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1.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51937

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Mexico’s 2018 Report Card evaluates the opportunities available for Mexican children and youth to reach healthy levels of physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behavior. Methods. The Report Card is a surveillance system that gathers data from national surveys, censuses, government documents, websites, grey literature, and published studies to evaluate 16 indicators in four categories: Daily Behaviors; Physical Fitness; Settings and Sources of Influence; and Strategies and Investments. Data were compared to established benchmarks. Each indicator was assigned a grade from 1 – 10 (< 6 is a failing grade) or “incomplete” if data was insufficient/unavailable. Results. Daily Behavior grades were: Overall Physical Activity, 4; Organized Sport Participation, 5; Active Play, 3; Active Transportation, 5; Sleep, 7; and Sedentary Behavior, 3. Physical Fitness, received a 7. Settings and Sources of Influence grades were: Family and Peers, incomplete; School, 3; and Community and Environment, 4. Strategies and Investments were: Government Strategies, 6; and Non-Government Organizations, 2. Conclusion. Low grades in 11 of the 16 indicators indicate that schools, families, communities, and government need to work together to improve physical activity opportunities for children and youth in Mexico.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. El boletín de notas de México correspondiente al 2018 evalúa las oportunidades a disposición de la población infantil y joven mexicana para que puedan desarrollar niveles adecuados de actividad física y sueño, y disminuyan el sedentarismo. Métodos. El boletín es un sistema de vigilancia que recopila los datos obtenidos en las encuestas nacionales, censos, documentos gubernamentales, sitios web, literatura gris y estudios publicados con respecto al análisis de 16 indicadores en 4 categorías: comportamientos diarios, estado físico, entornos y fuentes influyentes, y estrategias e inversión. Los datos fueron cotejados con los puntos de referencia establecidos. A cada indicador se le asignó una calificación entre 1 y 10 (< 6 significa reprobado) o fue marcado como “incompleto” si los datos eran nulos o insuficientes. Resultados. Las calificaciones obtenidas para los comportamientos diarios fueron: actividad física en general: 4; participación en actividades deportivas organizadas: 5; juego activo: 3; modalidades de transporte activas: 5; sueño: 7; y sedentarismo: 3. El estado físico obtuvo un 7. Las calificaciones para los entornos y fuentes influyentes fueron: familiares y pares: “incompleto”; escuela: 3; comunidad y entorno: 4. Para las estrategias e inversión: estrategias gubernamentales: 6; entidades no gubernamentales: 2. Conclusiones. Las bajas calificaciones obtenidas en 11 de los 16 indicadores demuestran que las escuelas, las familias, las comunidades y el gobierno tienen que aunar esfuerzos para mejorar las oportunidades que tiene la población infantil y joven en México para desarrollar niveles de actividad física satisfactorios.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. O Report Card de 2018 para o México avalia as oportunidades disponíveis para que crianças e jovens mexicanos atinjam níveis adequados de atividade física, sono e comportamento sedentário. Métodos. O Report Card é um sistema de vigilância que reúne dados de pesquisas nacionais, censos, documentos governamentais, websites, literatura cinzenta e estudos publicados para avaliar 16 indicadores em quatro categorias: Comportamentos Diários, Forma Física, Ambientes e Influências, e Estratégias e Investimentos. Os dados foram comparados com indicadores de referência estabelecidos. A cada indicador foi atribuída uma pontuação de 1 a 10 (pontuações abaixo de 6 indicam reprovação) ou "incompleta" se os dados fossem insuficientes/indisponíveis. Resultados. As pontuações para o Comportamento Diário foram as seguintes: atividade física geral: 4; participação em esportes organizados: 5; brincadeiras ativas: 3; transporte ativo: 5; sono: 7; comportamento sedentário: 3. A pontuação para a Forma Física foi de 7. As pontuações para Ambientes e Influências foram: família e amigos, incompleta; escola: 3; comunidade e ambiente: 4. As pontuações para Estratégias e Investimentos foram: estratégias governamentais: 6; organizações não-governamentais: 2. Conclusão. As pontuações baixas em 11 dos 16 indicadores indicam que as escolas, famílias, comunidades e o governo precisam trabalhar juntos para oferecer mais oportunidades de atividade física às crianças e jovens no México.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , México , Aptidão Física , Saúde da Criança , Esportes Juvenis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 626-643, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019419

