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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(1): 75-83, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099985

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is composed of a series of complex biological events, which are regulated by complex factors. There is a phenomenon of delayed translation in spermatogenesis, so the changes of transcription and protein expression are not completely consistent. Thus post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in spermatogenic biological events. In recent years, the development of proteomics has deepened the discovery of PTM. This paper reviews the advances in multiple PTMs proteomic during testicular spermatogenesis. Their effects on sperm function and fertility, as well as their significance for future diagnosis and treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica , Espermatogênese , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227946, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978160

RESUMO

Sperm cryopreservation by ultra-rapid cooling based on dropping small volumes of sperm suspension directly into liquid nitrogen, has been successful in some wild ruminant species, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). In ultra-rapid cooling, the contents of these droplets are expected to enter a stable, glass-like state, but to the best of our knowledge no information exists regarding the presence or absence of ice formation in the extracellular milieu when using this technique. Different modifications to the extracellular milieu likely inflict different types of damage on the plasmalemma, the acrosome and mitochondrial membranes. The aims of the present work were: 1) to examine the physical state of the extracellular milieu after cryopreservation at slow and ultra-rapid cooling rates-and thus determine whether ultra-rapid cooling vitrifies the extracellular milieu; and 2) to compare, using conventional sperm analysis techniques and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the damage to sperm caused by these two methods. Sperm samples were obtained by the transrectal ultrasound-guided massage method (TUMASG) from anesthetized Iberian ibexes, and cryopreserved using slow and ultra-rapid cooling techniques. Sperm motility (22.95 ± 3.22% vs 4.42 ± 0.86%), viability (25.64 ± 3.71% vs 12.8 ± 2.50%), acrosome integrity (41.45± 3.73% vs 27.00 ± 1.84%) and mitochondrial membrane integrity (16.52 ± 3.75% vs 4.00 ± 0.65%) were better after slow cooling (P<0.001) than after ultra-rapid technique. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) suggested that the vitrified state was not achieved by ultra-rapid cooling, and that the ice crystals formed were smaller and had more stretchmarks (P<0.001) than after slow cooling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no differences in the types of damage caused by the examined techniques, although transmission electron microscopy showed the damage to the plasmalemma and mitochondrial membrane to be worse after ultra-rapid cooling. In conclusion ultra-rapid cooling provoked more membrane damage than slow cooling, perhaps due to the extracellular ice crystals formed.


Assuntos
Cabras/genética , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Acrossomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrossomo/ultraestrutura , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Criopreservação , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitrificação/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226070, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923252

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known for its multiple benefits including improvement of growth, increasing lean mass, and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, when used in long-term supplementations CLA does not improve semen parameters in boar and bull and reduces fertility in Japanese quails. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in dietary lipids plays a significant role in spermatogenesis owning the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in plasma membrane of sperms. Whether CLA plays a role in testicular tissue and epididymal fat is still unknown. Therefore, in this study we hypothesize that long-term supplementation of equal proportion of CLA isomer mix (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) in rabbit bucks might alter male reproductive potentials. Twelve V-Line weaned male rabbits were used in 26 weeks trial, rabbits were individually raised and randomly allocated into three dietary groups. Control group (CON) received a basal diet, a group received 0.5% CLA (CLA 0.5%), and a group received 1% CLA (CLA 1%). Rabbits were euthanized at the end of the trial and several parameters were evaluated related to growth, semen quality, and testicular and epididymal tissue histopathology and transcriptome. The long-term supplementation of CLA increased feed intake by 5% and body weight by 2-3%. CLA 1% decreased sperm progressive motility. In testicular tissue L-carnitine and α-tocopherol were decreased by CLA supplementation. In epididymal fat, CLA tended to decrease concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the expression of SCD5 gene was upregulated by CLA 1% and CASP3 gene was upregulated by CLA 0.5%. Transcription of PPARG was downregulated by CLA. Feeding 1% CLA also decreased testicular epithelial thickness. Long-term supplementation of CLA modestly enhanced male rabbit growth, but negatively impacted male reproduction, especially at high dose of CLA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/metabolismo , Epididimo/patologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Masculino , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Coelhos , Análise do Sêmen , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 23-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617256

