Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.016
Filtrar
1.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 1-25, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781788

RESUMO

The use of isometric strength testing, particularly the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) has increased dramatically over the last decade. The IMTP and isometric squat (ISqT) provide one aspect of performance monitoring with variables such as peak force and rate of force development being derived from the force-time curve. The reliability of some of these variables is conflicting in the literature, and the reporting of the reliability is not standardised across the research. The majority of research only reports intraclass correlation coefficients with very few studies reporting coefficient of variation and 90% confidence intervals. Additionally, methods used to calculate variables from the force-time curve differ across studies. An aim of muscle strength testing is to provide normative values for specific sports, allowing coaches to distinguish between performance levels or evaluate the effects of training on performance. This narrative review aims to evaluate studies that have researched the reliability and/or reported normative data for both tests. Additionally, the testing protocols and the force-time curve analysis techniques utilised are discussed, concluding with practical applications for coaches on the uses and limitations of these tests. Results demonstrate that peak force is the most reliable measure and can be used to determine maximum strength capabilities.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes/fisiologia
2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2913-2919, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658211

RESUMO

Morris, KL, Widstrom, L, Goodrich, J, Poddar, S, Rueda, M, Holliday, M, San Millian, I, and Byrnes, WC. A retrospective analysis of collegiate athlete blood biomarkers at moderate altitude. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2913-2919, 2019-Blood biomarkers are used to assess overall health and determine positive/negative adaptations to training/environmental stimuli. This study aimed to describe the changes in blood biomarkers in collegiate football (FB) (n = 31) and cross-country (XC) (n = 29; 16 women [FXC], 13 men [MXC]) athletes across a competitive season while training and living at a moderate altitude (1,655 m). This study used a database of previously collected hematological (complete blood count and serum ferritin) and muscle damage (lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase) blood biomarkers. Data were analyzed both within and between groups using linear mixed-model and variance component analyses, alpha = 0.05. All 3 groups had significant but different patterns of change in the measured biomarkers. Hematological blood biomarkers increased at different time points but remained within the normal reference ranges with greater between-subject vs. within-subject variability, suggesting no significant decrements to oxygen-carrying capacity across the season for FB, MXC, or FXC. Muscle damage biomarkers increased over time and exceeded the normal reference ranges, indicating cell damage pathology. However, it is also possible that the demands of training and competition might alter baseline values in these athletes, although this cannot be confirmed with the current experimental design. The patterns of change in the hematological and muscle damage biomarkers varied by sport discipline, suggesting that the training/competitive environments of these athletes influence these changes. Further studies should assess how much training, altitude, and nutrition influence these changes by using a more comprehensive set of biomarkers and related performance parameters.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Altitude , Biomarcadores/sangue , Esportes/fisiologia , Atletas , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Oxigênio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1171-1178, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184642

RESUMO

Introducción: los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) se caracterizan por una preocupación exagerada por el peso y la imagen corporal. Los deportistas de equipo son excluidos tradicionalmente de los grupos de riesgo de TCA. No obstante, esta exención puede ser cuestionada por la creciente asociación deporte-delgadez y la evidencia de estudios previos sobre una gran preocupación por la imagen corporal en estos jugadores. Objetivos: detectar sintomatología de TCA e identificar factores que elevan el riesgo de padecerlos en hombres de entre 18 y 35 años jugadores de deportes de equipo. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo-analítico con 49 jugadores semiprofesionales de baloncesto, fútbol y rugby. Todos los sujetos firmaron un consentimiento informado previo a su participación en el estudio. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante una hoja de valoración general y cuatro herramientas validadas: Cuestionario de Hábitos Alimentarios del Deportista (CHAD), Test de Actitudes Alimentarias (EAT-40), Inventario de Desórdenes Alimentarios (EDI-2) y Cuestionario sobre la Forma Corporal (BSQ). El análisis de datos se llevó a cabo mediante Kolmogorov- Smirnov, t de Student, ANOVA y correlación de Pearson. Resultados: el 14% de los sujetos presentó sintomatología de TCA. Se observó una correlación positiva entre las puntuaciones de los cuestionarios, el IMC y el volumen de entrenamiento semanal. Los jugadores de fútbol y rugby obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones que los jugadores de baloncesto. Conclusión: los jugadores de deportes de equipo podrían constituir un grupo de riesgo de TCA, especialmente los de fútbol y rugby. El riesgo aumenta cuanto mayor es el IMC y/o el volumen de entrenamiento


