rich structural details to facilitate accurate diagnosis and quantitative image analysis. However the long acquisition time of MRI leads to patient discomfort and possible motion artifacts in the reconstructed image. Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) using Convolutional Neural networks (CNN) is an emerging trend in biomedical imaging especially Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis for image post processing. An efficient choice of SISR architecture is required to achieve better quality reconstruction. In addition, a robust choice of loss function together with the domain in which these loss functions operate play an important role in enhancing the fine structural details as well as removing the blurring effects to form a high resolution image. In this work, we propose a novel combined loss function consisting of an L1 Charbonnier loss function in the image domain and a wavelet domain loss function called the Isotropic Undecimated Wavelet loss (IUW loss) to train the existing Laplacian Pyramid Super-Resolution CNN. The proposed loss function was evaluated on three MRI datasets - privately collected Knee MRI dataset and the publicly available Kirby21 brain and iSeg infant brain datasets and on benchmark SISR datasets for natural images. Experimental analysis shows promising results with better recovery of structure and improvements in qualitative metrics.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1662-1666, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018315

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance fingerprinting is a recent quantitative MRI technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameter maps (e.g., T1, T2, and spin density) in a single imaging experiment. In our early work, we demonstrated that the low-rank/subspace reconstruction significantly improves the accuracy of tissue parameter maps over the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction that utilizes simple pattern matching. In this paper, we generalize the low-rank/subspace reconstruction by introducing a multilinear low-dimensional image model (i.e., a low-rank tensor model). With this model, we further estimate the subspace associated with magnetization evolutions to simplify the image reconstruction problem. The proposed formulation results in a nonconvex optimization problem which we solve by an alternating minimization algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method with numerical experiments, and demonstrate that the proposed method improves the conventional reconstruction method and the state-of-the-art low-rank reconstruction method.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Algoritmos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1671-1674, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018317

RESUMO

In the last decade, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has been expanding its role in prostate cancer detection and characterization. In this work, 19 patients with clinically significant peripheral zone (PZ) tumours were studied. Tumour masks annotated on the whole-mount histology sections were mapped on T2-weighted (T2w) and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. Gray-level histograms of tumoral and normal tissue were compared using six first-order texture features. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare group means. Mean intensity signal of ADC showed the highest showed the highest area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) equal to 0.85. MANOVA analysis revealed that ADC features allows a better separation between normal and cancerous tissue with respect to T2w features (ADC: P = 0.0003, AUC = 0.86; T2w: P = 0.03, AUC = 0.74). MANOVA proved that the combination of T2-weighted and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map features increased the AUC to 0.88. Histogram-based features extracted from invivo mpMRI can help discriminating significant PZ PCa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1750-1753, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018336

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most dominant and lethal type of brain tumors. Growth prediction is significant to quantify tumor aggressiveness, improve therapy planning, and estimate patients' survival time. This is commonly addressed in literature using mathematical models guided by multi-time point scans of multi/single-modal data for the same subject. However, these models are mechanism-based and heavily rely on complicated mathematical formulations of partial differential equations with few parameters that are insufficient to capture different patterns and other characteristics of gliomas. In this paper, we propose a 3D generative adversarial networks (GANs) for glioma growth prediction. Specifically, we stack 2 GANs with conditional initialization of segmented feature maps. Furthermore, we employ Dice loss in our objective function and devised 3D U-Net architecture for better image generation. The proposed method is trained and validated using 3D patch-based strategy on real magnetic resonance images of 9 subjects with 3 time points. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be successfully used for glioma growth prediction with satisfactory performance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1758-1761, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018338

RESUMO

Using medical images recorded in clinical practice has the potential to be a game-changer in the application of machine learning for medical decision support. Thousands of medical images are produced in daily clinical activity. The diagnosis of medical doctors on these images represents a source of knowledge to train machine learning algorithms for scientific research or computer-aided diagnosis. However, the requirement of manual data annotations and the heterogeneity of images and annotations make it difficult to develop algorithms that are effective on images from different centers or sources (scanner manufacturers, protocols, etc.). The objective of this article is to explore the opportunities and the limits of highly heterogeneous biomedical data, since many medical data sets are small and entail a challenge for machine learning techniques. Particularly, we focus on a small data set targeting meningioma grading. Meningioma grading is crucial for patient treatment and prognosis. It is normally performed by histological examination but recent articles showed that it is possible to do it also on magnetic resonance images (MRI), so non-invasive. Our data set consists of 174 T1-weighted MRI images of patients with meningioma, divided into 126 benign and 48 atypical/anaplastic cases, acquired using 26 different MRI scanners and 125 acquisition protocols, which shows the enormous variability in the data set. The performed preprocessing steps include tumor segmentation, spatial image normalization and data augmentation based on color and affine transformations. The preprocessed cases are passed to a carefully trained 2-D convolutional neural network. Accuracy above 74% was obtained, with the high-grade tumor recall above 74%. The results are encouraging considering the limited size and high heterogeneity of the data set. The proposed methodology can be useful for other problems involving classification of small and highly heterogeneous data sets.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
13.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112458, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888670