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate variation in sperm quality metrics (motility, velocity, and concentration) in the critically endangered Mississippi gopher frog (Lithobates sevosus) over three sampling time points after a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) induction injection. Sperm was repeatedly collected from 11 individuals over three sampling times (30, 60, and 120 min) after injection. Variation in sperm quality was investigated using a repeated-measures mixed model approach. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed a significant effect of sampling time for percent motility and velocity. Concentration was found to be marginally related to sampling time, while progressive motility was not significantly related to time after injection. Our findings are important for optimizing assisted reproduction-related fertilization success and increasing the successful propagation of endangered species of imperiled frogs in captive breeding programs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ranidae/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109847, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732268

RESUMO

Chlorothalonil is a fungicide present in antifouling paints and other formulations used in agriculture, although studies have shown this chemical to be toxic to fish species. To clarify the deleterious effects of chlorothalonil for these non-target organisms, the present study evaluated the toxic effects of this biocide for the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara in terms of an acute mortality test (96 h) and the analysis of biomarkers of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and sperm quality. The LC50 calculated for P. vivipara was 40.8 µg/L of chlorothalonil. For the analysis of biomarkers, fish were exposed (96 h) to 1 and 10 µg/L of chlorothalonil. It was observed that chlorothalonil alters the levels of pro- and antioxidants towards oxidative stress. In the gills, a negative effect on total antioxidant capacity (ACAP) was detected, while there was a reduction in the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver. However, levels of glutathione (GSH) and the activity and glutamate-cysteine-ligase (GCL) increased in both tissues, as a possible detoxification response. Following chlorothalonil exposure, oxidative damage measured by lipoperoxidation (LPO) significantly increased at the cellular level only (red blood cells (RBCs) and sperm cells). An increase in fluidity of membranes, reactive oxygen species concentration and micronuclei (MNs) incidence were also seen in RBCs. In sperm cells, LPO increased, while membrane and mitochondrial functionality as well as sperm motility decreased. Based on these results, chlorothalonil can be considered as a toxic compound for fish, causing genotoxicity and affecting the RBCs physiology and the fertility of males of P. vivipara.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poecilia/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Poecilia/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
7.
Theriogenology ; 141: 211-218, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387698

RESUMO

Castration reduces aggressive and sexual behaviour and provides better carcass quality in bull calves. Vaccination against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is used as an alternative to surgical castration for the purposes of reducing pain and distress in the animals. Currently, no anti-GnRH vaccine has been authorized for use in cattle in the European Union. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an anti-GnRH swine-specific vaccine (Improvac®, Zoetis, USA) on the morphology, structure and function of bull testes. Animals were vaccinated at days 1, 21 and 104 of the experimental period and were classified based on their live weight into the following two groups: LIGHT (172.9 ±â€¯30.00 kg) and HEAVY (323.8 ±â€¯37.79 kg). The scrotal circumference was measured on day 1 and prior to slaughter (day 164). At slaughter, the sperm motility and concentration in the caudae epididymis were assessed. Testes were weighed, measured and examined using ultrasound, and then tissue samples were collected and fixed in formalin. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on the testes to measure the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and assess the testicular cell populations. The results revealed that suppression of testicular development was associated with the use of the Improvac® vaccine, which resulted in a smaller size of the testes and impaired spermatid production. However, the effect of Improvac® was more pronounced and consistent in calves vaccinated at a low live weight than at a heavy live weight, which suggested that vaccination is more effective when calves are vaccinated before or early during puberty. However, testes from calves vaccinated at a low live weight were more prone to the development of intraluminal concretions in the seminiferous tubules.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/imunologia , Orquiectomia/métodos , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/imunologia , Escroto/anatomia & histologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Vacinação
8.
Theriogenology ; 141: 161-167, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542519

