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4.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 4-15, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155953

RESUMO

The article focuses on effective treatment of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) at early stages and substantiates the requirement for antiviral therapy and for decreasing the viral load to prevent the infection progression. The absence of a specific antiviral therapy for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is stated. The authors analyzed results of early randomized studies using lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and favipiravir in COVID-19 and their potential for the treatment of novel coronavirus infection. Among the drugs blocking the virus entry into cells, the greatest attention was paid to the antimalaria drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. The article addresses in detail ineffectiveness and potential danger of hydroxychloroquine, which demonstrated neither a decrease in the time of clinical recovery nor any improvement of prognosis for patients with COVID-19. The major objective was substantiating a possible use of bromhexine, a mucolytic and anticough drug, which can inhibit transmembrane serin protease 2 required for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into cells. Spironolactone may have a similar feature. Due to its antiandrogenic effects, spironolactone can inhibit X-chromosome-related synthesis of ACE-2 receptors and activation of transmembrane serin protease 2. In addition to slowing the virus entry into cells, spironolactone decreases severity of fibrosis in different organs, including the lungs. The major part of the article addresses clinical examples of managing patients with COVID-19 at the University Clinic of the Medical Research and Educational Centre of the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, including successful treatment with schemes containing bromhexine and spironolactone. In conclusion, the authors described the design of a randomized, prospective BISCUIT study performed at the University Clinic of the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University with an objective of evaluating the efficacy of this scheme.


Assuntos
Bromoexina , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Espironolactona , Betacoronavirus , Bromoexina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Moscou , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD007004, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is used to reduce proteinuria and retard the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, resolution of proteinuria may be incomplete with these therapies and the addition of an aldosterone antagonist may be added to further prevent progression of CKD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009 and updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of aldosterone antagonists (selective (eplerenone), non-selective (spironolactone or canrenone), or non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists (finerenone)) in adults who have CKD with proteinuria (nephrotic and non-nephrotic range) on: patient-centred endpoints including kidney failure (previously know as end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)), major cardiovascular events, and death (any cause); kidney function (proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and doubling of serum creatinine); blood pressure; and adverse events (including hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury, and gynaecomastia). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 13 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared aldosterone antagonists in combination with ACEi or ARB (or both) to other anti-hypertensive strategies or placebo in participants with proteinuric CKD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Data were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. We expressed summary treatment estimates as a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, or standardised mean difference (SMD) when different scales were used together with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk of bias were assessed using the Cochrane tool. Evidence certainty was evaluated using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-four studies (5745 participants) were included. Risk of bias in the evaluated methodological domains were unclear or high risk in most studies. Adequate random sequence generation was present in 12 studies, allocation concealment in five studies, blinding of participant and investigators in 18 studies, blinding of outcome assessment in 15 studies, and complete outcome reporting in 24 studies. All studies comparing aldosterone antagonists to placebo or standard care were used in addition to an ACEi or ARB (or both). None of the studies were powered to detect differences in patient-level outcomes including kidney failure, major cardiovascular events or death. Aldosterone antagonists had uncertain effects on kidney failure (2 studies, 84 participants: RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.33 to 27.65, I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence), death (3 studies, 421 participants: RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.50, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence), and cardiovascular events (3 studies, 1067 participants: RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.56; I² = 42%; low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce protein excretion (14 studies, 1193 participants: SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.20, I² = 82%; very low certainty evidence), eGFR (13 studies, 1165 participants, MD -3.00 mL/min/1.73 m², 95% CI -5.51 to -0.49, I² = 0%, low certainty evidence) and systolic blood pressure (14 studies, 911 participants: MD -4.98 mmHg, 95% CI -8.22 to -1.75, I² = 87%; very low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists probably increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (17 studies, 3001 participants: RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.22, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), acute kidney injury (5 studies, 1446 participants: RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.97, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), and gynaecomastia (4 studies, 281 participants: RR 5.14, 95% CI 1.14 to 23.23, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Non-selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB had uncertain effects on protein excretion (2 studies, 139 participants: SMD -1.59, 95% CI -3.80 to 0.62, I² = 93%; very low certainty evidence) but may increase serum potassium (2 studies, 121 participants: MD 0.31 mEq/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.45, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared to diuretics plus ACEi or ARB. Selective aldosterone antagonists may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (2 studies, 500 participants: RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.95, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared ACEi or ARB (or both). There were insufficient studies to perform meta-analyses for the comparison between non-selective aldosterone antagonists and calcium channel blockers, selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB (or both) and nitrate plus ACEi or ARB (or both), and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists and selective aldosterone antagonists. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of aldosterone antagonists when added to ACEi or ARB (or both) on the risks of death, major cardiovascular events, and kidney failure in people with proteinuric CKD are uncertain. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce proteinuria, eGFR, and systolic blood pressure in adults who have mild to moderate CKD but may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and gynaecomastia when added to ACEi and/or ARB.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Canrenona/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22590, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will investigate the efficacy and safety of spironolactone for the treatment of acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: The following electronic databases will be retrieved in PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, CBM, CNKI, and VIP database from inception through present. Two researchers will independently screen and assess the obtained literatures and extract outcome data. All study methodological quality will be assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool, and all statistical analysis will be performed by RevMan 5.3 software. Additionally, we will undertake a narrative synthesis if it is possible. RESULTS: This study will sum-marize most recent evidence to investigate the efficacy and safety of spironolactone for the treatment of AHF. CONCLUSION: This study will seek to assess the efficacy and safety of spironolactone for treating AHF. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: INPLASY202070053.


