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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5169, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056035

RESUMO

Medermycin, produced by Streptomyces species, represents a family of antibiotics with significant activity against Gram-positive pathogens. The biosynthesis of this family of natural products has been studied, and new skeletons related to medermycin have rarely been reported until recently. Herein, we report eight chimeric medermycin-type natural products with unusual polycyclic skeletons. The formation of these compounds features some key nonenzymatic steps, which inspired us to construct complex polycyclic skeletons via three efficient one-step reactions under mild conditions. This strategy was further developed to efficiently synthesize analogues for biological activity studies. The synthetic compounds, chimedermycins L and M, and sekgranaticin B, show potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. This work paves the way for understanding the nonenzymatic formation of complex natural products and using it to synthesize natural product derivatives.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Naftoquinonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Esqueleto
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 1801-1804, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086142

RESUMO

In recent years, markerless motion capture using a depth camera or RGB camera without any restriction on the subject has been attracting attention. Especially, depth cameras such as Kinect and RealSense allow instantaneous motion capture even at home outside lab environment, which is attractive for rehabilitation usage. However, single depth camera can capture steadily skeleton only when the subject stands facing to camera for the limited range, thus it is hard to apply to track skeletons while walking. Multiple depth cameras setting may allow to expand the range, but it can involve non-practical calibration process and can affect instantaneous capture advantage of depth camera. In this study, we propose a systematic method to integrate the motion information of skeletal models obtained from multiple depth cameras. The proposed method can perform a quick calibration using skeletal models instead of external reference objects, and estimate the spatial relationship of the sensors that allows the depth camera to move. The result demonstrates stable skeleton tracking free from occlusion problem keeping instantaneous capture capability of depth cameras.


Assuntos
Movimento , Sistema Musculoesquelético , Movimento (Física) , Esqueleto , Caminhada
3.
Org Lett ; 24(35): 6407-6411, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017948

RESUMO

A new method for constructing the bicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton was developed by the intramolecular alkylation of a nitrile-side-chain-containing cyclohexanone derivative. The cyclization precursors were prepared via the stereoselective bromination of the triisopropylsilyl enol ethers of 4-substituted cyclohexanones. Upon treatment with LiNEt2, the bromonitriles underwent a stereoselective intramolecular SN2 reaction to afford bicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives with a cyano group on the convex face. The total synthesis of 2-isocyanoallopupukeanane (6.5% yield) from methyl vinyl ketone was accomplished via a 17-step transformation.


Assuntos
Octanos , Esqueleto , Alquilação , Ciclização , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
4.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(193): 20220226, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946165

RESUMO

Repeated polygonal patterns are pervasive in natural forms and structures. These patterns provide inherent structural stability while optimizing strength-per-weight and minimizing construction costs. In echinoids (sea urchins), a visible regularity can be found in the endoskeleton, consisting of a lightweight and resistant micro-trabecular meshwork (stereom). This foam-like structure follows an intrinsic geometrical pattern that has never been investigated. This study aims to analyse and describe it by focusing on the boss of tubercles-spine attachment sites subject to strong mechanical stresses-in the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The boss microstructure was identified as a Voronoi construction characterized by 82% concordance to the computed Voronoi models, a prevalence of hexagonal polygons, and a regularly organized seed distribution. This pattern is interpreted as an evolutionary solution for the construction of the echinoid skeleton using a lightweight microstructural design that optimizes the trabecular arrangement, maximizes the structural strength and minimizes the metabolic costs of secreting calcitic stereom. Hence, this identification is particularly valuable to improve the understanding of the mechanical function of the stereom as well as to effectively model and reconstruct similar structures in view of future applications in biomimetic technologies and designs.