RESUMO

The present study examined the psychometric properties of the coach-adapted version of the Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) using Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM). The sample included 780 (Mage = 36.4; SD = 10.8; males n = 698; females n = 54; 28 participants did not report sex) youth sport coaches representing five European countries (i.e., England, France, Greece, Norway, and Spain). The results did not support a 34-item five-factor, hierarchical, a two-factor BSEM, or a bifactor BSEM model across the participating countries. However, the results supported a reduced 19-item first-order, two-factor BSEM model that largely showed approximate metric invariance, but not approximate scalar invariance across the five countries. The pool of items constituting empowering and disempowering motivational climates should be refined to further enhance the empirical operationalisation of the coach-adapted version of the EDMCQ. Advancing the quality of translation-back-translation procedures across cultures and conducting multi-national pilot testing seems warranted as well. These recommendations may help to identify the distinctive aspects of each underlying sub-dimension of the EDMCQ, where coaches are the respondents, and pave the way for further examination of the proposed hierarchical multidimensional factor structure and the cross-cultural equivalence of the EDMCQ for this population.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Comparação Transcultural , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Autoimagem
4.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 36-42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant evidence has emerged that sport specialization is associated with an increased risk of overuse injury in youth athletes. Several recommendations exist to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports, but the risk of overuse injuries may be dependent on specific movements required by a given sport. HYPOTHESES: Associations between specialized sport participation and overuse injury will exist in volleyball athletes but not soccer or basketball athletes. Female athletes will be more likely to report an overuse injury in the previous year, regardless of sport. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Youth athletes between the ages of 12 and 18 years were recruited in-person at club team tournaments, competitions, and events around the state of Wisconsin during the 2016-2017 school year. Participants were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that consisted of (1) participant demographics, (2) sport specialization status, (3) monthly and weekly sport volume, and (4) sport-related injury history in the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 716 youth athletes completed the questionnaire (70.8% female; mean age, 14.21 ± 1.50 years; 43.2% basketball, 19.4% soccer, 37.4% volleyball; 41.8% highly specialized; 32.3% reported overuse injury in the previous year). Sex was associated with overuse injury among basketball athletes, with female basketball athletes nearly 4 times more likely to report an overuse injury compared with male basketball athletes (odds ratio, [OR], 3.7; 95% CI, 2.1-6.6; P < 0.001). High specialization (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9; P = 0.02) and participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P < 0.05) were associated with overuse injury only among volleyball athletes. CONCLUSION: Specialization and exceeding 8 months per year in a single sport was associated with overuse injury in volleyball, which is one of the most popular youth sports for female athletes. Specialization was not associated with overuse injury in basketball or soccer athletes. Female basketball athletes were nearly 4 times more likely to report a history of overuse injury compared with male basketball athletes. The sex of a youth athlete and the sport that he or she plays may influence the risk of overuse injury associated with sport specialization. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware that the potential risks of specialization might vary based on the athlete's sport and sex.


