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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 19(1): 150-163, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599916

RESUMO

It is well-established that appropriate hydration practices are essential in promoting health and optimizing performance and recovery. However, evidence-based hydration guidelines may not be adopted due to cultural differences across countries, such as religious beliefs, traditions, preferences, and beverage availability. Examples of hydration practices influenced by culture include beer consumption after sports in Western countries, consumption of sugarcane juice in India and Ramadan fasting among Muslims. For most cultural hydration practices, there is limited scientific evidence on their effects on rehydration, exercise performance, and recovery. Despite possible benefits of various hydration practices on exercise performance and recovery, they are inconsistent with current evidence-based hydration recommendations. More research on the impacts of cultural hydration differences on physiology, performance, and recovery is warranted to allow evidence-based guidelines and advisories. Abbreviations: ABV: alcohol by volume, ACSM: American College of Sports Medicine, NATA: National Athletic Trainers' Association, ROS: reactive oxygen species, TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine.


Assuntos
Esportes , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hidratação , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Universidades
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266951, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on cardiac remodeling in veteran athletes are conflicting but of clinical importance. METHODS: Sixty-nine clinically stable and healthy individuals >50 years were identified (median 55 (IQR 52-64), 26% female). Echocardiographic features were identified in individuals, who have performed endurance sports at 70% of their maximum heart rate for at least 1 hour 3 times/ week over the previous 5 years. RESULTS: Median training time in all participants was 6 hours per week. Therefore, based on these 6 hours of weekly training, participants were grouped into 45 ambitious endurance-trained amateur athletes (EAA) and 24 recreationally active endurance-trained athletes (RAP) training ≥6 hours (6-10) and <6 hours (3.5-5), respectively. Left ventricular (LV) diameters were slightly larger in EAA than in RAP (27 mm/m2 (25-28) vs. 25 mm/m2 (24-27), p = 0.023) and EAA showed preserved diastolic function (p = 0.028) with lower E/E' ratio (7 (6-9) vs. 9 (7-10), p = 0.039). Interventricular septal thickness and relative wall thickness ratio were similar. Global right ventricular and LV strain were similar, but left atrial (LA) reservoir strain was higher in EAA than in RAP (27% (22-34) vs. 20% (15-29), p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Endurance training in healthy athletes >50 years is not associated with chamber dilatation or LV hypertrophy. A weekly training duration of ≥6 hours seems beneficial to preserve diastolic function associated with an increased LA reservoir function.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Esportes , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409571

RESUMO

There is a close relationship between the development of complex motor skills and executive functions during childhood. This study aimed to analyze the differences in different dimensions of executive functions in children practicing an open-skill sport (handball) and a closed-skill sport (athletics) and controls who did not participate in sports activities after a 12-week intervention period. School-aged male and female subjects (n = 90; mean ± standard deviation = 11.45 ± 0.68 years) participated in a non-randomized controlled study. Data analysis was performed using the STATA V.15 statistical software. The athletics intervention promoted semantic fluency (p = 0.007), whereas handball increased inhibition (p = 0.034). Additionally, physical activity improved in both intervention groups (p = < 0.001), whereas sprint performance improved in the handball group following intervention (p = 0.008), lower body muscular power improved in athletics (p = 0.04), and evidence of improvement in upper body muscular strength was noted in handball (p = 0.037). In turn, an increase in the Physical Activity Questionnaire for older Children score showed an association with the Standard Ten scores of executive functions. In conclusion, compared to controls, both athletics and handball induced meaningful improvements in physical activity and executive functions. However, sport-specific adaptations were noted after athletics (i.e., semantic fluency and lower body muscular power) and handball (i.e., inhibition, sprint, and upper-body muscular strength).


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329337

RESUMO

The majority of reviews on sports nutrition issues focus on macronutrients, often omitting or paying less attention to substances such as sodium. Through the literature, it is clear that there are no reviews that focus entirely on the effects of sodium and in particular on endurance sports. Sodium intake, both at high and low doses, has been found to be associated with health and performance issues in athletes. Besides, there have been theories that an electrolyte imbalance, specifically sodium, contributes to the development of muscle cramps (EAMC) and hyponatremia (EAH). For this reason, it is necessary to create this systematic review, in order to report extensively on the role of sodium consumption in the population and more specifically in endurance and ultra-endurance athletes, the relationship between the amount consumed and the occurrence of pathological disorders, the usefulness of simultaneous hydration and whether a disturbance of this substance leads to EAH and EAMC. As a method of data collection, this study focused on exploring literature from 1900-2021. The search was conducted through the research engines PubMed and Scopus. In order to reduce the health and performance effects in endurance athletes, simultaneous emphasis should be placed on both sodium and fluid intake.