Introduction: eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by an extreme concern about body weight and body image. Male team sports players are usually excluded from the population at risk of developing EDs. This exemption can be questioned based on previous studies identifying a great body concern in male team athletes along with a increase of the sport-thinness relation. Objective: to detect EDs symptoms and to assess risk factors of its development in male team sports players. Methodology: a descriptive-analytical study was carried out with 49 male adult semiprofessional team sports players (football, basketball and rugby) between 18 and 35 years old. All subjects authorized their participation through informed consent. Data was collected through a general assessment sheet along with four validates tools: the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Athletes (CHAD), the Test of Food Attitudes (EAT-40), the Inventory of Eating (EDI-2), and the Questionnaire on the Body Shape (BSQ). All data were analyzed with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student's t, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: it was observed that 14% of the subjects presented symptoms of EDs. Positive correlation was observed between score of the questionnaires, weekly training load and body mass index. Also football players score and rugbiers score were higher than basketball players score. Conclusion: male sports team players could also be a group of risk for EDs development. EDs risk greats when BMI and weekly training load high


Assuntos
Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Esportes/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Análise de Dados
4.
J Athl Train ; 54(8): 906-914, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386577

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) and related conditions cause decreased training performance and fatigue through an imbalance among training volume, nutrition, and recovery time. No definitive biochemical markers of OTS currently exist. OBJECTIVE: To compare muscular, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters among OTS-affected athletes, healthy athletes, and sedentary controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-one men aged 18 to 50 years (14 OTS-affected athletes [OTS group], 25 healthy athletes [ATL group], and 12 healthy sedentary participants [NCS group]), with a body mass index of 20 to 30.0 kg/m2 (sedentary) or 20 to 33.0 kg/m2 (athletes), recruited through social media. All 39 athletes performed both endurance and resistance sports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We measured total testosterone, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor 1, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyronine, total and fractioned catecholamines and metanephrines, lactate, ferritin, creatinine, creatine kinase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, lipid profile, hemogram, and testosterone : estradiol, testosterone : cortisol, neutrophil : lymphocyte, platelet: lymphocyte, and catecholamine : metanephrine ratios. Each parameter was statistically analyzed through 3-group comparisons, and whenever P < .05, pairwise comparisons were performed (OTS × ATL, OTS × NCS, and ATL × NCS). RESULTS: Neutrophils and testosterone were lower in the OTS group than in the ATL group but similar between the OTS and NCS groups. Creatine kinase, lactate, estradiol, total catecholamines, and dopamine were higher in the OTS group than in the ATL and NCS groups, whereas the testosterone : estradiol ratio was lower, even after adjusting for all variables. Lymphocytes were lower in the ATL group than in the OTS and NCS groups. The ATL and OTS groups trained with the same intensity, frequency, and types of exercise. CONCLUSIONS: At least in males, OTS was typified by increased estradiol, decreased testosterone, overreaction of muscle tissue to physical exertion, and immune system changes, with deconditioning effects of the adaptive changes observed in healthy athletes.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga , Esportes/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Atletas , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/complicações , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/imunologia , Fadiga/metabolismo , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Esportes/classificação , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 704-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404936

RESUMO

Competitive cricket demands a high level of performance from fast bowlers. Ground reaction forces during the landing phase pose a risk for lower limb and lumbar spine injury. Good dynamic knee strength allows the knee to flex to absorb these forces and extend prior to ball release for maximum efficiency. Plyometric training has been shown to improve dynamic strength. There is a lack of literature on this subject for cricket. This study evaluated the effect of a combined plyometric and strength training program on isokinetic knee strength of fast bowlers. Forty-two professional fast bowlers were randomly assigned to a training group (n=21) and a control group (n=21). Both groups underwent isokinetic knee strength and vertical and standing broad-jump testing. Quadriceps and hamstring concentric and eccentric peak torques, bilateral strength asymmetries (BSAs), and dynamic control ratios (DCRs) were evaluated by isokinetic testing. The study group underwent 12 weeks of plyometric training, whereas the control group continued with their own training methods. The study group showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) in jump performance and eccentric strength. There was a reduction in the proportion of bowlers with poor BSA and DCR. Improving dynamic knee strength through plyometric training reduces injury risk and improves performance in cricket fast bowlers.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 753-760, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429600