Assuntos
Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/etiologia , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Adolescente , Basquetebol/lesões , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Futebol/lesões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voleibol/lesões
5.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(3): 168-175, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe injuries and illnesses across traditional and new sports among the participating athletes of the Buenos Aires 2018 Youth Olympic Summer Games (BA YOG) (6-18 October 2018). METHODS: We recorded the daily number of athlete injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues manned by the BA YOG 2018 medical staff. RESULTS: In total, 3.984 athletes from 206 NOCs were observed. NOCs and BA YOG 2018 medical staff reported 619 injuries and 334 illnesses, equalling 15.5 injuries and 8.4 illnesses per 100 athletes over the 13-day period. The eight new sports on the Youth Olympic programme (futsal, beach handball, karate, roller speed skating, kitesurfing, BMX freestyle, climbing and break dancing) fell in between the other sports with respect to injury and illness risk. Injury incidence was highest in rugby (43% of all rugby players), followed by boxing (33%) and badminton (24%), and lowest in swimming, archery, roller speed skating, equestrian, climbing and rowing (<5%). The highest incidences of illness were recorded in golf (20%), followed by triathlon (16%), beach volleyball and diving (both 14%). Of the illnesses, 50% affected the respiratory system and 15% the gastrointestinal system. Injury and illness incidences varied between continents with athletes representing Europe having significantly fewer injuries and illnesses compared with other continents, apart from a similar illness incidence to Asian athletes. CONCLUSION: The overall injury incidence of 15.5 injuries per 100 athletes was higher, while the overall illness incidence of 8.4 illnesses per 100 athletes was similar to previous youth and Olympic Games. The new sports did not differ significantly compared with the other sports with respect to injury and illness risk.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Doença , Esportes Juvenis/classificação , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Adolescente , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
6.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(3): 176-182, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about athletes' understanding of safe sport and occurrence of harassment and abuse in elite youth sport. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the IOC Safe Sport educational experience at the Youth Olympic Games 2018 in Buenos Aires and to ascertain the athletes' (1) understanding of what constitutes harassment and abuse, (2) perception of the occurrence in their sport, and (3) knowledge of where to report. METHODS: Athletes visiting the IOC Safe Sport Booth answered a survey related to athletes' (1) understanding of harassment and abuse in sport, (2) perception of the occurrence of harassment and abuse in their sport, and (3) knowledge of where to report. Experts and volunteers answered an email survey on their experience. RESULTS: The response rate was 71.8%. When asked to define 'safe sport', the athletes mainly relate the concept to general physical and environmental safety, fair play and clean sport, rather than sport free from harassment and abuse. Almost half (46%) of the athletes expressed surprise by the definition of behaviours of harassment and abuse within sport. When asked if harassment and/or abuse occur in their sport, 47.5% reported 'no' or 'not likely', while 34% stated 'likely' or 'very likely'; 19% were 'unsure'. The majority (63%) of athletes knew where to seek help. Three quarters (71%) of the athletes rated the educational materials as 'good' to 'excellent'. The experts and volunteers believed the intervention would result in change in athletes' awareness, knowledge and behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This multinational cohort of elite youth athletes is not knowledgeable of the concept of harassment and abuse in sport, despite there being a significant perception of occurrence of harassment and abuse in their sports.


Assuntos
Assédio não Sexual , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Segurança , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 12-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how existing youth injury prevention programs affect specific modifiable injury risk factors will inform future program development for youth athletes. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the effects of injury prevention programs on the modifiable intrinsic risk factors associated with lower extremity performance in youth athletes. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A systematic search of the literature was performed using multiple databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost [including CINAHL, Medline, and SPORTDiscus], and PEDro). Secondary references were appraised for relevant articles. Article types included randomized or cluster randomized controlled trials and randomized cohort designs with youth athletes engaged in organized sports, along with outcomes that included at least 1 physical performance outcome measure. STUDY SELECTION: Eight studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers, with a third consulted in the case of disagreement, which was not needed. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. DATA EXTRACTION: Included studies underwent review of methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. RESULTS: Studies included mixed-sex samples of youth athletes who predominantly participated in soccer at different skill levels. The FIFA 11+ series was the most commonly used injury prevention program. Among studies, the mean percentage of improvement identified was 11.3% for force generation, 5.7% for coordination, 5.2% for posture, and 5.2% for balance. The lowest mean percentage improvement was in speed (2.2%). Endurance was not significantly affected by any of the programs. CONCLUSION: This systematic review shows that injury prevention programs improve several modifiable intrinsic risk factors of lower extremity performance among youth athletes, particularly force generation. However, several intrinsic risk factors were either not significantly affected or specifically addressed by existing programs.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco
10.
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2909-2912, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644516

