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2.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 653-659, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030841

RESUMO

Physical activity is a key step in the management of diabetes, both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In diabetic subjects, it is recommended to practice 150 minutes of weekly physical activity spread over at least three days, with a maximum of two consecutive days without exercise. However, more than 60 % of type 1 diabetic patients fail to meet this goal. This is largely explained by the fear of potential adverse effects, in particular the occurrence of hypoglycaemia during exercise, which represents a major obstacle to its safe practice. Therefore, specific therapeutic education should be considered in these subjects in order to promote regular physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Esportes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle
3.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 542-547, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058645

RESUMO

Practice of sports in the general population. According to several surveys, it is estimated that 33 to 46% of French people never do sport or physical exercise, and this proportion tends to increase over the years. Men generally do more sport than women, and the frequency of participation tends to decrease with advancing age. The sport is mainly practiced outdoors, and the practice in commercial health and sport centers remains very minority (on average 5% of the participants). More than half of the people who exercise or play sport practice sport alone, without supervision, in total autonomy; however, this form of practice varies according to the type of sport. The most popular sport activities are walking and running, followed by fitness activities (fitness, resistance exercises, yoga, etc.). Women are particularly attracted to sports such as horse riding, tennis or gymnastics. The regularity of practice depends on the type of sport, and among people who report playing sports, 57% follow at least 2 sessions per week, for most of the year. For the general population, it is mainly the maintenance of health, the need for general wellbeing and relaxation that motivate people who do exercise or play sport, much more than the taste for competition and the need to perform.


Assuntos
Esportes , Animais , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada
4.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 548-554, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058646

RESUMO

Prevention of osteo-articular lesions in amateur and leisure sports. Physical exercise and sport are now recognized by the World Health Organisation and the ministry of Health as non-drug therapy/treatment for many pathologies. Its use implies an increase in the number of sportsmen and therefore, statistically, an increase in the risk of osteoarticular lesions. Before starting, it is advisable to carry out a check-up to determine non-contraindication, as well as particularities and patient's preference for one or more sports. To avoid injuries and allow the regularity necessary for an efficient treatment, preventive measures must be taken. Major preventive measures consist in choosing one or several sports practiced in a safe environment and in well-qualified instructors to teach correct technique, advise on the right equipment, manage the intensity and frequency of each session to allow progression, and give precautions to be followed regarding weather and pollution conditions. Others preventive measures are those of competitive sports: warming-up, stretching, active recovery, sleep, hydration and nutrition also apply to every athlete no matter his or her level. Certain preventive measures are specific according to morphology or traumatic pathologies, such as orthosis, and others to age, young and old, or the level of the athlete.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer
5.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 555-560, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058647

RESUMO

How to reduce the sudden nontraumatic death related to sport risk? Sport's related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is still dramatically perceived and often widely publicized. In case of SCD sport's practice reveals a heart disease that is mainly overlooked. In a society under the influence of the precautionary principle, preventing SCD seems essential. However, implementing effective SCD prevention is not easy. Among the three most often preventive actions proposed, the pre-participation screening evaluation, the athlete's education, and the population education for resuscitation maneuvers, the pre-participation evaluation currently seems to have the most difficulty in proving its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Esportes , Atletas , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
6.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 561-565, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058648

RESUMO

Nutrition in sports. Recommendations for nutritional intake by athletes, whatever their sports level, first requires ensuring that daily energy expenditure is covered and that nutrition recommendations for health are applied. For endurance athletes, carbohydrate intake before and during exercise plays a decisive role in glucose availability and performance. In strength/power athletes, protein intake is important for optimizing the training responses. For all these athletes, nutritional intakes during recovery ensure good tolerance of training programs. Nutritional supplements are only justified on the basis of scientific evidence, and relate only to products available on the official market and produced in accordance with quality procedures.


Assuntos
Esportes , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
7.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 566-568, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058649

RESUMO

Certificate of absence of medical contraindication to the practice of a sport. Doctors are often called by their patients for certificate of absence of medical contraindication to the practice of a sport. They essentially see it as an administrative process, when it is a real reason for medical consultation. Appreciating the aptitude of a person, young or adult, to practice a sport, cannot be done between two doors, or by trying to read in the eyes of the applicant. What does this certificate mean? What is the legal support? Is there a protocol to follow?