RESUMO

Physical performance in a tropical environment, combining high heat and humidity, is a difficult physiological challenge that requires specific preparation. The elevated humidity of a tropical climate impairs the thermoregulatory mechanisms by limiting the rate of sweat evaporation. Hence, a proper management of whole-body temperature is required to complete an ultra-endurance event in such an environment. In these long-duration events, which can last from 8 to 20 h, held in hot and humid settings, performance is tightly linked to the ability in maintaining an optimal hydration status. Indeed, the rate of withdrawal in these longer races was associated with lower water intake, and the majority of finishers exhibited alterations in electrolyte balance (e.g., sodium). Hence, this work reviews the effects on performance of high heat and humidity in two representative ultra-endurance sports, ultramarathons and long-distance triathlons, and several countermeasures to counteract the impact of these harsh environmental stresses and maintain a high level of performance, such as hydration, cooling strategies and heat acclimation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Clima Tropical
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430849

RESUMO

Obstacle course races are a popular source of recreation in the United States, providing additional challenges over traditional endurance events. Despite their popularity, very little is known about the physiological or cognitive demands of obstacle course races compared to traditional road races. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of participation in an extreme obstacle course race. The participant was a 38-year-old Caucasian male, who completed an extreme obstacle course race over a 24-h period. Exercise intensity, steps taken, energy expenditure, and heart rate were recorded over the event's duration using an Actigraph Link GT9X-BT accelerometer and a Polar heart rate monitor. Results reflected the unique nature of obstacle course racing when compared to traditional endurance events, with ups-and-downs recorded in each variable due to the encountering of obstacles. This case study provides a glimpse into the physiological demands of obstacle course racing, and suggests that the cognitive demands placed on competitors may differ to traditional endurance events, due to the challenges of obstacles interspersed throughout the event. With the popularity of obstacle course racing, and to enhance training opportunities, improve performance, and decrease the incidence of injuries, future research should further investigate the physiological and cognitive demands of obstacle course races of various distances and among diverse populations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cognição , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes/psicologia
8.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 33(1): 172-187, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431271

RESUMO

Public health campaigns promote regular exercise and physical activity. These campaigns are founded on global recommendations that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise is required, on a weekly basis, to maximise physical and mental health. However, participation in all forms of sports and physical activity has inherent risks that need to be considered by both health practitioners making activity recommendations and the people participating. This review examines biological, psychological and social benefits and harms of the three highest participation physical activities: walking/running, multidirectional sports and resistance exercise. While the remaining evidence indicates that the positives do outweigh the negatives, it demonstrates that moderate amounts of exercise provide the most optimal balance and that potential harms are typically associated with low or high participation.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Esportes/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 33(1): 188-201, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431272

RESUMO

Although safety in sports and physical activity is an important prerequisite for continuing participation and maintenance of a healthy, physically active lifestyle, to date little effort has been placed upon moving evidence into preventive practice. Amongst researchers it is still often assumed that a program will disseminate itself after proven to be effective. Recently, however, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of theory-driven approaches to enhance implementation research. This manuscript aims to provide guidance for sports and physical activity injury researchers and practitioners to perform implementation research and practice. First, we will discuss the differences between research questions across the research spectrum and explain the 'drop' in effect when moving controlled evidence to a practical context. We will discuss two ways of increasing real-world effectiveness of preventive programs, i.e. through targeting the users' behaviour or through revising the intervention. Finally, we will present various implementation frameworks and tools that can guide the reader in their own efforts towards implementation practice and research.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Prevalência
10.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 33(1): 3-15, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431273

RESUMO

Participation in sport and recreation has important positive implications for public health across the lifespan; however, the burden of sport-related musculoskeletal injury is significant, with the greatest risk being in youth and young adults. Moving upstream to primary prevention of injury is a public health priority that will have significant implications for reducing the long-term consequences of musculoskeletal injury including early post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The primary targets for the prevention of musculoskeletal injury in sport include neuromuscular training (NMT), rule modification, and equipment recommendations. Currently, there is significant high-quality evidence to support the widespread use of NMT warm up programs in team and youth sport, with an expected significant impact of reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injury by over 35%. Policy disallowing body checking in youth ice hockey has led to a >50% reduction in injuries, and rules limiting contact practice in youth American football has significant potential for injury prevention. There is evidence to support the use of bracing and taping in elite sport to reduce the risk of recurrent ankle sprain injury but not for use to prevent the primary injury, and wrist guards are protective of sprain injuries in snowboarding. Future research examining the maintenance of NMT programs across real-world sport and school settings, optimization of adherence, additional benefit of workload modification, and evaluation of rule changes in other sports is needed.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Esportes/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450664

