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J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 228-239, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444147


BACKGROUND: One main purpose of the World Anti-Doping Agency was to harmonize anti-doping efforts, including the provision of anti-doping education. A multifaceted approach to doping prevention can play a key role in preventing intentional and unintentional doping. This article aimed to systematically record and evaluate doping prevention approaches in the form of information and education activities of national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) and assess the extent to which a multifaceted doping prevention approach has been realized. METHODS: Data on anti-doping information and education activities of 53 NADOs were collected via a survey and an online search of the NADOs' websites. Prevention activities were classified into knowledge focused, affective focused, social skills, life skills, and ethic- and value- based. The implementation of the prevention activities was assessed by 4 independent raters using a modified visual analogue scale. RESULTS: In total, 59% of the NADOs (n = 38) returned the survey and 70% (n = 45) had information available online. The data were combined for the visual analogue scale assessment. Overall, 58% of the NADOs (n = 37) reported offering activities including elements of all 5 approaches. Results of the raters' assessments indicated that the knowledge-focused approach was best implemented; the implementation of the other 4 approaches was largely unsatisfactory. The most common barriers to implementing doping prevention programs reported by the NADOs were lack of resources (n = 26) and difficulties in collaborating with sports organizations (n = 8). CONCLUSION: Results show a discrepancy between NADOs' self-report data and the implementation assessment. Even though the NADOs indicated otherwise, most of their education-based approaches did not address aspects of the visual analogue scale (e.g., resisting peer pressure) and only a few programs were ongoing. Possible explanations might be found in the reported barriers (e.g., financial). Concrete guidelines defining multifaceted, values-based education, and best practice examples should be developed to indicate how to include all 5 approaches in prevention.

Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoio Financeiro , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Agências Internacionais/economia , Agências Internacionais/ética , Colaboração Intersetorial , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Habilidades Sociais , Esportes/economia , Esportes/ética
J Athl Train ; 55(4): 416-430, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196380


OBJECTIVE: To identify the causes, effects, and prevalence of burnout in athletic trainers (ATs) identified in the literature. DATA SOURCES: EBSCO: SPORTDiscus and OneSearch were accessed, using the search terms athletic trainer AND burnout. STUDY SELECTION: Studies selected for inclusion were peer reviewed, published in a journal, and written in English and investigated prevalence, causes, effects, or alleviation of AT burnout. DATA EXTRACTION: The initial search yielded 558 articles. Articles that did not specifically involve ATs were excluded from further inspection. The remaining 83 full-text articles were reviewed. Of these 83 articles, 48 examined prevalence, causes, effects, or alleviation of AT burnout. An evaluation of the bibliographies of those 48 articles revealed 3 additional articles that were not initially identified but met the inclusion criteria. In total, 51 articles were included in data collection. DATA SYNTHESIS: Articles were categorized based on investigation of prevalence, causes, effects, or alleviation of burnout. Articles were also categorized based on which subset of the athletic training population they observed (ie, athletic training students, certified graduate assistants, high school or collegiate staff members, academic faculty). CONCLUSIONS: Burnout was observed in all studied subsets of the population (ie, students, graduate assistants, staff, faculty), and multiple causes of burnout were reported. Suggested causes of burnout in ATs included work-life conflict and organizational factors such as poor salaries, long hours, and difficulties dealing with the "politics and bureaucracy" of athletics. Effects of burnout in ATs included physical, emotional, and behavioral concerns (eg, intention to leave the job or profession).

Esgotamento Profissional , Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Esportes/educação , Esportes/ética , Esportes/psicologia , Universidades , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
Br J Sports Med ; 54(16): 969-975, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201388


Rapid advances in technologies in the field of genomics such as high throughput DNA sequencing, big data processing by machine learning algorithms and gene-editing techniques are expected to make precision medicine and gene-therapy a greater reality. However, this development will raise many important new issues, including ethical, moral, social and privacy issues. The field of exercise genomics has also advanced by incorporating these innovative technologies. There is therefore an urgent need for guiding references for sport and exercise genomics to allow the necessary advancements in this field of sport and exercise medicine, while protecting athletes from any invasion of privacy and misuse of their genomic information. Here, we update a previous consensus and develop a guiding reference for sport and exercise genomics based on a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis. This SWOT analysis and the developed guiding reference highlight the need for scientists/clinicians to be well-versed in ethics and data protection policy to advance sport and exercise genomics without compromising the privacy of athletes and the efforts of international sports federations. Conducting research based on the present guiding reference will mitigate to a great extent the risks brought about by inappropriate use of genomic information and allow further development of sport and exercise genomics in accordance with best ethical standards and international data protection principles and policies. This guiding reference should regularly be updated on the basis of new information emerging from the area of sport and exercise medicine as well as from the developments and challenges in genomics of health and disease in general in order to best protect the athletes, patients and all other relevant stakeholders.

Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Privacidade Genética , Genômica , Esportes/ética , Esportes/fisiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos
J Athl Train ; 55(1): 96-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714851


CONTEXT: Considering recent high-profile reports of malpractice and negligence by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletic trainers (ATs), it is prudent to investigate the psychological mechanisms that may influence ATs' ability to justify unethical behaviors. When treating injured student-athletes, ATs may undergo a cognitive process known as moral disengagement, which involves convincing oneself that ethical standards do not apply in a particular context. OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychological factors and traits among ATs that may predict moral disengagement pertaining to allowing athletes to play through injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 187 Division I, II, and III ATs from 100 NCAA universities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): In addition to the primary outcome variable of moral disengagement, the survey captured the AT's demographic background, sport and athletic training histories, and measures of sport ethic, contesting orientations, commitment, and social identity. RESULTS: Cluster analysis was used to identify homogeneous subgroups of participants based on these variables. A 2-cluster solution emerged, with cluster 1 (n = 94) scoring higher in the sport-ethic and sport-contesting orientations but lower in commitment and social identity compared with cluster 2 (n = 93). An independent-samples t test revealed that moral disengagement was highest (t185 = 19.59, P < .001, d = 0.69) among ATs in cluster 1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the psychological processes that may predict moral disengagement of ATs in allowing student-athletes to play through injury. Although additional research is needed to test whether moral disengagement influences return-to-play decisions, we provide initial evidence that ATs who conform to sport norms (eg, "no pain, no gain") and who tend to view sport competition with a "war-like" orientation are more likely to morally disengage.

Traumatismos em Atletas , Medicina Esportiva , Esportes , Adulto , Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obrigações Morais , Educação Física e Treinamento/ética , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Educação Física e Treinamento/normas , Psicologia , Volta ao Esporte/normas , Esportes/ética , Esportes/psicologia , Medicina Esportiva/ética , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Estados Unidos
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 72, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619226


BACKGROUND: Structured training in research integrity, research ethics and responsible conduct of research is one strategy to reduce research misconduct and strengthen reliability of and trust in scientific evidence. However, how researchers develop their sense of integrity is not fully understood. We examined the factors and circumstances that shape researchers' understanding of research integrity. METHODS: This study draws insights from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 33 researchers in the life sciences and medicine, representing three seniority levels across five research universities in Switzerland. RESULTS: The results of this study indicate that early education, moral values inculcated by the family and participation in team sports were the earliest influences on notions of honesty, integrity and fairness among researchers. Researchers' personality traits, including degree of ambition and internal moral compass, were perceived as critical in determining the importance they attributed to conducting research with high ethical standards. Positive and negative experiences in early research life also had a significant impact on their views regarding research integrity. Two thirds of the study participants had not received any formal training in research integrity. Their awareness of training opportunities at their institutions was also limited. CONCLUSION: Age-appropriate development of honesty and integrity starts as early as primary education. Research integrity training should be offered from the bachelors level and continue throughout the entire professional life of researchers. Although these courses may not imbue researchers with integrity itself, they are essential to improving the research culture, reinforcing integrity norms, and discouraging researchers who lack personal integrity from engaging in research misconduct.

Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisadores/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Personalidade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisadores/educação , Esportes/ética , Suíça , Universidades
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 545-552, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488395


INTRODUCTION: Animal welfare in equestrian sports is a very current and important topic for animal right groups as well as for the Swiss association for equestrian sports "Schweizerischer Verband für Pferdesport (SVPS)". The penalty commission "Sanktionskomission (SAKO)" of the SVPS reported only few to none cases of infringements of animal welfare provision on horses at a time in the past few years. This fact was criticised several times by different animal right groups in Switzerland. Therefore a survey was sent in 2017 to 544 active officials (horse show judges) of the SVPS. Overall, 146 answered questionnaires could be evaluated. The evaluation of the survey was able to confirm the statement of the animal right groups that the number of infringements of animal welfare provision is much higher than the number -handled by the SAKO. Altogether, 203 offences which are relevant in animal welfare were observed by the officials who participated in this survey in 2017. In contrast to these findings, no handled cases of infringements in animal welfare provision were published in the annual report 2017 of the SAKO. 178 of the 203 offences observed by the officials were addressed and reprimanded directly on the showground. The most common incidents which are relevant in animal welfare named by the officials in the survey were inappropriate, aggressive behaviour of the rider or driver and rough handling with artificial aids. A considerable part of the officials feels that the animal welfare situation on Swiss equestrian showgrounds is unsatisfying. An improvement of animal protection in Swiss equestrian sports can be achieved by raising the awareness for this topic of the officials as well as the equestrians and horse owners.

Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Cavalos , Esportes/ética , Animais , Suíça
J Med Ethics ; 45(6): 395-403, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217230


The inclusion of elite transwomen athletes in sport is controversial. The recent International Olympic Committee (IOC) (2015) guidelines allow transwomen to compete in the women's division if (amongst other things) their testosterone is held below 10 nmol/L. This is significantly higher than that of cis-women. Science demonstrates that high testosterone and other male physiology provides a performance advantage in sport suggesting that transwomen retain some of that advantage. To determine whether the advantage is unfair necessitates an ethical analysis of the principles of inclusion and fairness. Particularly important is whether the advantage held by transwomen is a tolerable or intolerable unfairness. We conclude that the advantage to transwomen afforded by the IOC guidelines is an intolerable unfairness. This does not mean transwomen should be excluded from elite sport but that the existing male/female categories in sport should be abandoned in favour of a more nuanced approach satisfying both inclusion and fairness.

Esportes/ética , Pessoas Transgênero , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes/normas , Testosterona/sangue
Clin Ter ; 170(2): e100-e101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993304


Performance enhancing drug use in sport arguably constitutes a crisis, and as such, targeted measures are needed in order to stem it. Substance abuse in professional sports and competitions has besmirched many world-class athletes' reputations and standing, in addition to jeopardizing their health. Furthermore, there are many instances of amateur athletes and school-aged competitors who have taken to using such substances as well, significantly exacerbating the overall picture. The widespread acknowledgement of the potentially life-threatening consequences of performance-enhancing drug use has prodded sports organizations and governments into cooperating on many different levels to preserve the ethical grounding and soundness of sport competitions; unlawful substance abuse is in fact liable to undermine the very core of fairness in competition. Doping, along with various forms of cheating, has been recorded throughout the history of sport: prohibition in itself is all but ineffective without reliable and systematic detection strategies and enforcement of sanctions.

Atletas , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Esportes/ética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Instituições Acadêmicas
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(2): 228-242, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560510


Sports are among the most important leisure activities for youth and adolescents. Both positive (i.e., prosocial) and negative (i.e., antisocial) moral behaviors occur on the playing field. To stimulate positive sports experiences, it is important to understand which factors are related to the moral behavior of young athletes; one of these is the moral climate, that is, the socio-moral environment in which sports take place. Little is known about the overall strength of the relationship between moral climate and moral behavior of young athletes, as well as the potential moderating factors of this relationship. A meta-analysis of 27 studies containing 117 effect sizes and N = 7726 young athletes (age < 18 years) was conducted. The results show that there is an overall significant association between these two variables (r= 0.40), indicating that a prosocial moral climate is related to less antisocial and more prosocial behavior, while an antisocial moral climate is associated with more antisocial and less prosocial behavior of young athletes. Two study characteristics significantly moderated this relationship: specifically, stronger associations were found in cross-sectional and in older studies. In addition, the strength of the association between moral climate and moral behavior was stronger for antisocial moral climate compared to prosocial moral climate. Finally, associations for team members were stronger than those of coaches or a broad moral club climate. Implications for further research and sports practice are discussed.

Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/ética , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Esportes/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários
Bioethics ; 33(1): 122-131, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157289


Non-invasive brain stimulation is used to modulate brain excitation and inhibition and to improve cognitive functioning. The effectiveness of the enhancement due to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is still controversial, but the technique seems to have large potential for improvement and more specific applications. In particular, it has recently been used by athletes, both beginners and professionals. This paper analyses the ethical issues related to tDCS enhancement, which depend on its specific features: ease of use, immediate effect, non-detectability and great variability of effects. If tDCS were to become widespread, there could be some potential side effects, especially the rise of inequality in many selective competitive contexts. I discuss two possible scenarios to counter this effect: that of prohibition and that of compensation, each supported by reasons and arguments that seem plausible and worthy of consideration. In conclusion, I show why I think the scenario of compensation is the preferable one.