Assuntos
Médicos , Esportes , Adulto , Contraindicações , Humanos
8.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 569-573, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058650

RESUMO

What information for children and adolescent with sporting activities, their parents and the supervisors? The somatic, mental health and social benefits of sporting activities have been clearly demonstrated in children. However, in some conditions, sport may have deleterious effects on height and weight growth, puberty, menstrual cycle, and mineralization, and may cause repeated muscular, tendon or skeletal injuries. These effects are often triggered by intense physical activity during training and competitions, with inadequate nutritional intake, resulting in a lack of compensation for the expenditure of energy. This energy deficit has an impact on the somatotropic and gonadotropic hormone axes. Some sports are more risky than others. There is, therefore, a need, particularly in young people involved in elite-level sports, for appropriate medical, nutritional and psychological follow-up, with the motivation of trainers and family, particular as the use of doping agents can occur even in these populations of young sportspeople.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Esportes , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pais
9.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 775-778, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017491

Assuntos
Esportes , Animais , Marcha , Cavalos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050616

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic has paralysed whole countries, which have had to confine their entire population and this changed people's lives worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify the reasons for and the level of commitment to physical activity among the Spanish population during confinement and the return to the "new normal". A sample of 1025 amateurs, 534 males and 491 females with an average age of 35 years old were interviewed using an online survey that collected their motives for practising sport and their commitment to physical activity. A cluster analysis combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods was performed, identifying three groups of amateurs: High Commitment (n = 650), Moderate Commitment (n = 324), and Low Commitment (n = 81). The main motives shown by the different groups were psychological motives related to an improved or managed general or emotional well-being. Regarding commitment, all the groups showed higher scores in enthusiasm for physical activity than affliction from sport. The variables referring to gender, educational level and sports habits showed differences that enabled the identification of the different groups. These findings highlight the importance of conducting segmentation studies that provide specific population profiles to improve the action strategies of governments and specialists.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 584-587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018056

RESUMO

Sports activity is characterised by the influence of different factors, which relate to both psychological and emotional stress of athletes. As a consequence, mental and physical preparations are fundamental in pre-competition and competition activities. In fact, being able to manage the reactions to stressful events and high demanding conditions, and adapt the strategy depending on the ongoing situation and opponent's reactions allow the athletes to properly process the surrounding information, evaluate all the possible solutions, and finally take the right decision. In this regard, the Skin Conductance (SC), Heart Rate (HR), and Skin Temperature (ST) signals were recorded during a grappling tournament from ten athletes with the aim to investigate if physiological assessments could provide an objective measure of athletes' attitude. The results proved that individual training programs can be tailored accordingly to the neurophysiological state of the athletes, but also that their awareness about both mental and physical preparations and attitudes could be improved.


Assuntos
Esportes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Atletas , Atitude , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992687

RESUMO

Rules determine how team sport matches occur. Match-induced fatigue is specific to each sport, and may be associated with injury incidence. For example, the injury rate in soccer is distinctly higher during matches than in training sessions. Understanding the differences between team sports rules might be useful for enhancing rules (e.g., safer sport). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the rule-induced physical demands between soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball, focusing on substitution rules. Data from the elite team sports' rules (e.g., absolute and relative court dimensions; the number of players, substitutions allowed, total game time, time-outs) were collected, including the changes due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in soccer substitutions, and comparisons were performed. The data showed that soccer has higher rule-induced physical demands: e.g., substantially lower substitution rate, higher dimensions in absolute (eight to fifteen times), and relative (four to eight times) values. Simulations also showed that soccer has extremely large differences, even considering COVID-19 substitution changes (from three to up to five). We conclude that elite soccer has remarkably higher overall rule-induced physical demands than elite futsal, basketball and handball, and increasing soccer substitutions permanently (e.g., unlimited) might mitigate overall soccer demands.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esforço Físico , Futebol/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
15.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(7): 15-20, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872685

RESUMO

In December 2019 a respiratory illness known as Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) broke out in a region in China and rapidly spread to become a pandemic affecting all sporting events worldwide. The Summer Olympics scheduled to be held in Tokyo were postponed until 2021, and all professional leagues in the United States postponed or canceled events. As the United States has begun to open up, there remains uncertainty of when sporting events can safely be held. Many professional leagues and the National Collegiate Athletic Association have established guidelines and recommendations for their athletes to compete safely. In this article, we review the protocols that have been established to allow athletes to return to play, and we review briefly the effects COVID-19 infection may have on athletes.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes/tendências , Atletas , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899526