Assuntos
Paracentrotus , Animais , Esqueleto , Coluna Vertebral , Estresse Mecânico
5.
Nature ; 609(7926): 313-319, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045297

RESUMO

The vertebrate lineages that would shape Mesozoic and Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems originated across Triassic Pangaea1-11. By the Late Triassic (Carnian stage, ~235 million years ago), cosmopolitan 'disaster faunas' (refs. 12-14) had given way to highly endemic assemblages12,13 on the supercontinent. Testing the tempo and mode of the establishment of this endemism is challenging-there were few geographic barriers to dispersal across Pangaea during the Late Triassic. Instead, palaeolatitudinal climate belts, and not continental boundaries, are proposed to have controlled distribution15-18. During this time of high endemism, dinosaurs began to disperse and thus offer an opportunity to test the timing and drivers of this biogeographic pattern. Increased sampling can test this prediction: if dinosaurs initially dispersed under palaeolatitudinal-driven endemism, then an assemblage similar to those of South America4,19-21 and India19,22-including the earliest dinosaurs-should be present in Carnian deposits in south-central Africa. Here we report a new Carnian assemblage from Zimbabwe that includes Africa's oldest definitive dinosaurs, including a nearly complete skeleton of the sauropodomorph Mbiresaurus raathi gen. et sp. nov. This assemblage resembles other dinosaur-bearing Carnian assemblages, suggesting that a similar vertebrate fauna ranged high-latitude austral Pangaea. The distribution of the first dinosaurs is correlated with palaeolatitude-linked climatic barriers, and dinosaurian dispersal to the rest of the supercontinent was delayed until these barriers relaxed, suggesting that climatic controls influenced the initial composition of the terrestrial faunas that persist to this day.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Ecossistema , Animais , Clima , Fósseis , História Antiga , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Esqueleto , Zimbábue
6.
Bioorg Chem ; 128: 106091, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029650

RESUMO

Eight new arnebinol B-based meroterpenoids ((-)-1, 2, 3, (-)-5, and 7-10) with a constrained 6/10/5 tricyclic backbone were isolated from the roots of Arnebia euchroma. The planar and steric structures of these new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, X-ray diffraction crystallography, and ECD calculations. The predominant relative orientation between H-7 and the Z double bond with a methyl substituent in the rigid 10-membered carbocycle, along with the planar chirality of the Z double bond was analyzed and discussed for the first time. The illustration of the planar chirality derived from the Z double bond should be paid great importance during the structure elucidation on these homologous meroterpenoids. All the isolated meroterpenoids were screened for their cytotoxicities against the HCT-8, PANC-1, HGC-27, HepG2, and PC9 cell lines, and compounds (+)-5 and (-)-5 exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Boraginaceae/química , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Esqueleto , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14771, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042226

RESUMO

Studies on the effects of global marine plastic pollution have largely focused on physiological responses of few organism groups (e.g., corals, fishes). Here, we report the first observation of polymer nanoparticles being incorporated into the calcite skeleton of a large benthic foraminifera (LBF), a significant contributor to global carbonate production. While previous work on LBF has documented selectivity in feeding behaviour and a high degree of specialization regarding skeletal formation, in this study, abundant cases of nanoplastic encrustation into the calcite tests were observed. Nanoplastic incorporation was associated with formation of new chambers, in conjunction with rapid nanoplastic ingestion and subsequent incomplete egestion. Microalgae presence in nanoplastic treatments significantly increased the initial feeding response after 1 day, but regardless of microalgae presence, nanoplastic ingestion was similar after 6 weeks of chronic exposure. While ~ 40% of ingesting LBF expelled all nanoplastics from their cytoplasm, nanoplastics were still attached to the test surface and subsequently encrusted by calcite. These findings highlight the need for further investigation regarding plastic pollution impacts on calcifying organisms, e.g., the function of LBF as potential plastic sinks and alterations in structural integrity of LBF tests that will likely have larger ecosystem-level impacts on sediment production.


Assuntos
Foraminíferos , Microalgas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbonato de Cálcio , Ecossistema , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Esqueleto
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(33): 37853-37864, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948042

RESUMO

AIEgens show relatively weak fluorescence performance owing to the existence of π-π interlayer accumulation, molecular layer planarization, and intramolecular rotation in aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecules, which limit its application scope. Herein, we put forward a combined skeleton and spatial rigidification method to boost the fluorescence emission efficiency of AIEgens. As a proof-of-concept experiment, two highly fluorescent covalent organic frameworks (COFs) were designed and constructed by the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The experimental results show that the combined skeleton and spatial rigidification endowed excellent fluorescence emission for the resulting F-COF-2 by destruction of the π-π interlayer accumulation, interference of the molecular layer planarization, and restriction of the intramolecular rotation of the AIEgen unit. F-COF-2 displayed highly sensitive and selective NFT and NZF detection. Particularly, the Ksv value and limit of detection of F-COF-2 toward NFT were estimated to be 9.12 × 105 M-1 and 3.35 ppb, respectively, which surpassed all the reported crystalline porous fluorescent materials. The mechanism study proved that its outstanding fluorescence detection property was ascribed to the formation of a nonfluorescent complex induced by hydrogen bond interactions and electron transfer between F-COF-2 and NFT and NZF. This work not only proposes a combined skeleton and spatial rigidification strategy to improve the fluorescence efficiency of AIE molecules but also develops a sensor with high fluorescence efficiency, high chemical stability, and highly efficient detection of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Antibacterianos , Fluorescência , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Porosidade , Esqueleto
9.
Evolution ; 76(9): 2049-2066, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880607