Desempenho Atlético/ética , Melhoramento Biomédico/ética , Encéfalo , Cognição , Justiça Social , Esportes/ética , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/ética , Atletas , Compensação e Reparação , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Humanos , Controle Social Formal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 33-40, 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181039


Dada la trascendencia que tiene en nuestra sociedad el deporte, en especial el fútbol desde edades muy tempranas, se hace necesario que los gestores de las competiciones dispongan de herramientas que permitan evaluar los comportamientos de deportividad y no deportividad que se observan en contextos deportivos de fútbol. En la presente investigación, se muestra la implementación de un protocolo de evaluación continua de la deportividad en los partidos de fútbol, durante tres temporadas deportivas. Participaron 64 equipos; 1192 futbolistas, 64 entrenadores y 292 árbitros, de la categoría primera cadete de la Federación Alavesa de Fútbol (F.A.F.). El instrumento de recogida de información utilizado fue el "Registro de Evaluación de Partidos de Fútbol" (REPF) (Gimeno, Sáenz, Ariño y Aznar, 2007). Los resultados reflejan: puntuaciones positivas, en relación a la deportividad de árbitros, entrenadores y jugadores en cada una de las temporadas evaluadas; una mayor frecuencia de actitudes y conductas deportivas en comparación con las no-deportivas; una mayor percepción de deportividad en aquellos partidos en los que el equipo local es el ganador; y una correlación negativa entre la percepción de deportividad de un partido y el número de tarjetas mostradas por los árbitros. Como conclusión, se puede afirmar que el instrumento que se presenta permite: 1. Utilizar una herramienta de evaluación específica de la deportividad para la disciplina del fútbol en edad escolar; 2. Evaluar la deportividad a lo largo de toda la temporada; 3. Identificar los agentes que presentan comportamientos inadecuados durante la práctica deportiva de los jóvenes deportistas, pudiendo proponer las mejores medidas de intervención

Taking into account the gained relevance of the sport in the current society, particularly focusing on football since early age, it is necessary for the different competition managers to have tools designed for assessing fair and unfair play behaviors observed in football context. This research introduces the implementation of a protocol to continuously assess the fair-play during football matches along three seasons. 64 teams, 1192 players, 64 coaches and 292 referees took part within this study, all corresponding to first cadet category of Football Federation of Álava (FFA).The tool employed to gather information was the so called "A record of football match evaluations" (RFME) (Gimeno, Sáenz, Ariño y Aznar, 2007). The results show the following: positive punctuation related to fair play of referees, coaches and players along the studied seasons; greater frequency of fairplay attitudes in comparison to unfair ones; greater fair-play perception on those local teams which won the match; and finally, a negative correlation between fair-play perception and amount of warnings cards shown by referees. As conclusion it can be affirmed that the developed tool allow: 1. Employment of a specific tool to assess fair-play in school age football; 2. Evaluate fair-play during the whole season.; 3. Identity the agents which trigger inadequate behaviors when practicing football and propose the most appropriate countermeasures

Devido à transcendência que o desporto tem na nossa sociedade, especialmente o futebol a partir de idades muito precoces, torna-se necessário que os gestores das competições disponham de ferramentas que permitam avaliar os comportamentos de desportivismo e não desportivismo que se observam nos contextos desportivos do futebol. Na presente investigação apresentase a implementação de um protocolo de avaliação permanente do desportivismo nos jogos de futebol, durante três épocas desportivas. Participaram 64 equipas; 1192 futebolistas, 64 treinadores e 292 árbitros, da categoria primeira cadete da Federação Alavesa de Futebol (F.A.F.). O instrumento de recolha de informação utilizado foi o "Registo de Avaliação de Jogos de Futebol" (REPF) (Gimeno, Sáenz, Ariño e Aznar, 2007). Os resultados refletem pontuações positivas no que respeita ao desportivismo dos árbitros, treinadores e jogadores em cada uma das épocas avaliadas; uma maior frequência de atitudes e comportamentos desportivos em comparação com os não desportivos; uma maior perceção de desportivismo naqueles jogos em que a equipa local é a vencedora; e uma correlação negativa entre a perceção de desportivismo de um jogo e o número de cartões mostrados pelos árbitros. Como conclusão, pode afirmar-se que o instrumento que se apresenta permite: 1. Utilizar uma ferramenta de avaliação específica do desportivismo para a disciplina do futebol na idade escolar; 2. Avaliar o desportivismo ao longo de toda a época; 3. Identificar os agentes que apresentam comportamentos inadequados durante a prática desportiva dos jovens desportistas, podendo propor as melhores medidas de intervenção