Assuntos
Sódio na Dieta , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Sódio , Esportes/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265268, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compete in lightweight rowing, strict limits are placed on the maximum body weight of each individual. As a result, lightweight rowers commonly restrict calorie intake despite high energy expenditure. This can result in Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and psychosocial impact of RED-S, from the perspective of lightweight rowers. DESIGN: Semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Adults living in the United Kingdom who are current or former lightweight rowing participants and experienced ≥1 symptom of RED-S. METHOD: Audio-recorded semi-structured individual telephone interviews were performed. Data was analysed using an inductive thematic approach, coding was iterative and data-driven, facilitated by NVivo software. RESULTS: Twelve current or former lightweight rowers (intermediate to international standard, 67% female, aged 19-32 years) participated. Participants restricted calories and increased energy expenditure to elicit weight-loss in order to meet weight requirements. This resulted in psychosocial implications (reduced social interaction, difficulty maintaining relationships, poor emotional regulation, low mood, poor concentration, disordered eating, guilt and anxiety around food, and a negative body image). Some psychosocial implications persisted after retirement from lightweight rowing. Participants described a range of physical implications, including disrupted sleep, decreased performance and recovery, bowel disruption, menstrual dysfunction, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, injury and weakened immune systems. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes short and long-term physical and psychosocial impacts of RED-S from the perspective of lightweight rowers. Findings highlight the importance of effective RED-S prevention and management strategies for lightweight rowers. These findings may be used to educate health-care professionals, coaches and athletes on the personal impacts and serious health consequences of RED-S.


Assuntos
Deficiência Energética Relativa no Esporte , Esportes , Esportes Aquáticos , Adulto , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes Aquáticos/psicologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214514

RESUMO

Wheelchair sports are recognized as an international sport, and research and support are being promoted to increase the competitiveness of wheelchair sports. For example, an electromyogram can observe muscle activity. However, it is generally used under controlled conditions due to the complexity of preparing the measurement equipment and the movement restrictions imposed by cables and measurement equipment. It is difficult to perform measurements in actual competition environments. Therefore, in this study, we developed a method to estimate myoelectric potential that can be used in competitive environments and does not limit physical movement. We developed a deep learning model that outputs surface myoelectric potentials by inputting camera images of wheelchair movements and the measured values of inertial sensors installed on wheelchairs. For seven subjects, we estimated the myoelectric potential during chair work, which is important in wheelchair sports. As a result of creating an in-subject model and comparing the estimated myoelectric potential with the myoelectric potential measured by an electromyogram, we confirmed a correlation (correlation coefficient 0.5 or greater at a significance level of 0.1%). Since this method can estimate the myoelectric potential without limiting the movement of the body, it is considered that it can be applied to the performance evaluation of wheelchair sports.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Esportes , Cadeiras de Rodas , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia
7.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 42(3): 200-207, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180329

RESUMO

A follow-up data on electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) changes in adolescent athletes are scarce. We compared ECG and BP between adolescent athletes and nonathletes in a 4-year follow-up. A total of 154 youth sports clubs (SC) in Finland and 100 secondary schools for comparison data participated in this observational follow-up study. Those who maintained or adopted SC participation are referred to as 'Always athletes' (n = 137), those who never participated in SC as 'Never athletes' (n = 108) and those who dropped out ofSC during the follow-up as 'Changers' (n = 116). The mean age of the participants was 15.5 (0.6) years in all study groups at baseline. Resting ECG including heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, QRS axis, QRS amplitude, T axis and QT interval and BP were measured from all participants at baseline and after follow-up. 'Always athletes' had lower resting heart rate, more negative T-wave axis and higher QRS amplitude than 'Never athletes' at baseline and at 4 years (p < 0.05). 'Changers' had lower resting heart rate, more negative T-wave axis and higher QRS amplitude, systolic BP and pulse pressure than 'Never athletes' at baseline (p < 0.05). None of the observed differences at baseline, were visible at 4 years (p > 0.05) except the difference in T-wave axis (p = 0.028). The significant group × time interaction between 'Changers' and 'Never athletes' was found for QRS amplitude (p = 0.017). Adolescent athletes have several training-induced cardiovascular adaptations, which return towards the levels of nonathletes after cessation of regular training.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Adolescente , Arritmias Cardíacas , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia
8.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 32(2): 114-127, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168200