RESUMO

Models of adaptive radiation were originally developed to explain the early, rapid appearance of distinct modes of life within diversifying clades. Phylogenetic tests of this hypothesis have yielded limited support for temporally declining rates of phenotypic evolution across diverse clades, but the concept of an adaptive landscape that links form to fitness, while also crucial to these models, has received more limited attention. Using methods that assess the temporal accumulation of morphological variation and estimate the topography of the underlying adaptive landscape, I found evidence of an early partitioning of mandibulo-dental morphological variation in Carnivora (Mammalia) that occurs on an adaptive landscape with multiple peaks, consistent with classic ideas about adaptive radiation. Although strong support for this mode of adaptive radiation is present in traits related to diet, its signal is not present in body mass data or for traits related to locomotor behavior and substrate use. These findings suggest that adaptive radiations may occur along some axes of ecomorphological variation without leaving a signal in others and that their dynamics are more complex than simple univariate tests might suggest.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carnívoros , Animais , Carnívoros/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Esqueleto
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(9): 1225-1229, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858820

RESUMO

Although fancy caudae are important traits for chicken breeds, factors associated with their morphological diversity are not fully understood. We analyzed the caudal skeleton of the Tosa-jidori, Chabo, and Minohikichabo breeds with wild-type, erect, and rich caudae, respectively. Five of six Tosa-jidori chickens had four caudal vertebrae, whereas all six Chabo and five of six Minohikichabo chickens had five. The angle of the apex pygostyli with respect to the margo cranialis was significantly larger and smaller in Chabo and Minohikichabo than Tosa-jidori chickens, respectively. These findings indicated that the caudal skeleton is one of important factors for forming the characteristic traits of chicken breeds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Esqueleto , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Fenótipo
11.
Int J Neural Syst ; 32(10): 2250040, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881015

RESUMO

Human feelings expressed through verbal (e.g. voice) and non-verbal communication channels (e.g. face or body) can influence either human actions or interactions. In the literature, most of the attention was given to facial expressions for the analysis of emotions conveyed through non-verbal behaviors. Despite this, psychology highlights that the body is an important indicator of the human affective state in performing daily life activities. Therefore, this paper presents a novel method for affective action and interaction recognition from videos, exploiting multi-view representation learning and only full-body handcrafted characteristics selected following psychological and proxemic studies. Specifically, 2D skeletal data are extracted from RGB video sequences to derive diverse low-level skeleton features, i.e. multi-views, modeled through the bag-of-visual-words clustering approach generating a condition-related codebook. In this way, each affective action and interaction within a video can be represented as a frequency histogram of codewords. During the learning phase, for each affective class, training samples are used to compute its global histogram of codewords stored in a database and later used for the recognition task. In the recognition phase, the video frequency histogram representation is matched against the database of class histograms and classified as the closest affective class in terms of Euclidean distance. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on a specifically collected dataset containing 6 emotion for both actions and interactions, on which the proposed system obtains 93.64% and 90.83% accuracy, respectively. In addition, the devised strategy also achieves in line performances with other literature works based on deep learning when tested on a public collection containing 6 emotions plus a neutral state, demonstrating the effectiveness of the presented approach and confirming the findings in psychological and proxemic studies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Expressão Facial , Análise por Conglomerados , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Esqueleto
12.
Org Lett ; 24(30): 5541-5545, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894551

RESUMO

The skeleton of lucidumone was constructed through oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, Cu-mediated remote C-H hydroxylation, allyl oxidation, acid-promoted dynamic kinetic resolution cyclization, and benzylic oxidation.