RESUMO

Cordingley, DM, Sirant, L, MacDonald, PB, and Leiter, JR. Three-year longitudinal fitness tracking in top-level competitive youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2909-2912, 2019-The purpose of this retrospective review was to report the physical and physiological development of top-level competitive male youth hockey players for 3 consecutive years (13, 14, and 15 years of age). Before each hockey season, the athletes (n = 103) underwent a fitness testing combine to assess aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness. The tests performed included the height, body mass, body fat percentage determined by skinfolds, push-ups, chin-ups, plank, broad jump, grip strength 20-m shuttle run, Wingate bike test, and 5-10-5 shuttle test. Height and body mass increased with each consecutive year (p < 0.05) with no change in body fat percentage. Chin-ups, broad jump, and grip strength all improved with age (p < 0.001). However, push-ups only improved from 13 to 14 years of age (p < 0.001), whereas maximal plank duration decreased from 14 to 15 years of age (p < 0.05). The total distance covered during the 20-m shuttle run decreased from 14 to 15 years of age (p < 0.05). Absolute peak and average power increased with each age increase (p < 0.001), but relative peak and average power only increased from 13 to 14 years of age (p < 0.05). There was no change in the fatigue index with age. The 5-10-5 shuttle test improved with each age increase (p < 0.05). Over a 3-year period (13-15 years of age), there are many physical and physiological changes that occur in top-level competitive male hockey players. Having a better understanding of how these athletes develop could aid in the implementation of specific on- and off-ice training programs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Atletas , Hóquei/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Antropometria , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esportes Juvenis
12.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1074-1082, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633408

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent studies suggested that a large population of high school-aged athletes participate on club sport teams. Despite attempts to document emergency preparedness in high school athletics, the adherence to emergency and medical coverage standards among club sport teams is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in emergency preparedness and training existed between coaches of high school teams and coaches of high school-aged club teams. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Online questionnaire. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 769 coaches (females = 266, 34.6%) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding their emergency preparedness and training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The questionnaire consisted of (1) demographics and team information, (2) emergency preparedness factors (automated external defibrillator [AED] availability, emergency action plan [EAP] awareness, medical coverage), and (3) emergency training requirements (cardiopulmonary resuscitation/AED, first aid). RESULTS: High school coaches were more likely than club sport coaches to be aware of the EAP for their practice venue (83.9% versus 54.4%, P < .001), but most coaches in both categories had not practiced their EAP in the past 12 months (70.0% versus 68.9%, P = .54). High school coaches were more likely to be made aware of the EAP during competitions (47.5% versus 37.1%, P = .02), but the majority of coaches in both categories indicated that they were never made aware of EAPs. High school coaches were more likely than club coaches to (1) have an AED available at practice (87.9% versus 58.8%, P < .001), (2) report that athletic trainers were responsible for medical care at practices (31.2% versus 8.8%, P < .001) and competitions (57.9% versus 31.2%, P < .001), and (3) be required to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation, AED, or first-aid training (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: High school coaches displayed much greater levels of emergency preparedness and training than coaches of high school-aged club teams. Significant attention and effort may be needed to address the lack of emergency preparedness and training observed in club coaches.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Desfibriladores/provisão & distribução , Tratamento de Emergência , Tutoria , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/organização & administração , Tutoria/normas , Competência Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades
13.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1083-1088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633410