RESUMO

To test our hypothesis that antisperm antibodies (ASA) might alter sperm phenotypic attributes thus leading to sub-fertility/infertility in bulls, ASA were generated in crossbred male calves by immunizing with sperm two times. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (n = 24) with different field fertility ratings were incubated with ASA and different patterns of ASA immunolocalization were studied. In addition, sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and cryo-capacitation status were also assessed. Immunolocalization of sperm antigens using antisperm antibody revealed three major patterns (Acrosomal-AR, apical-AP and, acrosome and tail-AT). The proportion of ASA reactive spermatozoa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in low- and medium-fertile bulls compared to high-fertile bulls. Among the three patterns, the proportion of spermatozoa with AR pattern was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in low- and medium-fertile bulls compared to high-fertile bulls. The proportion of membrane and acrosome intact spermatozoa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in high-fertile bulls compared to medium- and low-fertile bulls. There were no significant differences in the proportion of cryo-capacitated spermatozoa among high-, medium- and low-fertile bulls. The relationship between ASA reactive spermatozoa and conception rates (CR) of bulls was highly (P < 0.01) significant and negative. Similarly, AR and AT pattern were also significantly (P < 0.01) and negatively related to CR of bulls. The reactivity of spermatozoa with ASA was also significantly (P < 0.01) and negatively related to the membrane and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. It was concluded that the proportion of spermatozoa responding to ASA was higher in low-compared to high-fertile bulls and ASA localization in sperm acrosomal area was negatively related to sperm membrane and acrosomal integrity and bull fertility.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/fisiologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos/fisiologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen
9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(20): 208101, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809101

RESUMO

Using a geometric feedback model of the flagellar axoneme accounting for dynein motor kinetics, we study elastohydrodynamic phase synchronization in a pair of spontaneously beating filaments with waveforms ranging from sperm to cilia and Chlamydomonas. Our computations reveal that both in-phase and antiphase synchrony can emerge for asymmetric beats while symmetric waveforms go in phase, and elucidate the mechanism for phase slips due to biochemical noise. Model predictions agree with recent experiments and illuminate the crucial roles of hydrodynamics and mechanochemical feedback in synchronization.


Assuntos
Flagelos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Chlamydomonas/fisiologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Dineínas/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
10.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(4): 148-153, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184302

RESUMO

Introducción: La solicitud de semen donado ha aumentado en los últimos años, lo que ha llevado a evaluar con mayor rigurosidad las muestras de semen de los donantes. Sin embargo, estas muestras presentan una variabilidad debido a su biología, a la abstinencia sexual, a la actividad de las glándulas accesorias, a los errores analíticos, entre otros. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la variación de los parámetros seminales de 15 voluntarios pertenecientes a un programa de donación del Centro de Medicina Reproductiva CONCEVIDAS. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron los parámetros seminales convencionales de 384 muestras de semen provenientes de 15 donantes. Resultados: Se encontró una mayor variabilidad tanto intra como interindividuo en la concentración total de espermatozoides, en contraste, la viabilidad y la movilidad progresiva fueron los parámetros con menor variación. Conclusión: Este trabajo reafirma la variabilidad biológica del análisis seminal convencional en un grupo de individuos aparentemente sanos


Introduction: The request for donated semen has increased in recent years, which has led to a more rigorous evaluation of donor semen samples. However, the parameters of these samples vary due to their biology, sexual abstinence, the activity of accessory glands, and analytical errors, among others. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the variation in the seminal parameters of 15 volunteers of a sperm donation program from the reproductive medicine centre CONCEVIDAS. Materials and methods: An analysis was performed on the conventional seminal parameters of 384 semen samples from 15 donors. Results: A wide variation was found in the total sperm concentration. In contrast, viability and sperm progressive motility were the parameters with the least variation. Conclusion: This work confirms the biological variability of conventional seminal analysis in a group of apparently healthy individuals