Assuntos
Esqueleto , Ciclização , Reação de Cicloadição , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
13.
J Environ Manage ; 319: 115674, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868190

RESUMO

In this study, 3D C2S3 (CS) and 2D Bi2S3 (BS) modified NiCr2O4 nanocomposite (NCO-BS-CS NCs) was prepared by sonochemical assisted co-precipitation method for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Here, NCO-BS-CS NCs showed band gap energy of 2.23 eV and the PL intensity of NCO-BS-CS NCs was lower than NCO, BS, and CS NPs. Thus, the results indicate the fabricated NCO-BS-CS NCs enhance the charge segregation and lower in recombination rate. NCO-BS-CS NCs showed enhanced photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) (95%) and congo red (CR) (99.7%) respectively. The total organic compound (TOC) analysis shows the complete mineralization of about 91 and 98% for MO and CR respectively. Furthermore, the Fukui function was used for the prediction of reactive sites in the photodegradation pathway of MO and CR by NCs. ECOSAR program was done to determine the toxicity of the intermediate and the results conclude that the degraded product shows nontoxic to the environmental organism (fish, daphnia, and algae). Thus, the fabricated NCO-BS-CS NCs can be used for the remediation of toxic organic pollutants from the waste water by photocatalytic degradation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanocompostos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Vermelho Congo/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Luz , Nanocompostos/química , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Esqueleto/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897985

RESUMO

Falls pose a great danger to social development, especially to the elderly population. When a fall occurs, the body's center of gravity moves from a high position to a low position, and the magnitude of change varies among body parts. Most existing fall recognition methods based on deep learning have not yet considered the differences between the movement and the change in amplitude of each body part. Besides, some problems exist such as complicated design, slow detection speed, and lack of timeliness. To alleviate these problems, a lightweight subgraph-based deep learning method utilizing skeleton information for fall recognition is proposed in this paper. The skeleton information of the human body is extracted by OpenPose, and an end-to-end lightweight subgraph-based network is designed. Sub-graph division and sub-graph attention modules are introduced to add a larger perceptual field while maintaining its lightweight characteristics. A multi-scale temporal convolution module is also designed to extract and fuse multi-scale temporal features, which enriches the feature representation. The proposed method is evaluated on a partial fall dataset collected in NTU and on two public datasets, and outperforms existing methods. It indicates that the proposed method is accurate and lightweight, which means it is suitable for real-time detection and rapid response to falls.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Idoso , Humanos , Esqueleto
15.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 60(9): 2665-2679, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35829811

RESUMO

In recent years, the incidence of depression is rising rapidly worldwide, but large-scale depression screening is still challenging. Gait analysis provides a non-contact, low-cost, and efficient early screening method for depression. However, the early screening of depression based on gait analysis lacks sufficient effective sample data. In this paper, we propose a skeleton data augmentation method for assessing the risk of depression. First, we propose five techniques to augment skeleton data and apply them to depression and emotion datasets. Then, we divide augmentation methods into two types (non-noise augmentation and noise augmentation) based on the mutual information and the classification accuracy. Finally, we explore which augmentation strategies can capture the characteristics of human skeleton data more effectively. Experimental results show that the augmented training dataset that retains more of the raw skeleton data properties determines the performance of the detection model. Specifically, rotation augmentation and channel mask augmentation make the depression detection accuracy reach 92.15% and 91.34%, respectively.


Assuntos
Depressão , Esqueleto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Marcha , Humanos
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3819409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795751

RESUMO

With the use of an intelligent video system, this research provides a method for detecting abnormal behavior based on the human skeleton and deep learning. To begin with, the spatiotemporal features of human bones are extracted through iterative training using the OpenPose deep learning network and the redundant information of human bone facial features is reduced in the feature extraction process, effectively reducing the time it takes to identify and analyze abnormal behavior. The collected human skeleton features are then classified using a graph convolution neural network to reduce the computational complexity of the behavior identification algorithm, and the sliding window voting method is used to further improve the accuracy of the behavior classification in practical application, resulting in the diagnosis and classification of abnormal behavior of students under video surveillance. Finally, using the self-built student trajectory data set and the INRIA data set, simulation analysis is performed, and the practicality and superiority of the proposed method for abnormal behavior detection is confirmed by comparing it to the existing abnormal behavior recognition methods. The proposed method for detecting anomalous behavior in a self-built database and INRIA data set has a high accuracy of more than 99.50 percent and a high processing efficiency rate.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Esqueleto , Estudantes
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808479