RESUMO

The spread of COVID-19 has altered sport in Spain, forcing athletes to train at home. The objectives of the study were: (i) to compare training and recovery conditions before and during the isolation period in handball players according to gender and competitive level, and (ii) to analyse the impact of psychological factors during the isolation period. A total of 187 participants (66 women and 121 men) answered a Google Forms questionnaire about demographics, training, moods, emotional intelligence, and resilience sent using the snowball sampling technique. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare sport level and gender differences. Linear regressions were used to analyse the psychological influence on training. Handball players reduced training intensity (in the whole sample; p = 0.44), training volume (especially in professional female handball players; p < 0.001), and sleep quality (especially in professional male handball players; p = 0.21) and increased sleep hours (especially in non-professional female players; p = 0.006) during the isolation period. Furthermore, psychological factors affected all evaluated training and recovery conditions during the quarantine, except for sleep quantity. Mood, emotional intelligence, and resilience have an influence on physical activity levels and recovery conditions. In addition, training components were modified under isolation conditions at p < 0.001. We conclude that the COVID-19 isolation period caused reductions in training volume and intensity and decreased sleep quality. Furthermore, psychological components have a significant impact on training and recovery conditions.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Esportes , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Sono , Isolamento Social , Espanha
17.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 51(4): 441-452, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950213

RESUMO

It is essential for total knee arthroplasty patients to return to their previous level of activity to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This article reviews the current recommendations regarding return to physical activity after total knee arthroplasty and trying to find the balance between levels of activity and prosthetic joint preservation. In general, most total joint replacement patients are able to return to their previous level of activity and to a lesser extent to sports. This article discuss patients' actual levels of activity including their return to work and sport and the factors that influence meeting their expectations for surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Humanos , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes/fisiologia
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21301, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected people's health worldwide. For college students, web-based physical education is a challenge, as these course are normally offered outdoors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use data from a web-based survey to evaluate the relationship between the mental health status of college students and their sports-related lifestyles. Problems related to web-based physical education were also examined. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted by snowball sampling from May 8 to 11, 2020. Demographic data, mental health status, and sports-related lifestyles of college students in Wuhan as well as issues related to web-based physical education were collected. Mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: The study included 1607 respondents from 267 cities. The average scores of the DASS-21 subscales (2.46 for depression, 1.48 for anxiety, and 2.59 for stress) were significantly lower in our study than in a previous study (P<.05). Lower DASS-21 scores were significantly correlated with regular exercise, maintaining exercise habits during the outbreak of COVID-19, exercising more than 1 to 2 times a week, exercise duration >1 hour, and >2000 pedometer steps (all P<.05). None of the three forms of web-based physical education was preferred by more than 50% of respondents. Frequent technical problems were confronted by 1087/1607 students (67.6%). Shape-up exercises (846/1607, 52.6%), a designed combination of exercises (710/1607, 44.2%), and Chinese kung fu (559/1607, 34.8%) were suggested sports for web-based physical education. CONCLUSIONS: Mental status was significantly correlated with regular exercise and sufficient exercise duration. Professional physical guidance is needed for college students in selected sports. Exercises not meeting students' preferences, frequent technical problems, and the distant interaction involved in web-based physical education were the main problems that should be solved in future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Educação Física e Treinamento/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Estudos Transversais , Educação a Distância/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 103-111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965259

RESUMO

The research is aimed at identifying gender peculiarities of the effects of serological markers of blood groups in the genetic prediction of the development of attention function of adolescent female athletes specialized in sports of different training orientation. The study involved girls of 13-15 years old (n=141), who were divided into two groups according to the classification of sports proposed by A.G. Dembo: Group A - high-speed sports (n=75); Group B - endurance sports (n=66). The control group consisted of female pupils of 13-15 years old (n = 100) and female students of 17-20 years old (n=158) not engaged in sports. The study of attention function was performed according to the proofreading test created by B. Anfimov using a letter table. It was found gender differences in the features of changes in the attention function of pupils and students with different blood groups. Individuals with 0(I) and AB(IV) blood groups have the best associative relationships with different attention features, and individuals with A(II) blood groups have the worst ones. No gender differences were found in the indicators of the attention function of young athletes, whereas in contrast among their age-mates who do not play sports the boys have for sure better values of the presented function than the girls with the same blood groups. Among the students, the best indicators of this function are registered in young men with A (II) blood group compared to girls of the same blood group. It was established the fact of possible use of serological markers of blood groups under the ABO system in genetic prediction of the development of attention function of modern youth.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 427-431, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877102

RESUMO

Does sport practice have an impact on the immune status ? Both sports and physical activity alter our immune system. Intense/prolonged acute exercise triggers an immunosuppression period which lasts longer in unfit individuals. Although regular and well-designed workloads show immunostimulant and protective effects towards infectious diseases, highly-trained and elite athletes are definitively more vulnerable to microbial aggressions.


Assuntos
Esportes , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário
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