Assuntos
Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
Life Sci ; 259: 118352, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860804

RESUMO

AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammatory cholestasis by impairing expression, localization, and function of carriers involved in bile formation, e.g. bile salt export pump (Bsep) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). A specific therapy against this disease is still lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the anticholestatic effects of spironolactone (SL), a PXR ligand that regulates bile salt homeostasis, up-regulates Mrp2, and bears anti-inflammatory properties. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control, SL (83.3 mg/kg/day of SL, i.p., for 3 days), LPS (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., at 8 am of the last 2 days, and 1.5 mg/kg/day at 8 pm of the last day), and SL + LPS. Biliary and plasma parameters and the expression, function, and localization of Mrp2 and Bsep were evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: SL partially prevented LPS-induced drop of basal bile flow by normalizing the bile salt-independent fraction of bile flow (BSIBF), via improvement of glutathione output. This was due to a recovery in Mrp2 transport function, the major canalicular glutathione transporter, estimated by monitoring the output of its exogenously administered substrate dibromosulfophthalein. SL counteracted the LPS-induced downregulation of Mrp2, but not that of Bsep, at both mRNA and protein levels. LPS induced endocytic internalization of both transporters, visualized by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy, and SL partially prevented this relocalization. SL did not prevent the increase in IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α plasma levels. SIGNIFICANCE: SL prevents the impairment in Mrp2 expression and localization, and the resulting recovery of Mrp2 function normalizes the BSIBF by improving glutathione excretion.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Colestase/sangue , Colestase/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21694, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all available evidence from randomized controlled trial studies regarding the clinical efficacy and safety of spironolactone in patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and provided a quantitative assessment. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases through December 8, 2019, was performed. Randomized controlled trials randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria were included to assess the effect of the addition of spironolactone on office blood pressure (BP), 24-hour ambulatory BP or adverse events in RH patients. RESULTS: Twelve trials, which enrolled a total of 1655 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. In comparison with placebo, spironolactone significantly reduced office BP (office SBP, weighted mean difference [WMD] = -20.14, 95% CI = -31.17 to -9.12, P < .001; office DBP WMD = -5.73, 95% CI = -8.13 to -3.33, P < .001) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ASBP, WMD = -10.31, 95% CI = -12.86 to -7.76, P < .001; ADBP, WMD = -3.94, 95% CI = -5.50 to -2.37, P < .001). Compared with alternative drugs, spironolactone treatment in RH patients significantly decreased 24-hour ambulatory BP (ASBP, WMD = -6.98, 95% CI = -12.66 to -1.30, P < .05; ADBP, WMD = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.21 to -0.85, P < .001). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis fully evaluated the antihypertensive effect of spironolactone compared with placebo, alternative drugs, renal nerve denervation and no treatment. Spironolactone can result in a substantial BP reduction in patients with RH at 3 months.