RESUMO

Six previously undescribed tropane alkaloids, designated as erythrobezerrines A-F, were isolated from the EtOH extract from the stem bark of Erythroxylum bezerrae Plowman. Their structures were elucidated based on the interpretation of the NMR and MS data and in some instances, confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the cancer cell lines L929, PC-3, HCT-116, SNB-19 and NCI-H460, but only erythrobezerrine C showed moderate activity with IC50 values of 3.38 and 5.43 µM for HCT-116 and NCI-H460, respectively.


Assuntos
Erythroxylaceae , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta , Tropanos
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(4): 627-639, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970616

RESUMO

Despite aerobic granular sludge wastewater treatment plants operating around the world, our understanding of internal granule structure and its relation to treatment efficiency remains limited. This can be attributed in part to the drawbacks of time-consuming, labor-intensive, and invasive microscopy protocols which effectively restrict samples sizes and may introduce artefacts. Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allows non-invasive measurements which describe internal structural features of opaque, complex materials like biofilms. NMR was used to image aerobic granules collected from five full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands and United States, as well as laboratory granules and control beads. T1 and T2 relaxation-weighted images reveal heterogeneous structures that include high- and low-density biofilm regions, water-like voids, and solid-like inclusions. Channels larger than approximately 50 µm and connected to the bulk fluid were not visible. Both cluster and ring-like structures were observed with each granule source having a characteristic structural type. These structures, and their NMR relaxation behavior, were stable over several months of storage. These observations reveal the complex structures within aerobic granules from a range of sources and highlight the need for non-invasive characterization methods like NMR to be applied in the ongoing effort to correlate structure and function.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Aerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Países Baixos
15.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 9): 874-882, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887858

RESUMO

Five 2-aroyl-5-bromobenzo[b]furan-3-ol compounds (two of which are new) and four new 2-aroyl-5-iodobenzo[b]furan-3-ol compounds were synthesized starting from salicylic acid. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of four compounds, namely, (5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzofuran-2-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)methanone, C15H8BrFO3, (5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzofuran-2-yl)(4-chlorophenyl)methanone, C15H8BrClO3, (5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzofuran-2-yl)(4-bromophenyl)methanone, C15H8Br2O3, and (4-bromophenyl)(3-hydroxy-5-iodobenzofuran-2-yl)methanone, C15H8BrIO3, were also carried out. The compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the four human cancer cell lines KB, Hep-G2, Lu-1 and MCF7. Six compounds show good inhibiting abilities on Hep-G2 cells, with IC50 values of 1.39-8.03 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Células Hep G2/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
16.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 9): 914-920, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887863

RESUMO

The terpenoid (-)-Istanbulin A is a natural product isolated from Senecio filaginoides DC, one of the 270 species of Senecio (Asteraceae) which occurs in Argentina. The structure and absolute configuration of this compound [9a-hydroxy-3,4a,5-trimethyl-4a,6,7,8a,9,9a-hexahydro-4H,5H-naphtho[2,3-b]-furan-2,8-dione or (4S,5R,8R,10S)-1-oxo-8ß-hydroxy-10ßH-eremophil-7(11)-en-12,8ß-olide, C15H20O4] were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. It proved to be a sesquiterpene lactone showing an eremophilanolide skeleton whose chirality is described as 4S,5R,8R,10S. Structural results were also in agreement with the one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR and HR-ESI-MS data, and other complementary spectroscopic information. In addition, (-)-Istanbulin A is a polymorph of the previously reported form of (-)-Istanbulin A, form I; thus, the title compound is denoted form II or polymorph II. Structural data and a literature search allowed the chirality of Istanbulin A to be revisited. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of (-)-Istanbulin A, form II, were evaluated in order to establish a reference for future comparisons and applications related to specific crystal forms of Istanbulins.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Furanos/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estereoisomerismo
18.
Waste Manag ; 118: 350-359, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927388

