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1.
Science ; 366(6464): 432, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649187
2.
Science ; 366(6464): 432, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649188
4.
Science ; 366(6464): 433-434, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649190
7.
Science ; 366(6464): 435, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649193
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 316-324, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive processes are important factors in the aetiology of pathological gambling and they are always important aspect of all gambling interventions. Among other things, the gamblers' decision-making process and persistence in gambling is under the influence of their perception of the importance of knowledge/skills versus luck in different gambling activities. In this study, we examine cognitive distortions of pathological gamblers and their perceptions on the significance of luck versus knowledge/skills in different games of chance. Effects of age and length of treatment are also examined. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 65 pathological gamblers at the gambling addicts' club in Zagreb were included in the study. Cognitive distortions were measured using a modified version of the Gambling related cognitive distortions scale (Ricijas et al. 2011). Participant thoughts on the role of luck versus knowledge/skills in games of chance were measured with a questionnaire especially designed for this study. All instruments were self-assessment questionnaires and anonymously filled out during a group sessions. RESULTS: In general, results showed moderate cognitive distortions in terms of gambling beliefs, but significant perception of the importance of knowledge/skills for some games, especially sports betting and card games. Younger patients and patients in treatment for longer period have lower illusion of control. Length of treatment also seem to effect gambling-related superstition beliefs and incorrect understanding of probability, as well as importance of knowledge/skills for success in sports betting and card games. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study lead to the indirect conclusion that length of treatment is a positive factor, which likely influences gamblers' cognitive distortions. This conclusion certainly requires additional examination using longitudinal studies, which would provide a better overview of whether these differences are in fact due to the length of treatment and also to confirm its value for future abstinence from gambling activities.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Fatores Etários , Cognição , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 545-552, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Animal welfare in equestrian sports is a very current and important topic for animal right groups as well as for the Swiss association for equestrian sports "Schweizerischer Verband für Pferdesport (SVPS)". The penalty commission "Sanktionskomission (SAKO)" of the SVPS reported only few to none cases of infringements of animal welfare provision on horses at a time in the past few years. This fact was criticised several times by different animal right groups in Switzerland. Therefore a survey was sent in 2017 to 544 active officials (horse show judges) of the SVPS. Overall, 146 answered questionnaires could be evaluated. The evaluation of the survey was able to confirm the statement of the animal right groups that the number of infringements of animal welfare provision is much higher than the number -handled by the SAKO. Altogether, 203 offences which are relevant in animal welfare were observed by the officials who participated in this survey in 2017. In contrast to these findings, no handled cases of infringements in animal welfare provision were published in the annual report 2017 of the SAKO. 178 of the 203 offences observed by the officials were addressed and reprimanded directly on the showground. The most common incidents which are relevant in animal welfare named by the officials in the survey were inappropriate, aggressive behaviour of the rider or driver and rough handling with artificial aids. A considerable part of the officials feels that the animal welfare situation on Swiss equestrian showgrounds is unsatisfying. An improvement of animal protection in Swiss equestrian sports can be achieved by raising the awareness for this topic of the officials as well as the equestrians and horse owners.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Cavalos , Esportes/ética , Animais , Suíça
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 114, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489092

RESUMO

Introduction: Sudden death that occurs during sporting activity affects patients with ignored heart disease. Black athlete's ECG has been little studied and the features of this ethnic group have been discussed. This study aims to study the epidemiological profile and the peculiarities of repolarization of black athletes. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study of black athletes selected among all the athletes followed in the sectoral Center of Sports Science and Medicine in Sousse over a period of 8 months from March to October 2014. Data were collected using a medical questionnaire. Results: Data on 35 athletes were collected, with a male predominance (94,28%), with an average age of 24,34 years. Four athletes had left ventricular hypertrophy on cardiac ultrasound. There were 8 athletes with atrioventricular block degree I and 8 athletes with electrical type of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). ST segment changes were more marked at the level of precordial leads. Five athletes (14.2%) had inverted T waves in V2 and V3. These were the same athletes who ST-segment depression in these same leads. Early repolarization was found in 3 athletes. All these cases had notch signaling. Conclusion: Black athletes have quite specific electrical modifications which are important to know. However, our sample is not sufficiently large to certify these results. A comparative study of white athletes would be very interesting.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Atletas , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita/prevenção & controle , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529188

RESUMO

Regular physical activity and good motor performance are the basis for healthy physical development in childhood and are considered a protective factor for various health risks. However, children and adolescents in Germany are not physically active enough because sedentary activities have increased. One consequence is the decline in motor capacity, the totality of structures and functions that are responsible for the performance of motor actions.In the second follow-up survey of the study on the health of children and adolescents in Germany (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), the motor performance (LF) of 4­ to 10-year-old children was examined with three motor tests: one-leg stand (EIN), stand and reach (RB), and jumping sideways (SHH). The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the tests and to compare them with data from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006). It also analyzes how motor performance differs in terms of different characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, obesity, and physical activity.Compared to the KiGGS baseline survey, the 4­ to 10-year-olds' motor performance in KiGGS Wave 2 has slightly improved in EIN, but RB and SHH are stagnating at low level. The test results indicate that middle and high social status, club sport activity, and "no overweight" are associated with above-average motor performance.Health policy, sports organizations, schools, and kindergartens should work together more closely so that all children have the same chance of good motor performance.