RESUMO

Female-specific research on sports science and sports medicine (SSSM) fails to mirror the increase in participation and popularity of women's sport. Females have historically been excluded from SSSM research, particularly because their physiological intricacy necessitates more complex study designs, longer research times, and additional costs. Consequently, most SSSM practices are based on research with men, despite potential problems in translation to females due to sexual dimorphism in biological and phenotypical parameters as well as differences in event characteristics (e.g., race distances/durations). Recognition that erroneous extrapolations may hamper the efforts of females to maximize their athletic potential has created an impetus to acknowledge and readdress the sex disparity in SSSM research. To direct the priorities for future research, it is prudent to first develop a comprehensive understanding of the gaps in current knowledge by systematically "auditing" the literature. By conducting audits of the literature to highlight underdeveloped topics or identify potential problems with the quality of research, this information can then be used to expediently direct new research activities. This paper therefore presents a standardized audit methodology to establish the representation of female athletes in subdisciplines of existing SSSM research, including a template for reporting the results of key metrics. This standardized audit process will enable comparisons over time and between research subdisciplines. This working guide provides an important step toward achieving sex equity across SSSM research, with the eventual goal of providing evidence-based recommendations specific to the female athlete.


Assuntos
Medicina Esportiva , Esportes , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia
9.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4049169, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186113

RESUMO

Sport is a type of comprehensive activity that the human body consciously engages in to improve physical fitness. Proteomics is a comprehensive technology dedicated to the study of all protein profiles expressed by a species, individual organ, tissue, or cell under specific conditions and specific times. Proteomics is a science that studies the protein composition of cells, tissues, or organisms and their changing laws with proteomics as the research object. Related technologies are now widely used in sports and other fields. The purpose of this article is to study myocardial proteomic technology and its application in sports. During the research process, the main methods used in this study are literature survey and controlled experiment. The results achieved and the problems in this field, followed by selecting 30 SD rats into 3 groups for control experiments. The results of the study showed that among the three groups of rats, the left ventricular ejection fraction of the sham operation group was the highest, which was 7.7% and 4.6% higher than that of the operation group and the model group, respectively. The operation group had the highest left ventricular short axis shortening rate, and the left ventricle diastolic inner diameter is the longest. It can be seen that myocardial proteomics can accurately reflect the heart condition of rats. In addition, the length, diastolic velocity, and diastolic time of cardiomyocytes of the three groups of rats were different. Among them, the cardiomyocytes of the operation group had the longest time and the longest diastolic time, which were 37.1% and 8.5% higher than those of the sham operation group and the model group.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/fisiologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 8021536, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178120

RESUMO

Bodybuilding operation is a favorite sports item, which is beneficial to enhance physical fitness, improve coordination and flexibility of movement, and enhance cardiopulmonary function. Standard aerobics movements and nutrition matching strategies can more effectively enhance the exercise effect. In this paper, the characteristics of aerobics, sports, and nutrition strategies are researched through the human body recognition technology of the depth image; the subjects were divided into four groups by statistical method and control variable experiment method. They were the control group, the experimental group for aerobics training, the experimental group for improving the nutritional balance under diet, and the experimental group for aerobics training. After two and a half months of experimental training and observation, the students in the four groups were tested for physical fitness and physical function; analyze the obtained experimental test data using the human body recognition technology of depth image, then obtain the experimental test data, and then use the data fusion method to combine the data and information for more accurate evaluation. The results showed that after 10 weeks of aerobics learning and nutrition, the average height of students increased by 1.19 cm, the average weight decreased by 1.17 kg, the number of sit-ups increased from 23.9 before the experiment to 31.2, and the results of 50-meter race and 800-meter run were 0.2 seconds and 2.9 seconds, respectively. It can be concluded that aerobics and nutrition can speed up metabolism, promote the growth and development of bones, and supplement the nutrition needed by the human body, to improve students' physical quality. This study contributes to the research of sports and nutrition matching in improving physical conditions.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Imagem Corporal , Criança , China , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Estudantes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162745