RESUMO

Knee joint forces (KJF) are biomechanical measures used to infer the load on knee joint structures. The purpose of this study is to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) that estimates KJF during sport movements, based on data obtained by wearable sensors. Thirteen participants were equipped with two inertial measurement units (IMUs) located on the right leg. Participants performed a variety of movements, including linear motions, changes of direction, and jumps. Biomechanical modelling was carried out to determine KJF. An ANN was trained to model the association between the IMU signals and the KJF time series. The ANN-predicted KJF yielded correlation coefficients that ranged from 0.60 to 0.94 (vertical KJF), 0.64 to 0.90 (anterior-posterior KJF) and 0.25 to 0.60 (medial-lateral KJF). The vertical KJF for moderate running showed the highest correlation (0.94 ± 0.33). The summed vertical KJF and peak vertical KJF differed between calculated and predicted KJF across all movements by an average of 5.7% ± 5.9% and 17.0% ± 13.6%, respectively. The vertical and anterior-posterior KJF values showed good agreement between ANN-predicted outcomes and reference KJF across most movements. This study supports the use of wearable sensors in combination with ANN for estimating joint reactions in sports applications.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Esportes/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Movimento/fisiologia
12.
J Sports Sci ; 37(22): 2625-2630, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379263

RESUMO

The dynamics of tremulous motion in the upper limb is complex. We aimed to explore the relationship between the complexity of upper limb tremor when aiming and aiming performance and the influences of physical load on the two outcomes. Fifteen modern pentathlon athletes were recruited and completed two 1000-m treadmill running and three 60-s standard aiming task trials: one at baseline and each of the other two immediately after each running. The time series of light spot trace on the target was measured using a high-speed camera. The complexity of this time series was quantified using multiscale entropy. The effective aiming rate was used to assess the aiming performance. We observed that participants with lower tremor complexity had lower effective aiming rate across three physical load conditions (r2 > 0.38, p < 0.01). Physical load decreased both tremor complexity (F = 4.8, p = 0.01) and effective aiming rate (F = 13.5, p < 0.0001), but no difference was observed after 1000-m running compared to that after 2000-m running. The per cent change of tremor complexity associated with the change of effective aiming rate (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.0001). This pilot study demonstrates that multiscale complexity of tremulous motion in the upper limb when aiming may serve as a novel marker to assess the physiologic system functionality when aiming.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Corrida/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 768-773, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412365

RESUMO

Orienteering is an endurance sport that combines physical and cognitive activity, during which the athlete must complete a course with several points distributed over unknown terrain in the shortest possible time. A number of studies have investigated the body's physiological adaptations to the stress caused during competition, but not the immunological changes. To that end, the present study evaluated the immunological, physiological and pathological responses in athletes performing high-intensity physical exercise during an orienteering race. The 30 athletes tested belonged to the elite orienteering category and participated in the regional championship. Cortisol levels were determined before and after the competition to assess stress response, as were the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 to evaluate the immune response. Cortisol levels increased after the competition, indicating a stress condition. IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 levels also rose post competition. The results indicate that orienteers are exposed to high stress levels, and that this condition affects their immune and endocrine systems, triggering a predominantly anti-inflammatory response, likely an athlete's mechanism of adaptation to the stress imposed by high-intensity physical exercise.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16596, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393359