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Sport specialization has been defined as year-round intensive training in a single sport to the exclusion of other sports. A commonly used survey tool created by Jayanthi et al, which classifies athletes as having a low, moderate, or high level of specialization, categorizes only athletes answering yes to "Have you quit other sports to focus on a main sport?" as highly specialized. We hypothesized that a measureable number of year-round, single-sport athletes have never played other sports and, therefore, may be inaccurately classified as moderately specialized when using this tool, even though most experts would agree they should be viewed as highly specialized. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of athletes misclassified as moderately rather than highly specialized because they never played a previous sport. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Hospital-based pediatric outpatient sports medicine clinic. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Injured athletes aged 12 to 17 years who presented to the clinic between 2015 and 2017 and completed a sports-participation survey (n = 917). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Sport-specialization level. RESULTS: Of 917 participants, 299 (32.6%) played a single sport more than 8 months per year, and 208/299 (69.6%) had previously quit other sports (highly specialized), whereas 91 (30.4%) had never played other sports (highly specialized and misclassified as moderate). Individual-sport athletes had a 2.03 times greater risk of being highly specialized and misclassified as moderate than team-sport athletes (relative risk = 2.03 [95% confidence interval = 1.37, 3.00]). Females had a 1.70 times greater risk of being misclassified as moderately specialized than males (relative risk 1.70 [95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.70]). Of the 3 sports with the largest number of athletes, artistic gymnastics had the highest proportion (51.2%) who had never played other sports. CONCLUSIONS: The commonly used specialization survey misclassified a substantial number of highly specialized athletes as moderately specialized. Researchers should consider adding a fourth survey question, "Have you only ever played 1 sport?" to identify and better study this unique subset of misclassified athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Comportamento de Escolha , Especialização , Medicina Esportiva , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Atletas/classificação , Atletas/psicologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ginástica/psicologia , Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Estados Unidos , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Esportes Juvenis/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1030-1039, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633409

RESUMO

A significant number of adolescent athletes throughout the world participate in various throwing-dominant sports, including but not limited to baseball, cricket, handball, softball, track and field throwing events, and water polo. Due to the unique stresses placed on the throwing arm and entire body in these sports, a robust volume of literature has highlighted concerns about sport specialization in these athletes and an associated increased risk of injury, particularly to the dominant shoulder and elbow, with sport specialization. This review will highlight the evidence-based literature for this athletic niche, focusing on risk factors for injury, national and international organizations' recommendations for limiting overuse injuries, principles of conditioning and rehabilitative programs, and potential future areas of research to curb the growing incidence of throwing-related injuries among adolescent throwing athletes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Beisebol/lesões , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Especialização , Atletismo/lesões , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Esportes Aquáticos/lesões , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/etiologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Esportes Juvenis/lesões
15.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1013-1020, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633411

RESUMO

Sport specialization was thought to affect a relatively small number of elite athletes, but it is now a common practice in youth sport culture. Recent research in the field of sport specialization has led to a better understanding of the influence this issue is having on youth (ie, younger than 19 years of age) today. This review focuses on sport specialization from a public health perspective to elucidate the effect that this practice is having within the United States. The specific goals of this review are to describe (1) the prevalence of sport specialization and the factors that may affect the decision to specialize, (2) the costs of youth sport-related injuries in the context of sport specialization, (3) the financial costs that sport specialization has for families, and (4) how sport specialization may be affecting physical literacy.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Saúde Pública/métodos , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Especialização/economia , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Esportes Juvenis/classificação , Esportes Juvenis/economia , Esportes Juvenis/lesões
16.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1067-1073, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633412