RESUMO

The plateau effect in training is a significant obstacle for professional athletes and average subjects. It evolves from both the muscle-nerve-axis-associated performance and various cardiorespiratory parameters. Compensatory adaptation mechanisms contribute to a lack of continuous improvement with most exercise regimens. Attempts to overcome this plateau in exercise have been only partially successful, and it remains a significant unmet need in both healthy subjects and those suffering from chronic neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and metabolic diseases. Variability patterns characterize many biological processes, from cellular to organ levels. The present review discusses the significant obstacles in overcoming the plateau in training and establishes a platform to implement subject-tailored variability patterns to prevent and overcome this plateau in muscle and cardiorespiratory performance.


Assuntos
Esportes , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Atletas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Coração , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(3): 832-837, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180193

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Smetanka, RG, Armenta, RF, Nessler, JA, and Newcomer, SC. Heart rate response, duration, grip strength, and anthropometric characteristics in recreational indoor rock climbers. J Strength Cond Res 36(3): 832-837, 2022-Despite the growing popularity of recreational indoor rock climbing, there is a lack of research on cardiovascular responses to rock climbing. In addition, although the importance of body composition and grip strength has been established in elite climbers, their effect on recreational climbing is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of indoor climbers engaging in climbing at a recreational or noncompetitive setting. We hypothesized that heart rates and climbing durations would meet the standards set by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for eliciting health benefits and that grip strength would decrease over the course of a typical climbing session. One hundred twenty-one male and female adult recreational climbers participated in this study. Following informed consent, subjects were instrumented with a heart rate monitor (Polar V800) which recorded heart rate and duration. Preclimb and postclimb grip strength were evaluated using a hand grip dynamometer and used to calculate fatigue. Subjects were 30.9 ± 8.3 years old and had participated in climbing for 5.6 ± 6.5 years. The average heart rate during climbing sessions was 122.3 ± 14.5 b·min-1, and session duration was 90.6 ± 31.3 minutes. Mean grip strength was 49.9 ± 11.2 kg, whereas the strength to mass ratio was 0.71 ± 0.14, and fatigue was 13.1 ± 11.6%. Results from the current study suggest that recreational indoor climbing elicits exercise heart rates and durations that are consistent with the CDC and ACSM's recommendations for cardiovascular health. Grip strength data suggested that forearm muscle fatigue may limit climbing durations.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Esportes , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Neurosci ; 55(2): 487-509, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997653