RESUMO

Nowadays, the need for reliable and low-cost multi-camera systems is increasing for many potential applications, such as localization and mapping, human activity recognition, hand and gesture analysis, and object detection and localization. However, a precise camera calibration approach is mandatory for enabling further applications that require high precision. This paper analyzes the available two-camera calibration approaches to propose a guideline for calibrating multiple Azure Kinect RGB-D sensors to achieve the best alignment of point clouds in both color and infrared resolutions, and skeletal joints returned by the Microsoft Azure Body Tracking library. Different calibration methodologies using 2D and 3D approaches, all exploiting the functionalities within the Azure Kinect devices, are presented. Experiments demonstrate that the best results are returned by applying 3D calibration procedures, which give an average distance between all couples of corresponding points of point clouds in color or an infrared resolution of 21.426 mm and 9.872 mm for a static experiment and of 20.868 mm and 7.429 mm while framing a dynamic scene. At the same time, the best results in body joint alignment are achieved by three-dimensional procedures on images captured by the infrared sensors, resulting in an average error of 35.410 mm.


Assuntos
Gestos , Esqueleto , Calibragem , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12392, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859091

RESUMO

Soft, worm-like robots show promise in complex and constrained environments due to their robust, yet simple movement patterns. Although many such robots have been developed, they either rely on tethered power supplies and complex designs or cannot move external loads. To address these issues, we here introduce a novel, maggot-inspired, magnetically driven "mag-bot" that utilizes shape memory alloy-induced, thermoresponsive actuation and surface pattern-induced anisotropic friction to achieve locomotion inspired by fly larvae. This simple, untethered design can carry cargo that weighs up to three times its own weight with only a 17% reduction in speed over unloaded conditions thereby demonstrating, for the first time, how soft, untethered robots may be used to carry loads in controlled environments. Given their small scale and low cost, we expect that these mag-bots may be used in remote, confined spaces for small objects handling or as components in more complex designs.


Assuntos
Robótica , Fricção , Locomoção , Ligas de Memória da Forma , Esqueleto
19.
Org Biomol Chem ; 20(28): 5558-5565, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791887

RESUMO

In this paper, two cationic probes 1a and 1b and a neutral dye 1c were successfully designed and synthesized according to the Knoevenagel condensation reaction, which combines the good optical properties of hemocyanine and the biocompatibility of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings based on a quinoxaline skeleton. Probes 1a and 1b showed an OFF-ON fluorescence response to nucleic acids with excellent selectivity. Specifically, the fluorescence intensity of probe 1a was enhanced by 18 and 133 times, respectively, along with the increase of DNA or RNA concentrations (0-600 µg mL-1). Furthermore, a good linear correlation between the fluorescence intensity of probes 1a and 1b and the concentrations of DNA or RNA (0-350 µg mL-1) was obtained. In particular, the maximum emission wavelengths of probes 1a and 1b reached the near-infrared region (660-664 nm) when DNA or RNA was detected, which might reduce the light damage to cells and facilitate cell experiments. Fluorescence imaging revealed that all three dyes could be localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells. The difference was that probes 1a and 1b could stain the nucleic acid in the mitochondria, while dye 1c was only a neutral mitochondrial biomarker. The results indicated that probes 1a and 1b are promising in the development of low toxicity mitochondrial nucleic acid probes and are expected to be used in monitoring the normal state of mitochondrial nucleic acids for living cells, which will help improve the situation in that currently reported studies of fluorescent probes are mainly focused on the nucleic acids in the nucleus, but less so on DNA in the mitochondria.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Ácidos Nucleicos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Quinoxalinas , RNA , Esqueleto
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885977

RESUMO

In this Special Issue of Genes entitled "Genetic Conditions Affecting the Skeleton: Congenital, Idiopathic Scoliosis and Arthrogryposis", evidence is presented which suggests that congenital, idiopathic scoliosis, and arthrogryposis share similar overlapping, but also distinct etiopathogenic mechanisms, including connective tissue and neuromuscular mechanisms [...].


Assuntos
Artrogripose , Escoliose , Artrogripose/genética , Humanos , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/genética , Esqueleto
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