Assuntos
Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110112, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721806

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), four major factors have been correlated with worse prognosis: aging, hypertension, obesity, and exposure to androgen hormones. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) action are critical for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry and infectivity. ACE2 expression and RAAS are abnormal in hypertension and obesity, while TMPRSS2 is overexpressed when exposed to androgens, which may justify why these factors are overrepresented in COVID-19. Among therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2, we hypothesized that spironolactone, a long used and safe mineralocorticoid and androgen receptors antagonist, with effective anti-hypertensive, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-androgenic properties may offer pleiotropic actions in different sites to protect from COVID-19. Current data shows that spironolactone may concurrently mitigate abnormal ACE2 expression, correct the balances membrane-attached and free circulating ACE2 and between angiotensin II and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), suppress androgen-mediated TMPRSS2 activity, and inhibit obesity-related RAAS dysfunctions, with consequent decrease of viral priming. Hence, spironolactone may provide protection from SARS-CoV-2, and has sufficient plausibility to be clinically tested, particularly in the early stages of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 129: 46-52, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563496

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have a significantly elevated risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, few imaging data have been correlated to this risk. We evaluated the value of multiple echocardiographic markers of left ventricular (LV) function to predict SCD in HFpEF patients. The Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction with Aldosterone Trial (TOPCAT)-Americas cohort was used to evaluate the echocardiographic predictors of SCD and/or aborted cardiac arrest (SCD/ACA). A retrospective cohort design was used. Cox proportional hazards and Poisson regression models were used to determine the associations between the risk of SCD/ACA and echocardiographic parameters: diastolic dysfunction grade, left ventricle ejection fraction, and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) during follow-up. Impaired left ventricle ejection fraction and GLS were associated with SCD/ACA in univariate models (p = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively), but not diastolic function grade. After multivariate adjustment, only GLS remained a significant predictor of the incidence rate of SCD/ACA (p = 0.006). There was a 58% increase in the hazard of incident SCD/ACA for every 1 unit increase in GLS (1.58, 95%CI: 1.12 to 2.22, p = 0.009). These findings remained robust in the competing risk analyses. In conclusion, amongst the multiple echocardiographic parameters of LV function, GLS may help prognosticate the risk of SCD/ACA in HFpEF patients.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
12.
Transl Res ; 222: 17-27, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438071

RESUMO

The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone significantly reduces albuminuria in subjects with diabetic kidney disease, albeit with a large variability between individuals. Identifying novel biomarkers that predict response to therapy may help to tailor spironolactone therapy. We aimed to identify a set of metabolites for prediction of albuminuria response to spironolactone in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Systems biology molecular process analysis was performed a priori to identify metabolites linked to molecular disease processes and drug mechanism of action. Individual subject data and urine samples were used from 2 randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials (NCT01062763, NCT00381134). A urinary metabolite score was developed to predict albuminuria response to spironolactone therapy using penalized ridge regression with leave-one-out cross validation. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 18 metabolites linked to a diabetic kidney disease molecular model and potentially affected by spironolactone mechanism of action. Spironolactone reduced UACR relative to placebo by median -42% (25th to 75% percentile -65 to 6) and -29% (25th to 75% percentile -37 to -1) in the test and replication cohorts, respectively. In the test cohort, UACR reduction was higher in the lowest tertile of the baseline urinary metabolite score compared with middle and upper tertiles -58% (25th to 75% percentile -78 to 33), -28% (25th to 75% percentile -46 to 8), -40% (25th to 75% percentile -52% to 31), respectively, P = 0.001 for trend). In the replication cohort, UACR reduction was -54% (25th to 75% percentile -65 to -50), -41 (25th to 75% percentile -46% to 30), and -17% (25th to 75% percentile -36 to 5), respectively, P = 0.010 for trend). We identified a set of 18 urinary metabolites through systems biology to predict albuminuria response to spironolactone in type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that urinary metabolites may be used as a tool to tailor optimal therapy and move in the direction of personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminúria/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Metaboloma , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Albuminas/análise , Creatinina/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biologia de Sistemas
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 13044-13055, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434920