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Sêmen/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/estatística & dados numéricos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Técnicas Reprodutivas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro
11.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 109, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capacitation involves physiological changes that spermatozoa must undergo in the female reproductive tract or in vitro to obtain the ability to bind, penetrate and fertilize the egg. Up to date, several methods have been developed to characterize this complex biological process. The goal of the presented study is to mutually compare several fluorescent techniques, check their ability to detect changes in molecular processes during the capacitation progress and determine their ability to predict the percentage of acrosome reacted (AR) sperm after the exposure to solubilized zona pellucida (ZP). The capacitation process was analyzed using four fluorescent techniques: 1. chlortetracycline (CTC) staining, 2. anti-acrosin antibody (ACR.2) assay, 3. anti-phosphotyrosine (pY) antibody assay, 4. fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated phalloidin (FITC-phall) assay. All these methods were tested using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. RESULTS: All selected methods are capable to detect the capacitation progress of boar sperm in vitro, but there are significant differences in their outcome when using fluorescent microscopy or flow cytometry experimental arrangements and subsequent statistical analysis (KW-ANOVA). Also, the ability to predict the absolute numbers of sperm which will undergo ZP-induced AR differ significantly (CTC and ACR.2 gave the best predictions). CONCLUSIONS: Our study compared four largely used methods used to characterize capacitation process, highlighted their differences and showed that all are able to detect capacitation progress, CTC and ACR.2 are furthermore able to accurately predict the percentage of AR sperm after ZP-induced AR.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Capacitação Espermática/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Reação Acrossômica/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Imunofluorescência , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Faloidina , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Zona Pelúcida/fisiologia
12.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 159(4): 201-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865337

RESUMO

Genetic factors are responsible for 15% of male infertility conditions. Numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies (related to the Y chromosome or to the autosomes) are validated genetic factors leading to spermatogenic quantitative defects with a frequency depending on the severity of the phenotype. The most frequent structural chromosomal rearrangements of autosomes are translocations and inversions, whereas dicentric chromosomes involving autosomes are rare. We report a man bearing a pseudodicentric chromosome (9;21) and presenting with oligozoospermia. Extensive cytogenetic analyses were necessary to determine the precise nature of the derivative chromosome and to discount the presence of interstitial telomeric sequences. Defects in spermatogenesis and abnormal segregation at meiosis for existing spermatozoa are proposed and are the likely cause of the reproductive phenotype of the patient.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Oligospermia/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Adulto , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
13.
PLoS Biol ; 17(12): e3000559, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877125

RESUMO

The global rise in obesity and steady decline in sperm quality are two alarming trends that have emerged during recent decades. In parallel, evidence from model organisms shows that paternal diet can affect offspring metabolic health in a process involving sperm tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA). Here, we report that human sperm are acutely sensitive to nutrient flux, both in terms of sperm motility and changes in sperm tsRNA. Over the course of a 2-week diet intervention, in which we first introduced a healthy diet followed by a diet rich in sugar, sperm motility increased and stabilized at high levels. Small RNA-seq on repeatedly sampled sperm from the same individuals revealed that tsRNAs were up-regulated by eating a high-sugar diet for just 1 week. Unsupervised clustering identified two independent pathways for the biogenesis of these tsRNAs: one involving a novel class of fragments with specific cleavage in the T-loop of mature nuclear tRNAs and the other exclusively involving mitochondrial tsRNAs. Mitochondrial involvement was further supported by a similar up-regulation of mitochondrial rRNA-derived small RNA (rsRNA). Notably, the changes in sugar-sensitive tsRNA were positively associated with simultaneous changes in sperm motility and negatively associated with obesity in an independent clinical cohort. This rapid response to a dietary intervention on tsRNA in human sperm is attuned with the paternal intergenerational metabolic responses found in model organisms. More importantly, our findings suggest shared diet-sensitive mechanisms between sperm motility and the biogenesis of tsRNA, which provide novel insights about the interplay between nutrition and male reproductive health.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/genética , RNA de Transferência/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Transferência/genética , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226262, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856166