RESUMO

We explored the effects of smoking and exercise on pulmonary function (PF) in young adults.This was a 2-year, prospective cross-sectional study on university students. We recorded age, gender, weight, height, pulmonary symptoms, smoking status, and sports habits. Spirometry was used to evaluate lung function; we recorded the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and the FEV1/FVC ratio.A total of 1014 (552 female, 464 male) subjects were included. Smokers reported significantly more wheezing and sputum production than nonsmokers, but exhibited better FVC and FEV1 values. Those who smoked less than half a pack/d had significantly poorer FVC and FEV1 levels than nonsmokers. Smokers exhibited significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratios than nonsmokers. Overall, those who exercised exhibited better FEV1 and FVC levels, but this was attributable entirely to females.The spirometric percentile data were adjusted for gender, age, and height, and used as indicators of health status (good: >90: average: 25-90, poor <25). ln males, PF was associated with regular exercise (good: 7.8, average: 6.5, poor: 14.2, P = .02). The smoking rate was higher in the "good" group (males: good: 31.3, average: 30, poor: 17.9, P = .02/females: good: 22.4, average: 17.9, poor: 10.4, P = .02).On multivariate regression analysis, above-average PF test results were associated with age (1.32 [1.04-1.69]) and exercising at least once per week (4.06 [1.16-14.20]) in males. In females, above-average results were associated with irregular exercise (2.88 [1.36-6.09]), age (1.85 [1.44-2.37]), and exercising until palpitations developed (0.18 [0.04-0.88]).Smoking improves lung function in young adults; these are "healthy smokers." Physical activity did not improve lung function, but the absence of physical activity significantly worsened lung function.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/fisiologia , Escarro/metabolismo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 414-417, July-Aug. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1012339

RESUMO

Sports competition can be a trigger to fatal arrhythmias in predisposed individuals, leading to sudden cardiac death. Athletes have 2.8 fold more risk of sudden cardiac death than non-athletes. However, female athletes seem to have some cardiac protection, dying suddenly much less than men during sports. Although the mechanisms for this protection have not been well established until now, hormonal, genetic and molecular factors may play a role in it. The so-called "fair sex" might harbour the key for sudden cardiac death prevention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esportes/fisiologia , Prevalência , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Arritmias Cardíacas , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Fatores Sexuais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos
16.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(192): 220-226, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185178

RESUMO

Introduction: The accumulated stress measured post-soccer match, often temporarily delays players’ physical performance and, as a result, players may experience acute and chronic fatigue contributing to underperformance and/or injury. Objective: This study investigated changes in physiological parameters such as thermographic profiles of the lower limbs, serum creatine kinase (CK) level, and skin conductance in elite soccer players post-match. Furthermore, perceived wellness was examined in relation to physiological parameters in an attempt to identify a possible relationship that might prove valuable to strength and conditioning and sport coaches in planning and implementing training schedules. Methods: Ten healthy male professional soccer players (25.3 ± 4.6 years; 178.4 ± 6.3 cm; 76.3 kg ± 6.2 kg; body fat 10.2 ± 4.2 %) from a club of the Brazilian first division soccer league participated in this study. GPS sensors were used to quantify the demand of match conditions among all participants along with post-match measures of serum CK, skin conductance, and thermographic images of lower limbs. These same measures, along with a psychometric questionnaire were administered 24 and 48 hours post-match. Results: No significance difference (p > 0.05) was found in contralateral thermal symmetry in the lower limbs. But, both values (maximal and mean values) of skin temperature shown significant difference (p < 0.05) at rest when compared to 24h and 48h post-match. In addition, Serum CK level remained elevated for up to 48h post-match in relation to rest. Conclusion: The results showed that 48 hours post-match is not sufficient to full recovery of soccer players. The use of physiological measures, wellness questionnaires, and thoughtful planning based on readiness may help reduce over-stress injuries and enable athletes to perform at their peak throughout the season