Humanos , Adolescente , Negociação/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Esportes/ética , Análise de Dados , Psicometria/métodos , Comportamento do Adolescente/ética
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 41-50, 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181040


Partiendo de la Teoría de la Autodeterminación, el objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar si la percepción de los árbitros sobre un entorno de apoyo organizacional favorece el compromiso y si el tipo de motivación (i.e., autónoma o controlada) tiene un papel mediador en esta relación. En el estudio participaron 385 árbitros de fútbol en etapas de formación federados en Cataluña (M edad = 20.03) que fueron encuestados acerca del grado de apoyo organizacional percibido, así como de sus motivos de vinculación con el arbitraje y del compromiso para seguir arbitrando. Se realizó un análisis de ecuaciones estructurales cuyos resultados apoyaron un modelo de mediación parcial dónde el apoyo organizacional percibido predecía positivamente el compromiso vía la motivación autónoma (Beta = 0.558, p < 0.001) y negativamente vía la motivación controlada (Beta = -0.137, p < 0.001). Se encontró un efecto directo del apoyo sobre el compromiso y un efecto indirecto del apoyo sobre el compromiso a través de la motivación autónoma. Los resultados aportaron evidencias acerca de la influencia de un entorno de apoyo por parte del comité técnico de árbitros para favorecer la motivación autodeterminada del colectivo y su compromiso con el arbitraje

Framed on Self Determination Theory, the aim of this paper is to evaluate if the referees’ perception of organizational support favours the commitment and if the type of motivation (i.e., autonomous or controlled) has a mediating role in this relationship. The study involved 385 Catalan licensed soccer referees in early stages (M age = 20.03) who were surveyed about the degree of perceived organizational support, as well as the reasons for participating in refereeing and their commitment. Structural equation modeling was performed, the results supported a partial mediation model where perceived organizational support positively predicted commitment via autonomous motivation (Beta = 0.558, p < 0.001) and negatively via controlled motivation (Beta = -0.137, p < 0.001). There was a direct effect of perceived organizational support on commitment and an indirect effect through autonomous motivation. The results provided evidence about the influence of a supportive environment on self-determined motivation and commitment

Com base na Teoria de Auto-Determinação, o objectivo deste estudo é avaliar se a percepção de árbitros em um ambiente de suporte organizacional promove compromisso e se o tipo de motivação (i.e., independente ou controlada) tem um papel mediador neste relacionamento. O estudo envolveu 385 árbitros de futebol em fases de treinamento Federated na Catalunha (M idade = 20.03), que foram questionados sobre o grau de apoio organizacional percebido, bem como as suas razões para a ligação com a arbitragem e compromisso de continuar a arbitragem. Uma análise de equações estruturais cujos resultados suportado um modelo de mediação parcial onde o suporte organizacional percebido previu positivamente acoplamento através de motivação autónoma (Beta = 0,558, p <0,001) e negativamente através da motivação controlada (Beta= -0,137, p foi realizada <0,001). apoiar um efeito direto sobre o compromisso e apoiar um efeito indireto sobre o compromisso através da motivação autônoma foi encontrado. Os resultados forneceram evidências sobre a influência de um ambiente de apoio pela comissão técnica de árbitros para favorecer motivação auto-determinada coletivo e compromisso com a arbitragem

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Autonomia Pessoal , Motivação , Esportes/psicologia , Esportes/ética , Comportamento Competitivo , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise de Dados , Análise de Classes Latentes
Motrivivência (Florianópolis) ; 30(56): 225-231, Dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-968735


A presente resenha retrata a obra de Steven Overman, denominada "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Sport: How Calvinism and Capitalism Shaped America's Games". Sob linhagem teórica weberiana e com influência direta de Allen Guttmann, o autor resgata as doutrinas puritanas do período reformista, como consequência e causa do espírito capitalista americano. Ao propor as sete virtudes calvinistas como características essenciais da ética protestante, Overman demonstra como as mesmas culminaram no establishment das instituições americanas, inclusive as relacionadas à esfera esportiva. Ao relacionar as virtudes e doutrinas oriundas da reforma no ethos americano, o autor identifica suas correspondências no espírito do esporte, demonstrando como competições escolares e universitárias, o olimpismo moderno e a profissionalização de clubes e atletas, comungam com o capitalismo e protestantismo nos EUA.