RESUMO

Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are more likely than siblings to report low sperm count and to use assisted reproductive technologies. Yet, it is still unclear if the sperm produced many years after remission of cancer display DNA and chromatin damage linked to male infertility and poor embryo development. As well, the importance of the age at diagnosis in relation to puberty is poorly understood. In this pilot study, we compared reproductive parameters and sperm damage from adult survivors of childhood leukemia and lymphoma, sub-divided into those diagnosed before or after puberty, to men with no history of cancer. Our data indicate that CCS, independently of the age of diagnosis, have a high risk of low sperm count and when sperm are present, chances of DNA and chromatin abnormalities appear similar to those seen in the general population. Exposure to alkylating agents is correlated with low sperm count whereas exposure to anthracyclines, and doxorubicin in particular, could have long-term consequences on sperm integrity. This study highlights the need for further research on fertility among male CCS and the importance of informing families about the potential long-term impact of chemotherapy on male fertility regardless of age at diagnosis.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , Leucemia/fisiopatologia , Leucemia/terapia , Linfoma/fisiopatologia , Linfoma/terapia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Sobreviventes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Reprodução , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
15.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 185, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying reproductive trait allometries can help to understand optimal male investment strategies under sexual selection. In promiscuous mating systems, studies across several taxa suggest that testes allometry is usually positive, presumably due to strong selection on sperm numbers through intense sperm competition. Here, we investigated testes allometry in a bush-cricket species, Metaplastes ornatus, in which females mate promiscuously, but where sperm removal behaviour by males likely drastically reduces realised sperm competition level. RESULTS: As hypothesised, we found evidence for negative testes allometry and hence a fundamentally different male investment strategy compared to species under intense sperm competition. In addition, the mean relative testes size of M. ornatus was small compared to other species of bush-crickets. Surprisingly, the spermatophore gland, a potential alternative trait that males could invest in instead of testes, also did not show positive allometry, but was approximately isometric. We further observed the expected pattern of negative allometry for the male morphological structure responsible for sperm removal in this species, the subgenital plate, supporting the one-size-fits-all hypothesis for intromittent genitalia. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the evolution of sperm removal behaviour in M. ornatus was a key adaptation for avoiding sperm competition, with important consequences for reproductive trait allometries. Nevertheless, they also imply that it does not pay for larger males to invest disproportionately in nuptial gift production in this species.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/anatomia & histologia , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão , Reprodução , Testículo/anatomia & histologia
16.
Elife ; 82019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570120

RESUMO

Rising and more variable global temperatures pose a challenge for biodiversity, with reproduction and fertility being especially sensitive to heat. Here, we assessed the potential for thermal adaptation in sperm and egg function using Tribolium flour beetles, a warm-temperate-tropical insect model. Following temperature increases through adult development, we found opposing gamete responses, with males producing shorter sperm and females laying larger eggs. Importantly, this gamete phenotypic plasticity was adaptive: thermal translocation experiments showed that both sperm and eggs produced in warmer conditions had superior reproductive performance in warmer environments, and vice versa for cooler production conditions and reproductive environments. In warmer environments, gamete plasticity enabled males to double their reproductive success, and females could increase offspring production by one-third. Our results reveal exciting potential for sensitive but vital traits within reproduction to handle increasing and more variable thermal regimes in the natural environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Temperatura Alta , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos da radiação , Tribolium/efeitos da radiação , Zigoto/fisiologia , Zigoto/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 355, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different parameters are assessed as part of the semen analysis but a standard protocol for evaluation of goat semen is still missing. The aim of this study was to analyse two different factors affecting buck sperm quality in the post-collection period prior to adding the extender. Here we examined the effects of two handling temperatures (20 °C, 37 °C) and various examination time points (3-30 min) after semen collection. RESULTS: Examination time point had a significant influence on raw sperm viability (p < 0.05), motility (p < 0.05) and on semen pH (p < 0.05). The two different handling temperatures had no significant effect on sperm viability (p > 0.05), motility (p > 0.05), with the exception of fast moving sperm (p = 0.04), or on semen pH (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Examination time point was identified as factor strongly influencing raw peacock buck semen after collection. Raw goat semen can tolerate room temperatures for at least 10 min without impacting overall semen quality. In order to obtain comparable results, semen samples should always be examined within 10 min after collection.