Introducción: El estrés acumulado medido después del partido de fútbol, a menudo retrasa temporalmente el rendimiento físico de los jugadores y, como resultado, los jugadores pueden experimentar fatiga aguda y crónica que contribuyen con un bajo rendimiento y/o lesión Objetivo: Este estudio investigó los cambios en los parámetros fisiológicos, como los perfiles termográficos de las extremidades inferiores, el nivel de creatina quinasa sérica (CK) y la conductancia de la piel (SC) en los jugadores de élite de fútbol después del partido Métodos: Diez jugadores profesionales de fútbol (25,3 ± 4,6 años; 178,4 ± 6,3 cm; 76,3 ± 6,2 kg; grasa corporal 10,2 ± 4,2%) de la liga de fútbol de primera división brasileña participaron en este estudio. Los sensores de GPS se utilizaron para cuantificarla demanda de esfuerzo entre todos los participantes junto con las mediciones posteriores al partido de la CK, la SC y las imágenes termográficas de las extremidades inferiores. Estas mismas medidas, junto con un cuestionario psicométrico, se administraron 24 y 48 horas después del partido. Resultados: No se encontró diferencia de significancia (p>0,05) en la simetría térmica contralateral en las extremidades inferiores. Sin embargo, ambos os valores (valores medios y máximos) de la temperatura de la piel mostraron una diferencia significativa (p<0,05) en reposo en comparación con las 24 horas y 48 horas después de la partida de fútbol. Además, el nivel sérico de CK se mantuvo elevado durante hasta 48 horas después del partido en relación con el descanso. Conclusión: Los resultados mostraron que 48 horas después del partido no es suficiente para La recuperación total de los jugadores de fútbol. El uso de medidas fisiológicas, cuestionario psicométrico y una planificación cuidadosa basada en la preparación pueden ayudar a reducirlas lesiones por sobrecarga


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Esportes/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético , Psicometria , Futebol/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia
17.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(192): 238-247, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185181

RESUMO

Los problemas gastrointestinales en los deportes de resistencia y ultra-resistencia se encuentran entre los factores limitantes del rendimiento deportivo. Se han estudiado las posibles causantes de estas afecciones y se plantea una situación multifactorial. Es cada vez más habitual el número de personas que practican deportes de resistencia, y se estima que entre el 30 y 90 % de ellos presentan problemas GI de diversa gravedad. Esto implica una limitación del rendimiento y también condiciona la recuperación posterior al esfuerzo. Dado el aumento de población que practica este tipo de deportes de resistencia a largas distancias, y en concreto del género femenino, resulta de interés estudiar el alcance de estos problemas en mujeres. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la mujer sufre más problemas gastrointestinales que el hombre en deportes de resistencia. Esta revisión pretende conocer si existe mayor frecuencia de problemas gastrointestinales asociados a la práctica de deportes de resistencia en mujeres. Los resultados de la presente revisión parecen mostrar que las mujeres presentan síntomas gastrointestinales con más frecuencia que los hombres, aunque uno de los estudios obtiene el resultado contrario y otros no ven diferencias. Parece que la mayor incidencia se da en problemas gastrointestinales del tracto bajo (diarrea, flatulencia, urgencia para defecar...) más que en el tracto alto (reflujo, náuseas, vómitos...). Otros factores de riesgo asociados encontrados son edades más jóvenes y menor experiencia en carreras a pie. Aunque no existen estudios específicos para la evaluación de estas afecciones y su incidencia por sexos, se puede observar una clara tendencia en la mayor presencia de estas afecciones en mujeres, si bien es preciso realizar estudios con muestras más grande de ambos grupos y que tengan en cuenta las diferencias fundamentales de ambos. Se requieren investigaciones específicas para una mejor evaluación de las afecciones gastrointestinales en función del sexo


It has been found that gastro-intestinal disorders are limiting factors in both endurance and ultra-endurance sports performance. Studies on the likely causes of such health conditions show that several elements are involved. It is estimated that 30% to 90% of runners suffer from digestive conditions leading to the detriment of both performance and rehabilitation. Considering the increase in the number of long-distance runners with a focus on females, it is of particular interest to analyse the presence of a greater percentage of such health problems in women. Therefore, it raises the hypothesis that women are more affected by gastrointestinal conditions than men in endurance sports. The aim of this review is to appreciate if there is a higher percentage of gastrointestinal problems in endurance sportswomen compared to that in endurance sportsmen. Results suggest that the numbers are high in percentage terms for woman compared to men presenting gastrointestinal symptoms. Although a study suggests there is evidence on the contrary, others report that there are no differences between the sexes. Women suffer more from diarrhea, flatulence, urge to defecate, etc (lower digestive tract) than vomiting, reflux, nausea etc (upper digestive tract). Other risk factors can be considered, namely younger age and a lack of experience in running. Even though there are no studies that analyse such cases, there is a marked tendency to affect women. However, it is of vital importance to carry out studies on greater populations with an emphasis on the sexes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Treinamento de Resistência , Esportes/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2308-2320, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343547