Assuntos
Exercício , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Atividade Motora
12.
Am J Bioeth ; 19(4): 22-23, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544676
13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1099-1101, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532958
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1084, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399029

RESUMO

The rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among people with low socioeconomic status (SES) has heightened awareness of the need for primary prevention programs in low-SES neighborhoods. Social inequity in health is apparent in mental, social and physical aspects of health among people living in low-SES neighborhoods. Viewing this problem from a life course perspective and adopting a vulnerable population approach points to the importance of inducing sustainable health behavior changes in children and young people living in low-SES neighborhoods. One important factor in lowering the risk of many NCDs while improving mental health is the promotion of physical activity (PA). In this paper, we argue that lowering the risk of many NCDs and improving mental health is best achieved through setting-based programs that facilitate long-term PA behavior changes in children and adolescents living in marginalized neighborhoods. Empirical evidence indicates that extrinsic motives for participating in physical activities, such as improving health, are insufficient when long-term participation is the goal. Therefore, we argue that interventions with the aim of affecting long-term PA in low-SES neighborhoods and thereby reducing social inequities in health should include activities that aim to create more intrinsic and autonomous motivations by building on more broad and positive understandings of health and participation. Here, we advocate that sports-based recreation (SR) holds several advantages. If implemented well, SR has the potential to be a health-promoting activity that is meaningful and motivating in itself and that involves physiological health-promoting aspects (e.g., PA), a social aspect (e.g., positive relations with others), and a psychological aspect (e.g., positive experiences of oneself). Further, we suggest four practicalities that should be considered when conducting interventions: the cost of participating, the location, the facilities required, and the suitability of the SR activities.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Áreas de Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1374-1379, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411825

RESUMO

In an alpine region, the winter season has a major impact on the daily practice of both an emergency department and a general practice. During the 2017-2018 season, we have listed the consultations caused by winter sports, whether traumatological or medical. The vast majority are ambulatory. Initial care and follow-up can usually be performed by a primary care physician. In this paper, we will outline the management of the knee and acromioclavicular sprain, two frequent lesions in the winter sports setting.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Clínicos Gerais , Esportes , Entorses e Distensões , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Medicina Esportiva
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1383-1386, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411826

RESUMO

Equestrian sports are widely practiced in Switzerland as hobbies. Horses are imposing and unpredictable. As a result, traumatisms associated with horseback riding are common and cause serious injuries. Cranial traumatisms are among the most frequently encountered injuries and are associated with high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Helmet use decreases the severity of intracranial lesions. Close contact with horses can lead to the development of infectious diseases and respiratory allergies. Although infrequent in Europe, these infections occur sporadically and should be known by general practitioners. Finally, horse's allergens sensitization is frequent in allergic patients with or without direct contact with horses.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Cavalos , Esportes , Animais , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suíça
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1387-1389, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411827

RESUMO

Airborne sports are becoming more popular, despite an increased risk of potentially serious accidents. Most accidents are caused by pilot errors, unforeseen climatic conditions or a poor environmental assessment. Cases caused by material defects are rare. Accidents often involve damage to the spine and lower limbs, with impaired functional prognosis. Implementation of safety regulations as well as the promotion of protection material has certainly allowed some reduction in the risk of accident, the emphasis on quality training must however be continued.


Assuntos
Esportes , Traumatologia , Acidentes , Suíça
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1390-1392, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411828

RESUMO

Sports and hobbies are important cause of accident and the incidence of reported traumatic brain injury is about 10 000 case/years in Switzerland. Hockey and handball are very high-risk contact sports. The term «â€…mild traumatic brain injury ¼ (mTBI) involves a patient with an initial Glasgow coma scale between 13 and 15. Signs and symptoms are variable and non-specific. They extend to loss of consciousness to neurocognitive disorders. TBI are potentially life threatening. Therefore, their management must be fast and effective in the emergency department. Long-term complications are also frequent and caregivers have to identify and support the patients who are at risk to develop post-concussion syndrome. Multidisciplinary supportive care and decision-making related to return to sport are necessary.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/etiologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/terapia , Suíça
19.
Harefuah ; 158(8): 506-508, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This editorial focuses on strength training, an integral part of the exercise prescription for children, adolescents and adults. While filling the complete exercise prescription of aerobic and strength components provides maximal health benefits, it is noteworthy that even performing only aerobic activities or strength training is still better than no activity. The exercise prescription should be individually tailored to every person, according to her/his preferences, physical or technical limitations, medical conditions, etc. Some prefer, or are limited to, strength training only. Such activities improve muscle strength and athletic capabilities, in children mostly via improved neuromuscular control, and in youth and adults through muscle hypertrophy as well. From a health perspective, strength training had only been associated with better cardiovascular risk profiles in youth and with reduced mortality risks in adults. Interventional studies demonstrated that such training improves cardiovascular risk and physical functioning in youth and in adults, in healthy individuals and in those with chronic health conditions. Undoubtedly, strength training is medicine.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exercício , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular
20.
Harefuah ; 158(8): 515-519, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407540

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The approach to strength training in children still suffers from reliance on misguided notions claiming them as being ineffective and more conducive to injuries than in adults. Not only are those notions wrong, but children's response to strength training is actually rather similar to that in adults, although they don't gain as much muscle mass. Under proper guidance and supervision, the resistance-training-related incidence of injury is not higher in children than in adults. Strength training has other benefits for children, beyond the actual strength improvement. It can help reduce the risk of activity-related injuries, in general, and especially in other sports. In overweight youth, it can also improve the metabolic profile and help in the management of conditions such as diabetes, contribute to the prevention or attenuation of obesity, and may even improve mental health.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Obesidade , Sobrepeso
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