The present review depicts Steven Overman's book "Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Sport: How Calvinism and Capitalism Shaped America's Games." Under Weberian theoretical lineage and with direct influence of Allen Guttmann, the author sees puritan doctrines of the reformist period as both consequence and cause of the American spirit of capitalism. By proposing seven Calvinistic virtues as essential features of Protestant ethic, Overman demonstrates how they culminated in the establishment of American institutions, including those related to the sphere of sport. By relating virtues and doctrines coming from the reform in the American ethos, the author identifies his correspondences in the spirit of sport, demonstrating how school and college competitions, the Olympic movement and the professionalization of clubs and athletes commune with the USA's capitalism and Protestantism.

La presente reseña retrata la obra de Steven Overman, denominada "The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of sport: How calvinism and capitalism shaped America's Games". En linaje teórica weberiana y con influencia directa de Allen Guttmann, el autor rescata las doctrinas puritanas del período reformista como consecuencia y causa del espíritu capitalista americano. Al proponer las siete virtudes calvinistas como características esenciales de la ética protestante, Overman demuestra cómo las mismas culminaron en el establishment de las instituciones americanas incluso las relacionadas a la esfera deportiva. Al relacionar las virtudes y doctrinas oriundas de la reforma en el ethos americano el autor identifica sus correspondencias en el espíritu del deporte, demostrando como competiciones escolares y universitarias, el olimpismo moderno y la profesionalización de clubes y atletas, comulgan con el capitalismo y protestantismo de Estados Unidos.

Esportes/ética , Capitalismo , Protestantismo
Motrivivência (Florianópolis) ; 30(56): 246-260, Dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-968737


O estudo indica que os japoneses ressignificaram a imagem do samurai na era Meiji. Esse artifício mostrou-se eficiente para unificar a nova identidade japonesa dentro e fora do Japão com foco no Yamato Damashi, cuja força, mesmo fora do Japão, manteve o sentimento de pertença. O estudo indica que esse sentimento renova-se com a prática de artes marciais como o karatê que, mesmo esportivizado, mantém vivos os valores, os ritos e os rituais que reforçam a crença subjetiva numa origem comum.

The study indicates that the Japanese resignified the image of the samurai in the Meiji era. This artifice proved to be effective in unifying the new Japanese identity within and outside Japan with a focus on Yamato Damashi, whose strength even outside Japan maintained the sense of belonging. The study indicates that this feeling is reinvigorated by the practice of martial arts such as karate where ritual and ritual values reinforce subjective belief in a common origin.

El estudio indica que los japoneses resignificaron la imagen del samurai en la era Meiji. Este artificio se mostró eficiente para unificar la nueva identidad japonesa dentro y fuera de Japón con foco en el Yamato Damashi, cuya fuerza incluso fuera de Japón mantuvo el sentimiento de pertenencia. El estudio indica que ese sentimiento se revigoriza con la práctica de artes marciales como el karate donde valores ritos y rituales refuerzan la creencia subjetiva en un origen común.

Esportes/ética , Artes Marciais/psicologia , Atletas , Japão
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 27(4): 710-716, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198474


Patients with repeated minor head injury are a challenge to our clinical skills of neurodiagnosis because the relevant evidence objectively demonstrating their impairment was collected in New Zealand (although published in the BMJ and Lancet) and, at the time, was mired in controversy. The effects of repeated closed diffuse head injury are increasingly recognized worldwide, but now suffer from the relentless advance of imaging technology as the dominant form of neurodiagnosis and the considerable financial interests that underpin the refusal to recognize that acute accelerational injury is the most subtle and insidiously damaging (especially when seen in the light of biopsychosocial medicine), and potentially one of the most financially momentous (given the large incomes impacted and needing compensation) phenomena in modern sports medicine. The vested interests in downplaying this phenomenon are considerable and concentrated in North America where diffuse head injury is a widespread feature of the dominant winter sports code: Gridiron or American Rules football. The relationship of this to shattered lives among the brightest and best of young men and the relatively dated objective evidence are a toxic mix in terms of ethical analysis and, therefore, there is a malignant confluence of social forces that tends toward minimizing the injury.

Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Neurofisiologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/fisiopatologia , Esportes/ética