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with epithelial and lymphoid malignancies, establishes latent infection in memory B cells, and intermittently produces infectious virions through lytic replication. Released virions play a key role in latent reservoir maintenance and transmission. Lytic EBV transcription differs from cellular transcription in requiring a virus-encoded preinitiation complex that binds to TATT motifs unique to EBV late lytic promoters. Expression of 15 late lytic genes that are important for virion production and infectivity is particularly dependent on the EBV SM protein, a nuclear protein expressed early during lytic reactivation that binds to viral RNAs and enhances RNA stability. We recently discovered that spironolactone blocks EBV virion production by inhibiting EBV SM function. Since spironolactone causes degradation of xeroderma pigmentosum group B-complementing protein (XPB), a component of human transcription factor TFIIH, in both B lymphocytes and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that SM utilizes XPB to specifically activate transcription of SM target promoters. While EBV SM has been thought to act posttranscriptionally, we provide evidence that SM also facilitates EBV gene transcription. We demonstrate that SM binds and recruits XPB to EBV promoters during lytic replication. Depletion of XPB protein, by spironolactone treatment or by siRNA transfection, inhibits SM-dependent late lytic gene transcription but not transcription of other EBV genes or cellular genes. These data indicate that SM acts as a transcriptional activator that has co-opted XPB to specifically target 15 EBV promoters that have uniquely evolved to require XPB for activity, providing an additional mechanism to differentially regulate EBV gene expression.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/metabolismo
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 68, 2020 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting about 10% of women in reproductive age and associated with a variety of hormonal abnormalities, including hyperandrogenemia and infertility, all of which could lead to PCOS. Statins were previously introduced as a therapeutic option for reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS, either alone or in combination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different statins alone or in combination with metformin in reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies that investigated the efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone, or combined oral contraceptives (COCs), individually or in combination, in reducing the testosterone level in patients with PCOS. The search was limited to randomized clinical trials and conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses - extension statement for network meta-analyses (PRISMA-NMA). The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias (RoB) assessment tool. A frequentist network meta-analysis using random-effects models was used to assess the efficacy in reducing testosterone level and were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible interval (95%Crl). All statistical analyses were performed using netmeta Version 1.0 on R statistical package. RESULT: Nine RCTs involving 613 patients were included. Atorvastatin showed greater reduction in testosterone level compared to COC (MD -2.78, 95%CrI -3.60, -1.97), spironolactone plus metformin (MD -2.83, 95%CrI -3.80, -1.87), simvastatin (MD -2.88, 95%CrI -3.85, -1.92), spironolactone (MD -2.90, 95%CI -3.77, -2.02), simvastatin plus metformin (MD -2.93, 95%CrI -3.79, -2.06), metformin (MD -2.97, 95%CrI -3.69, -2.25), lifestyle modification (MD -3.02, 95%CrI -3.87, -2.18), and placebo (MD -3.04, 95%CrI -3.56, -2.53). CONCLUSION: Atorvastatin was found to be more effective than the other management strategies in reducing the total testosterone level for patients with PCOS. Future studies should focus on the optimal dose.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Testosterona
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(6): 1005-1013, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potassium-wasting (loop diuretics [LD]) and potassium-sparing (spironolactone) medications used for heart failure (HF) may alter renal potassium handling and confound the use of twenty-four-hour (24-h) urine collections as a surrogate marker for potassium intake, an effect that has been observed with dietary sodium assessment. The objective was to determine the strength of association between 24-h urine collections and weighed food records in assessing potassium intake in HF patients stratified by LD usage and spironolactone usage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Stable outpatients with HF simultaneously completed two 24-h urine collections and two weighed food records on consecutive days. Analyses compared patients stratified by LD and/or spironolactone use. Pearson's correlation and the Bland-Altman method of agreement assessed the relationship between the techniques. Overall, 109 patients (61 ± 11 yrs, 74% male) were included. The mean difference in dietary potassium estimated between 24-h urine collections and food records was -353 ± 1043 mg (p < 0.01) for all patients, with no differences between measures among subgroups. The association between the two methods was r = 0.551 (95% CI, 0.373 to 0.852, p < 0.001) for LD users; r = 0.287 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.570, p = 0.050) for LD non-users; r = 0.321 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.798, p = 0.043) for spironolactone users, and; r = 0.534 (95% CI, 0.331 to 0.747, p < 0.001) for spironolactone non-users. There were no significant mean biases identified as part of the Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSION: Among HF patients, potassium-wasting and potassium-sparing medications do not influence the agreement between the two methods in the assessment of potassium intake.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Nutricional , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Potássio na Dieta/urina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Eliminação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Urinálise , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(11): 1655-1660, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273054