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Previous research has indicated that throwing sports expose athletes to overuse injuries and that specialization in sport is linked to injury. However, the effect of overexposure to a throwing sport on a dynamic movement task is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if sport specialization in youth throwing athletes affected performance on the single-legged squat (SLS). DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. SETTING: University research laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 49 youth baseball and softball athletes (23 baseball, 26 softball; age = 12.96 ± 2.32 years, height = 165.01 ± 13.05 cm, mass = 61.42 ± 13.04 kg) were recruited. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Participants were grouped into 3 categories based on specialization definitions: (1) 8 months or longer in season, (2) 8 months or longer in training, or (3) 8 months or longer in season and previously quit another sport. We measured SLS kinematics and used a set of 1-way multivariate analyses of variances to determine if trunk kinematics differed by group. RESULTS: Athletes who spent 8 months or more in sport-specific training exhibited significantly more trunk control, revealed by less trunk lateral flexion (Λ = 0.69, F6,38 = 2.89, P = .020) and less trunk flexion (Λ = 0.69, F6,38 = 2.88, P = .021) throughout an SLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results agree with the principle of specific adaptation to imposed demands. Surprisingly, athletes who spent 8 months or more playing a unilateral sport showed no differences in SLS performance. Clinicians should emphasize that neuromuscular adaptations of the lumbopelvic-hip complex for dynamic movement, such as an SLS, may be achieved through training instead of strict sport participation. Future researchers should consider how much of the training protocol is actually specialized for sport training.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beisebol , Movimento/fisiologia , Especialização , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Beisebol/lesões , Beisebol/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia
17.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1089-1094, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633413

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Early sports sampling is associated with superior biomechanics in youth athletes; however, the effect of multisport participation on adult biomechanics is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare jump-landing biomechanics between adult recreational athletes who previously participated in 0, 1, or 2 or more select high school varsity sports (VSs; basketball, lacrosse, soccer, volleyball) that feature landing and cutting tasks. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. SETTING: University community setting. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Fifty adult recreational athletes (22 women, 28 men; age = 23.8 ± 2.5 years) with no high school VS experience or with high school VS experience in basketball, lacrosse, soccer, or volleyball. Athletes were grouped into those who participated in 0 (0VS, n = 11), 1 (1VS, n = 21), or 2 or more (2VSs, n = 18) of these sports at the high school level. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The average Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) total score from 3 individual jump landings was determined. A 1-way analysis of covariance using sex as the covariate was calculated to compare groups. The Pearson R was used to test for the correlation between the LESS score and number of sports played, and a linear regression analysis was performed using the number of sports played to predict the LESS score. The α level was set a priori at .05. RESULTS: The 0VS athletes produced similar LESS scores as the 1VS athletes (5.89 ± 1.2 versus 5.38 ± 1.93 points, respectively, P = .463), whereas the 2VSs athletes demonstrated lower LESS scores (3.56 ± 1.97 points) than the 0VS (P = .002) and 1VS (P = .004) athletes. The LESS scores were moderately negatively correlated with the number of high school VSs played (R2 = -0.491, P < .001). The linear regression analysis was significant (F1,37 = 9.416, P = .004) with R2 = 0.203. For every additional VS played at the high school level, the LESS score decreased by 1.28 points. CONCLUSIONS: Landing Error Scoring System scores were lower in athletes who had a history of multisport high school varsity participation in basketball, lacrosse, soccer, or volleyball compared with those who had a history of single-sport or no participation in these sports at this level. Multisport high school varsity participation in these sports may result in improved neuromuscular performance and potentially reduced injury risks as adults.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Recreação/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Voleibol/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
18.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1050-1054, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633415

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Early single-sport specialization and the relative age effect are often cited as improving the chances of sport success. Both concepts suggest that genetics and the environment have little influence on sport success. OBJECTIVE: To compare National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes (SAs) with their undergraduate nonathlete peers (NAs) in terms of birth month, age of sport initiation, and age of single-sport specialization. A family history of sport participation was examined as a potential marker for genetic and social influences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Large urban university. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 273 Division I SAs (138 women, 135 men) and 155 NAs (78 women, 77 men) participated. The NAs had been involved in competitive youth sports before entering the university. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that addressed the age of sport initiation, birth month, age of single-sport specialization, and parental and sibling sport achievement. MAIN RESULTS: Neither birth month nor the age of sport initiation differed between groups (age of sport initiation = 7.16 ± 2.6 years for the SAs versus 7.71 ± 3.5 for the NAs; P = .176). A larger proportion of SAs began participating before 10 years of age (80% versus 63%; P = .02). The parents of SAs were more likely to have participated in collegiate (32.4% versus 8.4%; P < .0001) and professional (10.9% versus 1.3%; P = .0005) sports. The SAs specialized in a single sport at an older age (15.38 ± 2.7 years versus 14.30 ± 2.6 years; P = .002). Both groups participated in multiple sports in childhood (SAs = 3.9 ± 1.8 sports, NAs = 3.2 ± 1.8 sports; P = .366). CONCLUSIONS: The Division I SAs did not specialize in a single sport at a younger age than the NAs. No evidence of a relative age effect was present. Importantly, higher levels of sport achievement among the parents and siblings of SAs suggest that genetic endowment and family or other environmental dynamics play a large role in athletic performance. Overall, the results are not consistent with deliberate practice theory and point toward an alternative model that includes not only sport-specific skill development but also genetic and social factors as key elements of long-term sport achievement.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes Juvenis/estatística & dados numéricos , Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/normas , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1055-1060, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633416