RESUMO

The contribution of cortical processes to adaptive motor behaviour is of great interest in the field of exercise neuroscience. Next to established criteria of objectivity, reliability and validity, ecological validity refers to the concerns of whether measurements and behaviour in research settings are representative of the real world. Because exercise neuroscience investigations using mobile electroencephalography are oftentimes conducted in laboratory settings under controlled environments, methodological approaches may interfere with the idea of ecological validity. This review utilizes an original ecological validity tool to assess the degree of ecological validity in current exercise neuroscience research. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles investigating cortical dynamics during goal-directed sports movement. To assess ecological validity, five elements (environment, stimulus, response, body and mind) were assessed on a continuum of artificiality-naturality and simplicity-complexity. Forty-seven studies were included in the present review. Results indicate lowest average ratings for the element of environment. The elements stimulus, body and mind had mediocre ratings, and the element of response had the highest overall ratings. In terms of the type of sport, studies that assessed closed-skill indoor sports had the highest ratings, whereas closed-skill outdoor sports had the lowest overall rating. Our findings identify specific elements that are lacking in ecological validity and areas of improvement in current exercise neuroscience literature. Future studies may potentially increase ecological validity by moving from reductionist, artificial environments towards complex, natural environments and incorporating real-world sport elements such as adaptive responses and competition.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes/fisiologia
14.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 41(1): 4, 2022 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that substantial individual variation exists in the distribution of pro-saccade reaction times under gap condition. To investigate the influence of sports experience on the distribution, we examined distribution of the pro-saccade reaction time under overlap and gap conditions, for the basketball club, table tennis club, and non-sporting control groups. METHODS: Subjects performed pro-saccade tasks under the overlap and gap conditions, in which the intentional and reflexive disengagement of fixation are important, respectively. Under the overlap condition, the central fixation point was illuminated for a random duration of 1-3 s, then the fixation point was turned off. Just after the switch-off of the fixation point, one of the peripheral targets was illuminated for a duration of 1 s. The visual stimulus under the gap condition was almost the same as that under the overlap condition. However, only the temporal gap between the switch-off of the fixation point and the onset of the target differed between those conditions. The gap duration in the gap condition was set at 200 ms. The mean of median value of the bandwidth showing the earliest peak in the histogram was calculated for each group. Thereafter, for each subject, the bandwidth showing the earliest peak under the gap condition was defined as the criterion bandwidth (0 ms bandwidth). Based on this criterion bandwidth, the mean of the relative frequency was calculated for every 10 ms of bandwidth, for the overlap and gap conditions, in each group. RESULTS: Under the overlap condition, for all subjects, the pro-saccade reaction times showed unimodal distribution. The means of the median value of the bandwidth showing the earliest peak for the basketball and table tennis groups (approximate 170 ms) were significantly earlier than that for the control group (approximate 190 ms). Under the gap condition, the distribution was bimodal for 11 of 15 subjects in the basketball group and for 5 of 15 subjects in the control group. In the table tennis group, the distribution was not bimodal but unimodal for all 15 subjects. For the basketball group, mean of the relative frequency showed bimodal distribution with approximate 120 ms and 170 ms peaks. For the table tennis and control groups, the mean of the relative frequency showed unimodal distribution with approximate 130 ms and 140ms peak, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that under the gap condition, the sports experience influenced on the distribution of the pro-saccade reaction time. The pro-saccade reaction time under the condition would show a distinct bimodal distribution for the basketball group and show a distinct and early unimodal distribution for the table tennis group. It was suggested that the physiological factor leading the group difference in the distribution was the effect of sports experience on the disengagement function of fixation.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Basquetebol , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hand (N Y) ; 17(2): 254-260, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418461

RESUMO

Background: Trigger finger has a prevalence of 2% to 3% in the general population. Although anecdotal evidence exists, there is a lack of conclusive data that prove a relationship between repetitive power grip and flexion with triggering. Ocean rowing is becoming a popular sport, with the race across the Atlantic alone attracting more than 100 participants annually. Anecdotal reports suggest ocean rowing may be a significant cause of trigger finger. We aimed to identify whether the sport causes an increased prevalence of triggering, whether there were any alleviating or compounding factors, and, finally, whether there was any effect on performance. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to all participants of the Talisker Whisky Atlantic Challenge 2018, which included a trigger finger self-scoring system and the Oslo Sports Trauma Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. Results: Responses were received from 67 rowers (83% response rate). Age ranged from 21 to 62 years, with a mean of 40 years. In all, 49.3% had clinical triggering, with 79.3% reporting bilateral symptoms. The length of continuous rest time had a significant impact on the incidence of finger triggering and disease stage (P = .0275 and .0353, respectively; multivariate logistic regression). High-grade triggering had a more negative effect on rowing performance than low grade or no triggering (not significant). Conclusion: Ocean rowers suffered a 15-fold increase in trigger finger prevalence compared with the general population. This was increased in those who took shorter, more frequent rest periods. This study provides new conclusive evidence that the repetitive power grip and flexion involved in rowing increase the prevalence of trigger finger.


Assuntos
Esportes , Dedo em Gatilho , Esportes Aquáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oceanos e Mares , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(3): 661-666, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108723