RESUMO

The TOPCAT trial investigated spironolactone vs placebo in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the primary endpoint was not statistically significant, treatment with spironolactone did reduce heart failure hospitalizations compared with placebo. TOPCAT's impact on prescribing patterns in the United States is not well-characterized. We performed a retrospective analysis of discharge prescribing data in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry among patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% discharged between January 2009 and December 2016 to assess prescribing trends upon dissemination of TOPCAT results. Of 142,201 patients included in the study, 18,581 (13.1%) were prescribed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) at discharge. Compared with those not prescribed MRAs, patients discharged on MRAs were generally younger (75 vs 78 years), and report white race (76.7% vs 72.0%), more likely to have had prior heart failure hospitalizations (75.5% vs 65.7%), lower brain natriuretic peptide levels (492 vs 545 pg/mL), but similar serum creatinine levels (1.2 vs 1.2 mg/dL) upon admission. MRA prescribing modestly increased over time (p <0.0001), without significant change in the overall trend of prescribing rate for MRAs after TOPCAT results were presented (p =0.17). In conclusion, our findings suggest that for patients with HFpEF, the use of MRAs at hospital discharge is low, with only modest increases over time and no discernible change in the rate of MRA use after the TOPCAT results were released. There remains an important need for more clinical trials to better establish the efficacy and safety of MRAs for the treatment of HFpEF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
19.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(4): 313-323, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195612

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La hiperpotasemia es una preocupación creciente en el tratamiento de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y fracción de eyección reducida, pues limita el uso de fármacos eficaces. Este trabajo ofrece estimaciones de la magnitud de este problema en la práctica clínica habitual en España, los cambios en las concentraciones de potasio en el seguimiento y los factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (n=881) y crónica (n=3.587) seleccionados en 28 hospitales españoles del registro europeo de insuficiencia cardiaca de la European Society of Cardiology y seguidos 1 año para diferentes desenlaces, incluidos cambios en las cifras de potasio y su impacto en el tratamiento. RESULTADOS: La hiperpotasemia (K+> 5,4 mEq/l) está presente en el 4,3% (IC95%, 3,7-5,0%) y el 8,2% (6,5-10,2%) de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica y aguda; causa el 28,9% de todos los casos en que se contraindica el uso de antagonistas del receptor de mineralocorticoides y el 10,8% de los que no alcanzan la dosis objetivo. Del total de 2.693 pacientes ambulatorios con fracción de eyección reducida, 291 (10,8%) no tenían registrada medición de potasio. Durante el seguimiento, 179 de 1.431 (12,5%, IC95%, 10,8-14,3%) aumentaron su concentración de potasio, aumento relacionado directamente con la edad, la diabetes mellitus y los antecedentes de ictus e inversamente con los antecedentes de hiperpotasemia. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo destaca el problema de la hiperpotasemia en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca de la práctica clínica habitual y la necesidad de continuar y mejorar la vigilancia de este factor en estos pacientes por su interferencia en el tratamiento óptimo