Assuntos
Cabras , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Recuperação Espermática/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 159(2): 66-73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639787

RESUMO

The genomic region at 15q11.2q13 represents a hotspot for copy-number variations (CNVs) due to nonallelic homologous recombination. Previous studies have suggested that the development of 15q11.2q13 deletions in sperm may be affected by seasonal factors because patients with Prader-Willi syndrome resulting from 15q11.2q13 deletions on paternally derived chromosomes showed autumn-dominant birth seasonality. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of 15q11.2q13 CNVs in sperm of healthy men and clarify the effects of various environmental factors, i.e., age, smoking status, alcohol intake, and season, on the frequency. Thirty volunteers were asked to provide semen samples and clinical information once in each season of a year. The rates of 15q11.2q13 CNVs were examined using 2-color FISH. The results were statistically analyzed using a generalized estimating equation with negative binomial distribution and a log link function. Consequently, informative data were obtained from 83 samples of 26 individuals. The rates of deletions and duplications ranged from 0.04 to 0.48% and from 0.08 to 0.30%, respectively. The rates were not correlated with the age, smoking status, or alcohol intake. Sperm produced in winter showed 1.2 to 1.4-fold high rates for both deletions and duplications as compared with sperm produced in the other seasons; however, there was no significant difference. These results demonstrate high and variable CNV rates at 15q11.2q13 in sperm of healthy men. These CNVs appear to occur independent of the age, smoking status, or alcohol intake, while the effect of season remains inconclusive. Our results merit further validation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3 Special): 1419-1422, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551224

RESUMO

To observe and investigate the in vitro effect of ulipristal acetate (UPA) on human sperm parameters and function. The 20 patients with normal semen parameters and average age of (32.5±8.5) years old, who were treated in our hospital from January 2018 to August 2018, were selected as research objects. They were subjected to density gradient centrifugation, and then four groups were incubated for about an hour in a culture medium containing different concentrates of ulipristal acetate and the other two groups were set as blank control group and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control group. Indicators including sperm motility, sperm hyperactivation and sperm concentration of free calcium ions of each group were tested. Under the ulipristal acetate concentration of 0.0.4 mol/L, the proportion of sperm damage was increased, the length of tail was increased, and the proportion of sperm hyperactivation was decreased, p<0.05. In addition, the acrosome reaction was inhibited, which significantly reduced the calcium concentration in the sperm, p<0.05. Ulipristal acetate can significantly inhibit acrosome reaction and hyperactivation of sperm in vitro, and can reduce the concentration of calcium ions in sperm, thus causing sperm damage.


Assuntos
Norpregnadienos/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Reação Acrossômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona/farmacologia , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Mol Cell ; 76(2): 320-328, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563431

RESUMO

Germline cells are the beginning of new individuals in multicellular animals, including humans. Our understanding of these cell types is limited by the difficulty of analyzing the precious and heterogeneous germline tissue samples. The rapid development of single-cell sequencing technologies provides a chance for comprehensive profiling of the omics dynamics of human germline development. In this review, we discuss progress in analyzing the development of human germline cells, including preimplantation and implantation embryos, fetal germ cells (FGCs), and adult spermatogenesis by single-cell transcriptome and epigenome sequencing technologies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Fetais/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Espermatogênese/genética
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