RESUMO

It's an oversimplification to evaluate the reactivity of fly ash in geopolymerization using bulk elemental ratios like Si/Al. In this study, quantitative XRD by means of Rietveld refinement was employed to proportionate the mineral and glass phases of five fly ashes. The chemical environment of Si and Al in the fly ashes was investigated by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra. By counting the contributions of Al phase from mullite, the proportion of different coordination states of Al in the glass phase was speculated. The results reveal that the coordination number of Al is directly associated with the amount of alkali cations present in the glass phase for the most fly ashes, whereby higher the alkali content, the more four fold coordinated Al species are present in the system. Five and six fold coordinated Al as well as highly polymerized silicate species are also present in the glass structure of the fly ash. All these results point to an inherent inhomogeneous glass structure in fly ash. Despite that, a reactivity index derived from the NBO/T ratio (Non-Bridging Oxygen per Tetrahedral network former, e.g. SiO44-, AlO45-) modelled in a simplified glass setup, correlates well with the reaction heat of the geopolymers.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Polímeros , Álcalis , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Difração de Raios X
19.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(5): 594-602, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919480

RESUMO

The current study aims to investigate the possibility of using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) colonography to diagnose colorectal cancer. Gd-FITC-SLNs were synthesized by loading gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) simultaneously. Twenty mice received azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) to induce adenocarcinoma of the colon and were divided into 4 groups, and 5 in per group. MR colonography were performed at different time periods before and after enema or intravenous injection of Gd-FITC-SLNs or Gd-DTPA. The results demonstrated SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) significantly increased from 1.56- to 1.76-fold within the colorectal tumors after the enema of Gd-FITC-SLNs (p < 0.001). No differences in SNR were observed after the enema of Gd-DTPA (p > 0.05). Besides, SNR increased from 1.54- to 1.72-fold within the colorectal tumors after the intravenous injection of Gd-FITC-SLNs (p < 0.001) while SNR increased from 1.39to 1.57-fold within the colorectal tumors after the injection of Gd-DTPA (p < 0.001). In addition, SNR within colorectal tumors significantly increased ranging from 20th to 140th min, and lasted for about 120 min (p < 0.05) after the enema of Gd-FITC-SLNs and SNR within colorectal tumors also significantly increased ranging from 0th hour to 8th hour, lasted for about 8 hour (p < 0.05) after the injection of Gd-FITC-SLNs. However, after the injection of Gd-DTPA, SNR within colorectal tumors significantly increased only ranging from 0th min to 20th min after administration (p < 0.01). Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that all mice developed adenocarcinoma of the colon. In summary, it is feasible by using Gd-FITC-SLNs in MR colonography to diagnose colorectal cancer. Enema of Gd-FITC-SLNs can provide marked enhancement of colorectal tumors quickly, and safer while intravenous injection of Gd-FITC-SLNs can provide a long-lasting enhancement of colorectal tumors in MR colonography. These findings present a potential clinical application of Gd-FITC-SLNs on MR colonography.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Nanopartículas , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Gadolínio , Lipídeos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos
20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(37): 2919-2923, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993251

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the value of 3.0T MRI diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) quantitative histogram parameters in the differential diagnosis of rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MC) and common adenocarcinoma (AC). Methods: One hundred and ten patients from Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University between September 2015 and September 2019 with complete magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DKI results confirmed by surgery and pathology were retrospectively analyzed, including 16 patients in MC group and 94 patients in AC group. Two physicians outlined the region of interest (ROI) on the DKI image with b=1 000 s/mm(2), and obtained quantitative DKI parameters, including the diffusion coefficient (D value) and kurtosis coefficient (K value) corrected for non-Gaussian distribution. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of quantitative parameters of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were obtained through image registration, and histogram analysis was performed to obtain the mean value, 25th percentile, 50th percentile, 75th percentile, skewness and kurtosis of the above parameters, respectively. The difference between the quantitative histogram parameter analysis results of the rectal MC group and the AC group was evaluated, and the main indicators and multivariate comprehensive analysis indicators was screened, and the effectiveness of quantitative histogram parameters related to histopathological classification in the differential diagnosis of rectal MC and AC was evaluated. Results: There was no significant differences in gender, age, lesion location, T stage or N stage between MC group and AC group (all P>0.05). The multivariate binary logistic stepwise regression screening showed that D50th percentile and K25th percentile are statistically significant indicators (B values were 2 966.166 and -4.550, respectively; Wals values were 9.000 and 15.720, respectively; and P values were 0.003 and <0.001, respectively). The combined area under the curve of the two indictors was 0.85, but there was no statistically significant difference in pairwise comparison using DeLong method (P>0.05). The results of histogram analysis of quantitative parameters measured by the two physicians were consistent, and the inter-group correlation coefficient ranged from 0.880 to 0.981. Conclusions: The quantitative parameter histogram analysis of the DKI double-index model is helpful for the differentiation of rectal MC and AC, in which the D50th percentile and K25th percentile have differential diagnosis significance, and are superior to the ADC value of the single-index model.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
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