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperkalemia is a growing concern in the treatment of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction because it limits the use of effective drugs. We report estimates of the magnitude of this problem in routine clinical practice in Spain, as well as changes in potassium levels during follow-up and associated factors. METHODS: This study included patients with acute (n=881) or chronic (n=3587) heart failure recruited in 28 Spanish hospitals of the European heart failure registry of the European Society of Cardiology and followed up for 1 year. Various outcomes were analyzed, including changes in serum potassium levels and their impact on treatment. RESULTS: Hyperkalemia (K+> 5.4 mEq/L) was identified in 4.3% (95%CI, 3.7%-5.0%) and 8.2% (6.5%-10.2%) of patients with chronic and acute heart failure, respectively, and was responsible for 28.9% of all cases of contraindication to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist use and for 10.8% of all cases of failure to reach the target dose. Serum potassium levels were not recorded in 291 (10.8%) of the 2693 chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. During follow-up, potassium levels increased in 179 of 1431 patients (12.5%, 95%CI, 10.8%-14.3%). This increase was directly related to age, diabetes, and history of stroke and was inversely related to history of hyperkalemia. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the magnitude of the problem of hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure in everyday clinical practice and the need to improve monitoring of this factor in these patients due to its interference with the possibility of receiving optimal treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio/sangue , Registros , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Incidência , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(4): 301-312, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria is an early sign of kidney disease in people with diabetes and indicates increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We tested whether a urinary proteomic risk classifier (CKD273) score was associated with development of microalbuminuria and whether progression to microalbuminuria could be prevented with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study with embedded randomised controlled trial (PRIORITY), we recruited people with type 2 diabetes, normal urinary albumin excretion, and preserved renal function from 15 specialist centres in ten European countries. All participants (observational cohort) were tested with the CKD273 classifier and classified as high risk (CKD273 classifier score >0·154) or low risk (≤0·154). Participants who were classified as high risk were entered into a randomised controlled trial and randomly assigned (1:1), by use of an interactive web-response system, to receive spironolactone 25 mg once daily or matched placebo (trial cohort). The primary endpoint was development of confirmed microalbuminuria in all individuals with available data (observational cohort). Secondary endpoints included reduction in incidence of microalbuminuria with spironolactone (trial cohort, intention-to-treat population) and association between CKD273 risk score and measures of impaired renal function based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; observational cohort). Adverse events (particularly gynaecomastia and hyperkalaemia) and serious adverse events were recorded for the intention-to-treat population (trial cohort). This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 20120-004523-4) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02040441) and is completed. FINDINGS: Between March 25, 2014, and Sept 30, 2018, we enrolled and followed-up 1775 participants (observational cohort), 1559 (88%) of 1775 participants had a low-risk urinary proteomic pattern and 216 (12%) had a high-risk pattern, of whom 209 were included in the trial cohort and assigned to spironolactone (n=102) or placebo (n=107). The overall median follow-up time was 2·51 years (IQR 2·0-3·0). Progression to microalbuminuria was seen in 61 (28%) of 216 high-risk participants and 139 (9%) of 1559 low-risk participants (hazard ratio [HR] 2·48, 95% CI 1·80-3·42; p<0·0001, after adjustment for baseline variables of age, sex, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, retinopathy, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR], and eGFR). Development of impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1·73 m2) was seen in 48 (26%) of 184 high-risk participants and 119 (8%) of 1423 low-risk participants (HR 3·50; 95% CI 2·50-4·90, after adjustment for baseline variables). A 30% decrease in eGFR from baseline (post-hoc endpoint) was seen in 42 (19%) of 216 high-risk participants and 62 (4%) of 1559 low-risk participants (HR 5·15, 95% CI 3·41-7·76; p<0·0001, after adjustment for basline eGFR and UACR). In the intention-to-treat trial cohort, development of microalbuminuria was seen in 35 (33%) of 107 in the placebo group and 26 (25%) of 102 in the spironolactone group (HR 0·81, 95% CI 0·49-1·34; p=0·41). In the safety analysis (intention-to-treat trial cohort), events of plasma potassium concentrations of more than 5·5 mmol/L were seen in 13 (13%) of 102 participants in the spironolactone group and four (4%) of 107 participants in the placebo group, and gynaecomastia was seen in three (3%) participants in the spironolactone group and none in the placebo group. One patient died in the placebo group due to a cardiac event (considered possibly related to study drug) and one patient died in the spironolactone group due to cancer, deemed unrelated to study drug. INTERPRETATION: In people with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, a high-risk score from the urinary proteomic classifier CKD273 was associated with an increased risk of progression to microalbuminuria over a median of 2·5 years, independent of clinical characteristics. However, spironolactone did not prevent progression to microalbuminuria in high-risk patients. FUNDING: European Union Seventh Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica , Resultado do Tratamento
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