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Previous researchers have identified sport specialization as being associated with various negative outcomes (eg, overuse injuries and adverse psychosocial outcomes). However, little is known regarding how the underlying attitudes, beliefs, and values of sport stakeholders may be shaping this trend. OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceptions of coaches in the high school versus club sport setting and compare their attitudes and behaviors toward sport specialization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 769 coaches (497 high school coaches, 272 club sport coaches). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Participants completed a novel measure that surveyed their perceptions regarding various aspects of youth sport specialization. Additionally, each coach completed a questionnaire detailing his or her relevant demographic and sport background information. RESULTS: High school coaches and club sport coaches differed in their perceptions of sport specialization (t767 = 1.41, P < .001); club coaches (2.43 ± 0.25) were more likely than high school coaches (2.31 ± 0.21) to rate specialization as a positive, adaptive practice. The multiple linear regression equations for both the high school and club coaches indicated that no educational, experiential, or demographic factors predicted coaches' perceptions of specialization (P values > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Club sport coaches were more likely to possess attitudes in favor of sport specialization. Additionally, coaches' background characteristics did not predict their perceptions of specialization, suggesting that the competitive context itself (high school versus club) may be the most salient influencer of these perceptions. Athletes and sports medicine practitioners should be aware of the heightened expectation of specialized participation and resulting increased injury risk in these contexts. Pediatric sport researchers and practitioners should continue to explore how these different group perceptions manifest in participation behaviors and may link to overall athlete health, wellbeing, and development.


Assuntos
Atitude , Tutoria/métodos , Percepção Social , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis , Adulto , Atletas/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Universidades , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Esportes Juvenis/normas
20.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1115-1122, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633417

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Sport specialization is thought to be a primary contributor to the throwing-related injury risk in youth baseball players. OBJECTIVE: To (1) establish arm-injury incidence in a cohort of male youth (9-12 years old) baseball players and (2) examine sport specialization and the frequency of arm injuries in the same cohort. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Greenville, South Carolina, youth baseball programs and tournaments. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 159 asymptomatic youth baseball players (age = 11.1 ± 1.1 years) were physically assessed and then were prospectively followed for 6.7 ± 1.5 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Athlete demographics and playing and injury histories were initially recorded. Athlete-exposures and presence of arm injury were prospectively tracked. All injuries were physically confirmed by a licensed physical therapist. RESULTS: Youth players demonstrated an arm-injury incidence rate of 2.22 per 1000 athlete-exposures. Parents and players underestimated sport-specialization status based on the standard research definition (self versus research based: 31% versus 83%, respectively; P = .001). The frequency of arm injuries was higher in specialized players (100%) than in nonspecialized players (80%, P = .03) but did not differ between pitchers and position players (13.2% each, P = 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Sport specialization was associated with throwing-related arm injuries in a small cohort of youth baseball players. It is concerning that 57.9% of parents and specialized players were unaware of the athletes' status. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to further evaluate injury-risk profiles in physically developing youth populations.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço , Beisebol/lesões , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Traumatismos do Braço/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Braço/etiologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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