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pryor, JL, Burbulys, ER, Root, HJ, and Pryor, RR. Movement technique during jump-landing differs between sex among athletic playing surfaces. J Strength Cond Res 36(3): 661-666, 2022-Whether athletic surface type affects movement technique, a causal factor for lower extremity injury, is unclear. This study evaluated the influence of 4 common athletic surfaces on movement technique using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Secondarily, we aimed to evaluate differences in movement technique between men and women among surfaces. Recreationally active men and women (n = 38) completed jump-landing tests on 4 common athletic surfaces in a quasi-randomized crossover fashion. Vertical jump height, perceptual fatigue, and muscle soreness were evaluated before jump-landing movement analyses and were similar across testing sessions (p > 0.05). Men achieved higher LESS scores on hardwood and artificial pellet turf compared with women (p ≤ 0.037). Women exhibited lower LESS scores on grass and artificial turf vs. concrete (p ≤ 0.048). Data indicate differential lower extremity movement technique and therefore injury risk across athletic surface types and sex, challenging the generalizability of the LESS construct. Athletic playing surface should be considered during movement technique assessment and implementation of injury prevention programs.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos da Perna , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia
17.
J Sports Sci ; 40(7): 742-753, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930102

RESUMO

The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate the perceived determinants of success in professional esports athletes. Guided by the bioecological model (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006), thematic analysis was used to explore elite esports athletes' perceptions of success determinants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven elite esports athletes. The interviews were used to investigate players' psychology when playing well, training in elite esports, and working in esports teams. Deductive and inductive analyses were conducted to capture the core themes of success in esports within the bioecological model. When playing well, elite esports athletes experienced high levels of confidence, uninterrupted focus, and flow states. Elite esport athletes use mental strategies to help regulate their emotions and remain mindful in the presence of "tilt". Furthermore, breathing techniques and tactical breaks were used when players felt nervous or when trying to "reset" from a stressful situation. When working in elite esport teams, players reported using strategies to improve team cohesion and that the biggest challenge was interpersonal disagreements. The results contribute to the growing body of literature highlighting the psychological similarities between elite esports and traditional sports athletes and serve as an index for future research into high-performance in esports.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Atletas/psicologia , Humanos , Esportes/fisiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882749

RESUMO

Somatic characteristics manifested in different body morphology have great importance for the selection of athletes in most sports. The aim of our study is to evaluate the differences in anthropometric variables and isometric strength of handball players presenting different levels of sports competence, and to study the discriminative power of selected morphological characteristics that do not change in the training process. The study included the results of anthropometric measurements routinely used to monitor athletes, and body proportion indices were calculated. Fat percentage was assessed using the BIA, whereas body build was assessed using the Heath-Carter method. Measurements of right and left hand grip strength and back strength were taken. The results of measurements and calculations were analyzed using statistical methods. It was shown that players presenting the highest level dominate by the overall size and massiveness of the body, characteristics ensuring an advantage in direct confrontation. The size of subcutaneous fat tissue and percentage of body fat varied poorly between athletes in each group. Muscle strength assessed under static conditions shows a gradient in magnitude across teams from higher to lower rank, but the differences are not statistically significant. The same somatotype (balanced mesomorph) was present in all groups. Athletes presenting high sports level are characterized by body proportions that determine biomechanical conditions conducive to optimizing the structure of movements important in handball. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that throwing-related characteristics (hand length, upper arm length, upper limb span, lower limb length) account for 88% of the variance in team ranking and can be used to identify the morphological predisposition of adepts to play handball.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Movimento , Força Muscular , Desempenho Psicomotor , Esportes/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946824

RESUMO

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is a well-known performance enhancing drug in human athletes, and there is anecdotal evidence of it being used in horse racing for the same purpose. rHuEPO, like endogenous EPO, increases arterial oxygen content and thus aerobic power. Micro-doping, or injecting smaller doses over a longer period of time, has become an important concern in both human and equine athletics since it is more difficult to detect. Horses offer an additional challenge of a contractile spleen, thus large changes in the red blood cell mass occur naturally. To address the challenge of detecting rHuEPO doping in horse racing, we determined the transcriptomic effects of rHuEPO micro-dosing over seven weeks in exercised Thoroughbreds. RNA-sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at several time points throughout the study identified three transcripts (C13H16orf54, PUM2 and CHTOP) that were significantly (PFDR < 0.05) different between the treatment groups across two or three time point comparisons. PUM2 and CHTOP play a role in erythropoiesis while not much is known about C13H16orf54, but it is primarily expressed in whole blood. However, gene expression differences were not large enough to detect via RT-qPCR, thereby precluding their utility as biomarkers of micro-doping.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Eritropoetina/genética , Cavalos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Eritropoese/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Esportes/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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