RESUMO

Winwood, PW, Pritchard, HJ, Wilson, D, Dudson, M, and Keogh, JWL. The competition-day preparation strategies of strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2308-2320, 2019-This study provides the first empirical evidence of the competition-day preparation strategies used by strongman athletes. Strongman athletes (n = 132) (mean ± SD: 33.7 ± 8.1 years, 178.2 ± 11.1 cm, 107.0 ± 28.6 kg, 12.8 ± 8.0 years general resistance training, 5.9 ± 4.8 years strongman implement training) completed a self-reported 4-page internet survey on their usual competition-day preparation strategies. Analysis of the overall group and by sex, age, body mass, and competitive standard was conducted. Ninety-four percent of strongman athletes used warm-ups in competition, which were generally self-directed. The typical warm-up length was 16.0 ± 8.9 minutes, and 8.5 ± 4.3 minutes was the perceived optimal rest time before the start of an event. The main reasons for warming up were injury prevention, to increase activation, and increase blood flow/circulation, temperature, and heart rate. Athletes generally stated that competition warm-ups were practiced in training. Dynamic stretching, foam rolling, and myofascial release work were performed during warm-ups. Warm-up intensity was monitored using the rate of perceived exertion, perceived speed of movement, and training load (as a percentage of 1 repetition maximum). Cognitive strategies were used to improve competition performance, and psychological arousal levels needed to increase or be maintained in competition. Electrolyte drinks, caffeine, and preworkout supplements were the commonly used supplements. These data will provide strongman athletes and coaches some insight into common competition-day preparation strategies, which may enhance competition performances. Future research could compare different competition-day preparation strategies in an attempt to further improve strongman competition performance and injury prevention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Esportes , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Massagem , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Esforço Físico , Treinamento de Resistência , Descanso , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102505, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349179

RESUMO

Creative (original and functional) solutions to problems can be facilitated by guiding search behavior. According to cognitive models, when solving convergent tasks (tasks with few solutions), high available working memory (WM) resources and capacity can guide creative solution emergence via repeated (persistent) search within a solution subcategory. However, no clear associations have been found of WM capacity on creative outcomes when tasks require the individual to enact solutions in divergent doing tasks. This study further tested constraints on WM resources on search behavior and creative outcomes in a convergent doing task. Novices to combat sports were asked to repeatedly strike a target with the intent to achieve an individualized target force. In order to manipulate available WM resources, every ten strikes, participants were asked to recall and then retain a sequence of 5 digits (high load group: n = 21) or 2 digits (low load group: n = 21). The task constraints favored the functionality (or appropriateness) of a qualitatively distinct, non-obvious solution. Functionality was assessed using the force registered for each strike. Originality was assessed in terms of how infrequently actions occurred. Finally, search behavior was quantified based on changes in which limb was used and changes in which part of the limb was used from one strike to the next. There were no significant effects of WM load on creativity outcomes, solution search, or task success. Rather, task success was related to efficient search and creativity. Future research should focus on constraints (other than WM resources) that promote efficient search.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia
20.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(8): 511-518, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288290

RESUMO

External counterpulsation (ECP), an electrocardiogram-led sequential compression of lower limbs, has been recently proposed for sports recovery, but research is scant. This study examined the effects of an ECP session upon neuromuscular function (vertical jump and torque/velocity characteristics), biochemical responses (creatine kinase, cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin-A), and muscle soreness (visual analogue scale) following high-intensity exercise. Twenty-one male team sport athletes (age: 21.6±3.4 yrs; height: 182.7±7.3 cm; body mass: 82.7±9.3 kg) recovered from the fatiguing exercise using either ECP or rest. Data collection was conducted at three separate time points: upon arrival (Pre), post-recovery (Post), and 24 h post-recovery (24hPost). Significant main effects for time were observed for increased torque/velocity slope and for decreased isometric extension peak torque (p<0.001). Significant main effects for time were observed for increased creatine kinase, testosterone, alpha-amylase, and muscle soreness (all p<0.001). Significant interaction effects were observed at post-testing following ECP: Cortisol release and the related decline in testosterone/cortisol ratio were attenuated, and immunoglobulin-A was increased following ECP in comparison to the control (all p<0.05). Following high-intensity exercise, ECP has potentially beneficial effects upon biomarkers of recovery, without affecting the neuromuscular function.


Assuntos
Contrapulsação , Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Masculino , Saliva/química , Testosterona/sangue , Torque , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA