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1.
Angiology ; 71(1): 27-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533437

RESUMO

We assessed the cardiovascular safety of long-term direct-acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC) treatment. A search of the medical literature was performed from inception until May 31, 2019. Inclusion criteria were (1) randomized trial that assessed the clinical efficacy and/or safety of 1 or more DOAC, (2) control group including oral anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet and/or placebo treatment, and (3) the incidence of acute coronary syndrome during follow-up was reported. Fixed-effect and random-effects models were applied. The analyzed outcomes were myocardial infarction (MI), major bleeding, and mortality. Twenty-eight randomized clinical trials (196 761 patients) were included. Rivaroxaban was associated with a 21% reduction in the relative risk of MI when compared to placebo (relative risk [RR]: 0.79 [95% credible interval, CrI: 0.65-0.94]) and a 31% reduction (RR: 0.70 [95% CrI: 0.53-0.89]) when compared to dabigatran. Apixaban resulted in 24% (RR: 0.76 [95% CrI: 0.58-0.99]) and vitamin K antagonists anticoagulation resulted in 19% (RR: 0.81 [95% CrI: 0.65-0.98]) risk reduction compared to dabigatran. The computed probability of being the first best choice of treatment was 61.8% for rivaroxaban. Cardiovascular safety shows considerable heterogeneity among oral anticoagulants. Treatment with rivaroxaban is associated with reduced rate of MI.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Meta-Análise em Rede , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 120-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no published studies on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen at the dosage used clinically (20 mg/kg), nor has the safety of multiple doses in horses been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Define the pharmacokinetic parameters of oral acetaminophen at 20 mg/kg in adult horses as a single dose, and twice daily for 14 days to assess the safety of multiple dosing. STUDY DESIGN: Pharmacokinetic study, multiple dose safety study. METHODS: Eight healthy Thoroughbred geldings were given acetaminophen (20 mg/kg; 500 mg tablets) orally as a single dose followed by doses every 12 h for 14 days. Serial blood samples were collected for determination of plasma acetaminophen concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Serum biochemical analysis, gastroscopy and liver biopsy were examined during the safety study. RESULTS: Following a single dose, mean maximum concentration (Cmax ) was 16.61 µg/mL at 1.35 h (Tmax ), and drug concentration was below the lower limit of detection in most horses by 24 h. Elimination half-life (T1/2 ) was 2.78 h. No significant accumulation was noted following multiple doses. Average Cmax of acetaminophen following multiple oral dosing was 15.85 µg/mL, with a Tmax of 0.99 h and T1/2 of 4 h. Serum activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly decreased and total bilirubin concentrations were significantly increased following the last dose. No statistically significant changes were noted in gastroscopy scores. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Only one dose level (20 mg/kg) was studied, sample size was small and only a single breed and sex was used, with no pretreatment liver biopsies. CONCLUSION: This study described the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen following single and multiple 20 mg/kg oral doses in adult horses and demonstrated the safety of acetaminophen with multiple oral dosing over 14 days. The summary is available in Portuguese - see Supporting information.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/farmacocinética , Cavalos/metabolismo , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Acetaminofen/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Meia-Vida , Cavalos/sangue , Masculino , Estatística como Assunto
3.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2292-2302, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846016

RESUMO

Importance: Short-term infusions of single vasodilators, usually given in a fixed dose, have not improved outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Objective: To evaluate the effect of a strategy that emphasized early intensive and sustained vasodilation using individualized up-titrated doses of established vasodilators in patients with AHF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label blinded-end-point trial enrolling 788 patients hospitalized for AHF with dyspnea, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, systolic blood pressure of at least 100 mm Hg, and plan for treatment in a general ward in 10 tertiary and secondary hospitals in Switzerland, Bulgaria, Germany, Brazil, and Spain. Enrollment began in December 2007 and follow-up was completed in February 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation throughout the hospitalization (n = 386) or usual care (n = 402). Early intensive and sustained vasodilation was a comprehensive pragmatic approach of maximal and sustained vasodilation combining individualized doses of sublingual and transdermal nitrates, low-dose oral hydralazine for 48 hours, and rapid up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or sacubitril-valsartan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days. Results: Among 788 patients randomized, 781 (99.1%; median age, 78 years; 36.9% women) completed the trial and were eligible for primary end point analysis. Follow-up at 180 days was completed for 779 patients (99.7%). The primary end point, a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days, occurred in 117 patients (30.6%) in the intervention group (including 55 deaths [14.4%]) and in 111 patients (27.8%) in the usual care group (including 61 deaths [15.3%]) (absolute difference for the primary end point, 2.8% [95% CI, -3.7% to 9.3%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.83-1.39]; P = .59). The most common clinically significant adverse events with early intensive and sustained vasodilation vs usual care were hypokalemia (23% vs 25%), worsening renal function (21% vs 20%), headache (26% vs 10%), dizziness (15% vs 10%), and hypotension (8% vs 2%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AHF, a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation, compared with usual care, did not significantly improve a composite outcome of all-cause mortality and AHF rehospitalization at 180 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00512759.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
4.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(5): 417-427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects of naltrexone following ALO-02 administration. DESIGN: Two phase three studies: an open-label, single-arm safety study, and a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal, efficacy study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01428583, NCT01571362). SETTING: Seventy US research centers. PATIENTS: Eight hundred and five patients with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer pain (n = 395) or moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain (n = 410). INTERVENTIONS: Oral ALO-02 capsules (daily dose 20-160 mg oxycodone): openlabel titration followed by double-blind fixed dose ALO-02 or placebo (12 weeks) for the efficacy study; and open-label administration (≤12 months) for the safety study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-sf), withdrawal-related adverse events, Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), and naltrexone plasma concentrations. RESULTS: ALO-02 was received for = 30 days by 592 patients (73.5 percent), = 90 days by 348 patients (43.2 percent), and ≤361 days by 105 patients (13.0 percent). Maximum COWS scores were below the cutoff for mild withdrawal for the majority of patients: 86.6 percent of patients in the safety study, and for the efficacy study, 96.8 percent during titration and 95.0 percent during double-blind treatment. The frequency of quantifiable naltrexone plasma concentrations was similar between studies (18-23 percent of samples), and the levels were low, generally not exceeding 200 pg/mL. There was no apparent relationship between naltrexone plasma concentrations and COWS scores (total or change from baseline), or change from baseline in BPI-sf scores in the efficacy (R2 = 0.0184, 0.0224, and 0.0173, respectively) or safety studies (R2 = 0.0010, 0.0000, and 0.0122, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Naltrexone plasma concentrations were low, not correlated with COWS or BPI-sf scores, and considered clinically insignificant.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Naltrexona , Oxicodona , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18033, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although there is evidence that aspirin might be able to prevent pancreatic cancer, the findings have been inconsistent. In this paper, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the relationship between aspirin use and the risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We identified potential studies by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Wangfang (Chinese database) database (from 1967 to March 2017) and by reviewing the bibliography of relevant publications. Random effects model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval. The Cochran Q statistic (significance level at P < .1) was used to assess heterogeneity in this study. The author adopted weighted regression method of Egger to assessed publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies involving 4748 pancreatic cancer cases, were included in the meta-analysis. The study reflected that there was no signification association between aspirin use and mortality risk of pancreatic cancer. Aspirin use might reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer. Specifically, there was a high signification association between frequent aspirin use and reduced pancreatic cancer incidence, without heterogeneity. In addition, there was a high signification association between duration of aspirin use more than 5 years and reduced pancreatic cancer incidence, without obvious heterogeneity among the original studies. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this meta-analysis suggested that the aspirin use might be negatively related to the incidence risk of pancreatic cancer. Specifically, the frequency and duration of aspirin use might play an important role in decreasing the incidence of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , China , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18139, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860960

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rituximab is recommended to induce remission of severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Plasma exchange (PE) may be considered in the setting of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) with a serum creatinine increase of more than 5.6 mg/dl or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). However, there are no sufficient studies on combination therapy with rituximab and PE in GPA. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year-old woman was admitted with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea on suspicion of infectious colitis. Colonoscopy showed hemorrhagic colitis and antibiotic treatment was ineffective. Physical examination revealed episcleritis and skin lesions similar to Janeway lesions or Osler nodes on her palms and soles. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) revealed mitral valve vegetation mimicking infective endocarditis. However, no pathogen was grown in the blood culture. Ten days after admission, blood-tinged sputum and respiratory distress developed. Imaging studies of lung, bronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage indicated DAH. Moreover, serum creatinine levels rapidly increased from 0.8 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl with proteinuria. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with GPA and non-infectious endocarditis, DAH, and RPGN, based on a biopsy which revealed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis with granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against proteinase 3- positivity. INTERVENTIONS: Initial methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1 g daily for 3 days) proved unsuccessful. After initiating PE, creatinine levels began to slowly decline, but DAH continued to deteriorate. Rituximab combined with PE therapy was considered. We performed PE every 2 to 3 days for 5 total treatments combined with rituximab (375 mg/m, once weekly for 4 weeks). OUTCOMES: After the combination treatment of rituximab and PE, alveolar hemorrhage stopped. Chest X-ray and laboratory data, including serum creatinine and hemoglobin, notably improved. Mitral valve vegetation was no longer observed in follow-up TEE. GPA remained stable with low dose prednisolone and immunosuppressants over a follow-up period of 5 years. LESSONS: This case suggests that the use of rituximab and concurrent PE may represent a promising combination for severe and refractory GPA.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite/patologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/terapia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Biópsia por Agulha , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/etiologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6041-6047, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We have previously reported that alternate-day S-1 had comparable effects and milder adverse events than the respective consecutive-day regimen in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of both regimens and underlying mechanisms in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were treated with 5-FU given on an alternate-day or consecutive-day schedule. The relative inhibition (RI) of tumor growth was calculated. Cell cycle distributions and cyclin expression following 5-FU treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: The RI of both regimens was almost identical. The percentage of cells in S phase was significantly increased in the alternate-day group compared to the consecutive-day group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The cytotoxic effect of alternate-day was equivalent to that of consecutive-day. S-phase arrest was more prominently observed with the alternate-day regimen, which may help maintain 5-FU sensitivity in head and neck cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
BMJ ; 367: l5337, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether total exposure to penicillin V can be reduced while maintaining adequate clinical efficacy when treating pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci. DESIGN: Open label, randomised controlled non-inferiority study. SETTING: 17 primary healthcare centres in Sweden between September 2015 and February 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 6 years and over with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci and three or four Centor criteria (fever ≥38.5°C, tender lymph nodes, coatings of the tonsils, and absence of cough). INTERVENTIONS: Penicillin V 800 mg four times daily for five days (total 16 g) compared with the current recommended dose of 1000 mg three times daily for 10 days (total 30 g). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was clinical cure five to seven days after the end of antibiotic treatment. The non-inferiority margin was prespecified to 10 percentage points. Secondary outcomes were bacteriological eradication, time to relief of symptoms, frequency of relapses, complications and new tonsillitis, and patterns of adverse events. RESULTS: Patients (n=433) were randomly allocated to the five day (n=215) or 10 day (n=218) regimen. Clinical cure in the per protocol population was 89.6% (n=181/202) in the five day group and 93.3% (n=182/195) in the 10 day group (95% confidence interval -9.7 to 2.2). Bacteriological eradication was 80.4% (n=156/194) in the five day group and 90.7% (n=165/182) in the 10 day group. Eight and seven patients had relapses, no patients and four patients had complications, and six and 13 patients had new tonsillitis in the five day and 10 day groups, respectively. Time to relief of symptoms was shorter in the five day group. Adverse events were mainly diarrhoea, nausea, and vulvovaginal disorders; the 10 day group had higher incidence and longer duration of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Penicillin V four times daily for five days was non-inferior in clinical outcome to penicillin V three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci. The number of relapses and complications did not differ between the two intervention groups. Five day treatment with penicillin V four times daily might be an alternative to the currently recommended 10 day regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2015-001752-30; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02712307.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Penicilina V/administração & dosagem , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penicilina V/efeitos adversos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA ; 322(14): 1360-1370, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593273

RESUMO

Importance: Sprifermin is under investigation as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug. Objective: To evaluate the effects of sprifermin on changes in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness in the more symptomatic knee of patients with osteoarthritis. Design, Setting, and Participants: FORWARD (FGF-18 Osteoarthritis Randomized Trial with Administration of Repeated Doses) was a 5-year, dose-finding, multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted at 10 sites. Eligible participants were aged 40 to 85 years with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis and Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3. Enrollment began in July 2013 and ended in May 2014; the last participant visit occurred on May 8, 2017. The primary outcome at 2 years and a follow-up analysis at 3 years are reported. Interventions: Participants were randomized to 1 of 5 groups: intra-articular injections of 100 µg of sprifermin administered every 6 months (n = 110) or every 12 months (n = 110), 30 µg of sprifermin every 6 months (n = 111) or every 12 months (n = 110), or placebo every 6 months (n = 108). Each treatment consisted of weekly injections over 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness measured by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging at 2 years. The secondary end points (of 15 total) included 2-year change from baseline in total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is unknown for the primary outcome; for total WOMAC score in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, the absolute MCID is 7 U (95% CI, 4 to 10 U) and the percentage MCID is 14% (95% CI, 9% to 18%). Results: Among 549 participants (median age, 65.0 years; 379 female [69.0%]), 474 (86.3%) completed 2-year follow-up. Compared with placebo, the changes from baseline to 2 years in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness were 0.05 mm (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.07 mm) for 100 µg of sprifermin administered every 6 months; 0.04 mm (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.06 mm) for 100 µg of sprifermin every 12 months; 0.02 mm (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.04 mm) for 30 µg of sprifermin every 6 months; and 0.01 mm (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.03 mm) for 30 µg of sprifermin every 12 months. Compared with placebo, there were no statistically significant differences in mean absolute change from baseline in total WOMAC scores for 100 µg of sprifermin administered every 6 months or every 12 months, or for 30 µg of sprifermin every 6 months or every 12 months. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse event was arthralgia (placebo: n = 46 [43.0%]; 100 µg of sprifermin administered every 6 months: n = 45 [41.3%]; 100 µg of sprifermin every 12 months: n = 50 [45.0%]; 30 µg of sprifermin every 6 months: n = 40 [36.0%]; and 30 µg of sprifermin every 12 months: n = 48 [44.0%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among participants with symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis, the intra-articular administration of 100 µg of sprifermin every 6 or 12 months vs placebo resulted in an improvement in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness after 2 years that was statistically significant, but of uncertain clinical importance; there was no significant difference for 30 µg of sprifermin every 6 or 12 months vs placebo. Durability of response also was uncertain. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01919164.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Articulação do Joelho , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia
10.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(10): 1047, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603633

RESUMO

To the Editor: Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) is a relatively rare chronic disorder with clinical findings of pustules and erythematous plaques on the digits.1 Although it is a variant of pustular psoriasis, it can be resistant to multiple lines of therapy. We describe for the first time a patient with recalcitrant ACH successfully treated with brodalumab, an interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) blocking antibody.


Assuntos
Acrodermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Acrodermatite/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Esquema de Medicação , Resistência a Medicamentos , Dedos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Interleucina-17/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17147, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574817

RESUMO

The study aims to examine the treatment effect and adverse reactions of patients with newly diagnosed MM receiving different bortezomib-based regimens.This was a retrospective study of patients with newly diagnosed MM and who were treated with bortezomib-based combined chemotherapy at the Department of Hematology of the 2 affiliated hospitals of Wenzhou Medical University between July 2009 and May 2016. Cox proportion hazard multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the differences in treatment effect and adverse events between standard (1.3 mg/m on days 1, 4, 8, 11) and weekly (1.6 mg/m on days 1, 8, 15) cohorts, as well as the differences between intravenous injection and subcutaneous injection therapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.Among the 117 patients, 78 patients were treated with bortezomib standard therapy and 39 patients were treated with bortezomib weekly therapy (all with intravenous injection). In all patients, the treatment strategy was not independently associated with PFS or OS. The patients in the weekly therapy group had less thrombocytopenia events than those in the standard therapy group. The subcutaneous route had similar treatment effect as the intravenous route, but the incidence of peripheral neuropathy was lower.The once-weekly bortezomib regimen was similar in effectiveness to standard therapy in treating patients with newly diagnosed MM, but the incidence of thrombocytopenia was lower with the weekly regimen compared with the standard regimen.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , China , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(11): 1047-1057, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575290

RESUMO

Introduction: The clinical use of tacrolimus is characterized by many side effects which include neurotoxicity. In contrast, tacrolimus has also shown to have neuroregenerative properties. On a molecular level, the mechanisms of action could provide us more insight into understanding the neurobiological effects. The aim of this article is to review current evidence regarding the use of tacrolimus in peripheral nerve injuries.Areas covered: Available data on tacrolimus' indications were summarized and molecular mechanisms were elucidated to possibly understand the conflicting neurotoxic and neuroregenerative effects. The potential clinical applications of tacrolimus, as immunosuppressant and enhancer of nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries, are discussed. Finally, concepts of delivery are explored.Expert opinion: It is unclear what the exact neurobiological effects of tacrolimus are. Besides its known calcineurin inhibiting properties, the mechanism of action of tacrolimus is mediated by its binding to FK506-binding protein-52, resulting in a bimodal dose response. Experimental models found that tacrolimus administration is preferred up to three days prior to or within 10 days post-nerve reconstruction. Moreover, the indication for the use of tacrolimus has been expanding to fields of dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology to improve outcomes after various indications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Animais , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17639, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of using vancomycin loading dose remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of vancomycin loading dose in the treatment of infections. METHODS: The Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from their inception up to 5 May 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other observational studies were included if they provided clinical outcomes or trough concentrations of vancomycin loading dose (20-30 mg/kg) and conventional-dose (10-20 mg/kg) in the treatment of infections. Achievement of therapeutic concentration (serum trough concentrations of vancomycin reached 15-20 mg/L before the second dose), clinical response (clinical improvement or culture-negative), nephrotoxicity (serum creatinine increase ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥50% increasing from the baseline), other adverse events (including pruritus, flushing, rash, and/or red man syndrome), and mortality were analyzed. Heterogeneity was identified using the Cochrane I statistic, and P-value <.10 or I-values >50% indicated significant heterogeneity. Pooled estimates of the intervention effects were determined by the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in Review Manager program, version 5.3.5. RESULTS: Two RCTs and 7 cohort studies including 2816 infected patients were selected for the analysis, in which serum trough concentrations of vancomycin following the use of vancomycin loading dose or other outcomes were available. Loading dose group had a significantly higher compliance rate of serum trough concentration of 15 to 20 mg/L (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.15-8.15; P = .03) and significantly lower incidence of nephrotoxicity (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40-0.87; P = .008; I = 29%) compared with control group. No significant difference was noted between loading dose group and control group in terms of other adverse events and clinical response (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 0.80-4.93; P = .14; I = 0%). The use of vancomycin loading doses in patients can indeed increase the achievement of therapeutic concentration. CONCLUSION: Vancomycin loading dose increases the achievement of therapeutic concentration without bringing extra risk of nephrotoxicity. However, well-designed large-scale RCTs remain needed to validate the clinical efficacy of vancomycin loading dose and to further evaluate other adverse reactions and mortality.PROSPERO registration number CRD42018093927.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17746, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651908

RESUMO

As research progressed, the recommended duration of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients has been extended from 5 to 10 years. This study aimed to investigate how the duration of endocrine medication and therapy affect survival rate in the real world. By using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), this study examined 1002 breast cancer patients newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2005 as research subjects, and conducted follow-up until 2013. Among these subjects, 51 used aromatase inhibitors (AIs), 561 used tamoxifen, and 390 alternated between the use of tamoxifen and AIs. The mean follow-up period in this study was 9.63 years, and the mean duration of taking endocrine medication was 4.04 years. The tamoxifen group had the longest follow-up period (9.87 years), shortest endocrine therapy duration (3.29 years), and best survival rate (86.1%). Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the duration of endocrine therapy: under 2 years, 2 to 5 years, and over 5 years. It was found that patients who received medication for less than 2 years showed the lowest survival rate with statistically significant differences (P < .001). Therefore, the extension of endocrine therapy duration is critical in improving breast cancer patients' survival rate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17461, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577776

RESUMO

Antidiabetic medications are commonly used around the world, but their safety is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term use of insulin and oral antidiabetic medications is associated with cancer risk.We conducted a well-designed case-control study using 12 years of data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and investigated the association between antidiabetic medication use and cancer risk over 20 years. We identified 42,500 patients diagnosed with cancer and calculated each patient's exposure to antidiabetic drugs during the study period. We matched cancer and noncancer subjects matched 1:6 by age, gender, and index date, and used Cox proportional hazard regression and conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounding factors, that is, medications and comorbid diseases that could influence cancer risk during study period.Pioglitazone (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.38); and insulin and its analogs for injection, intermediate or long acting combined with fast acting (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43) were significantly associated with a higher cancer risk. However, metformin (AOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07), glibenclamide (AOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.92-1.05), acarbose (AOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96-1.16), and others do not show evidence of association with cancer risk. Moreover, the risk for specific cancers among antidiabetic users as compared with nonantidiabetic medication users was significantly increased for pancreas cancer (by 45%), liver cancer (by 32%), and lung cancer (by 18%).Antidiabetic drugs do not seem to be associated with an increased cancer risk incidence except for pioglitazone, insulin and its analogs for injection, intermediate or long acting combined with fast acting.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
16.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1321-1332, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the majority of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, most currently available therapies do not result in complete symptom control. Ligelizumab is a next-generation high-affinity humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Data are limited regarding the dose-response relationship of ligelizumab and the efficacy and safety of ligelizumab as compared with omalizumab and placebo in patients who have moderate-to-severe chronic spontaneous urticaria that is inadequately controlled with H1-antihistamines at approved or increased doses, alone or in combination with H2-antihistamines or leukotriene-receptor antagonists. METHODS: In a phase 2b dose-finding trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive ligelizumab at a dose of 24 mg, 72 mg, or 240 mg, omalizumab at a dose of 300 mg, or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for a period of 20 weeks, or a single 120-mg dose of ligelizumab. Disease symptoms of hives, itch, and angioedema were monitored by means of weekly activity scores. The main objective was to determine a dose-response relationship for the complete control of hives (indicated by a weekly hives-severity score of 0, on a scale from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating greater severity); the primary end point of this response was assessed at week 12. Complete symptom control was indicated by a weekly urticaria activity score of 0 (on a scale from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating greater severity). Safety was analyzed throughout the trial. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients underwent randomization. At week 12, a total of 30%, 51%, and 42% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of hives, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. A dose-response relationship was established. At week 12, a total of 30%, 44%, and 40% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of symptoms, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. In this small and short trial, no safety concerns regarding ligelizumab or omalizumab emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A higher percentage of patients had complete control of symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria with ligelizumab therapy of 72 mg or 240 mg than with omalizumab or placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477332.).


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omalizumab/efeitos adversos , Gravidade do Paciente , Indução de Remissão , Urticária/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(10): 1029-1036, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584782

RESUMO

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disease that varies widely in its clinical expression. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the mainstay of treatment. Long-term safety remains a concern, limiting use, and posttreatment flare is common. Recently data were reported on the use of halobetasol propionate (HP) 0.01% lotion in moderate or severe localized plaque psoriasis, once-daily for 8 weeks. In addition, a 2-week label-restricted study reported comparable efficacy to HP 0.05% cream. Data evaluating efficacy in specific locations has not been reported and while psoriasis commonly affects lower extremities treatment can be more problematic and burden of disease heightened. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of a once-daily application of HP 0.01% lotion in comparison with its vehicle in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis of the lower extremities. Methods: A post hoc analysis of two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled phase 3 studies in moderate or severe psoriasis. Subjects (N=234) where the leg was identified as the target lesion were randomized (2:1 ratio) to receive HP 0.01% lotion or vehicle, once-daily for 8 weeks. Efficacy assessments included treatment success (defined as at least a 2-grade improvement from baseline) in each individual sign of psoriasis (erythema, plaque elevation, and scaling) at the target lesion (leg) and overall treatment outcomes including at least a 2-grade improvement from baseline in the Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) score, and 'clear' or 'almost clear', improvement in Body Surface Area (BSA) and reduction in IGAxBSA. Quality of Life (QoL) was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) at baseline, week 4, 8, and 12. Results: At the end of the 8-week treatment period, more than half of subjects had achieved treatment success, with 52.1%, 55.5%, and 58.2% of subjects achieving at least a 2-grade reduction in erythema, plaque elevation and scaling severity on the leg, compared with 15.7% and 22.9%, and 22.2% of those treated with vehicle (P<0.001). In addition, overall treatment success (IGA) was achieved in 37.1% of these subjects who had been treated with HP 0.01% lotion compared with 8.4% treated with vehicle (P<0.001); with a corresponding 34.2% reduction in baseline BSA and 50.5% change in mean baseline IGAxBSA (both P<0.001 versus vehicle). Overall, a clinically relevant improvement in QoL was achieved by week 4; by week 8 37.7% of subjects where the leg was the target lesion had a clinically meaningful improvement in disease severity (IGAxBSA-75). Conclusions: In conclusion, halobetasol propionate 0.01% lotion provides statistically significant efficacy following 8 weeks' therapy compared with vehicle in subjects where the leg was identified as the target lesion, with clinically relevant improvements in QoL and more than a third of subjects achieving a clinically meaningful result. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(10):1029-1036.


Assuntos
Clobetasol/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Clobetasol/administração & dosagem , Clobetasol/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Creme para a Pele/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 120-129, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580884

RESUMO

PEGylation is considered a safe mechanism to enhance the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of biotherapeutics. Previous studies using PEGylation as a PK enhancement tool have reported benign PEG-related vacuolation in multiple tissues. This paper establishes a threshold for PEG burden beyond which there are alterations in tissue architecture that could potentially lead to dysfunction. As part of the nonclinical safety assessment of Compound A, a 12 kDa protein conjugated to a 40 kDa branched PEG molecule, monkeys were dosed subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months at protein doses resulting in weekly PEG doses of 8, 24, 120, or 160 mg/kg. Consistent with previous reports with PEGylated biomolecules, Compound A administration resulted in intracellular vacuoles attributed to the PEG moiety in macrophages in numerous tissues and epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and kidney. Vacuolation occurred at all doses with dose-dependent severity and no evidence of recovery up to 2 months after dosing cessation. The vacuolation was considered nonadverse at PEG doses ≤120 mg/kg/week. However, at 160 mg/kg/week PEG, the vacuolation in choroid plexus, pituitary gland, kidney, and choroid of the eye was considered adverse due to significant alterations of tissue architecture that raised concern for the possibility of compromised tissue function. To our knowledge, this is the first report of potentially adverse cellular consequences of PEG accumulation in tissues other than kidney. Furthermore, the lack of reversibility of vacuolation coupled with the lack of a biomarker for intracellular PEG accumulation highlights a potential risk that should be weighed against the benefits of PK/PD enhancement for long-term administration of PEGylated compounds at high doses.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Proteínas/toxicidade , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas , Macaca fascicularis , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Vacúolos/patologia
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108819, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499052

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound obtained from Cannabis sativa, has wide range of therapeutic properties, including mitigation of diabetes and neurodegeneration. Cerebral ischemia and consequent learning disabilities are aggravated in elderly diabetic subjects. However, there are no studies showing the effect of CBD treatment in elderly diabetes patients suffering cerebral ischemia. The present work tested the hypothesis that CBD treatment improves metabolic dysfunctions in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In this work, 350-day-old male Wistar streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used. To induce cerebral ischemia was used a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), surgically, via the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4-VO/ICA). Four diabetic groups were established: Non-CCH Treated Diabetic (DNT), CCH Treated Diabetic (DCT), Non-CCH Vehicle Diabetic (DNV), and CCH Vehicle Diabetic (DCV). Vehicle groups were not treated with CBD. The animals were treated during 30 days with 10 mg CBD/Kg bw/day. After treatment, the animals were euthanized, and blood levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, fructosamine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. DCT group presented reduction of hyperglycemia and an increase of insulinemia. Also was observed lower fructosamine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. AST and ALT concentration were reduced in CBD treated groups. CBD may be used as therapeutic tool to protect metabolism against injuries from diabetes aggravated by cerebral ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(9): 910-916, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acne is a common problem among Asian adolescents and adults. Generally, Asian skin is more pigmented, with a higher risk of acne sequelae. Potential for skin irritation and dryness, as well as pigmentary changes are key concerns that can have significant impact on Quality of Life (QoL). The first lotion formulation of tretinoin was developed using novel polymeric emulsion technology to provide an important alternative option to treat acne patients who may be sensitive to the irritant effects of other tretinoin formulations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of tretinoin 0.05% lotion in treating moderate-to-severe acne in an Asian population. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled phase 3 studies. Asian subjects (aged 12 to 48 years, N=69 with 61% female) were randomized (1:1) to receive tretinoin 0.05% lotion or vehicle, once-daily for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included changes in baseline inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions and treatment success (at least 2-grade reduction in Evaluator's Global Severity Score [EGSS] and clear/almost clear). Quality of Life (QoL) was assessed using the validated Acne QoL scale. Safety, adverse events (AEs), cutaneous tolerability and hyper- or hypo-pigmentation (using 4-point scales where 0=none and 3=severe) were evaluated. RESULTS: At week 12, mean percent reduction in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts were 58.6% and 51.4% respectively compared with 41.5% and 23.9% with vehicle (P=0.012 for noninflammatory lesions from week 8). Treatment success was achieved by 27.2% of subjects treated with tretinoin 0.05% lotion by week 12. For each Acne QoL domain, changes from baseline achieved with tretinoin 0.05% lotion were statistically significant compared to vehicle. Only five subjects reported any AE; all AEs were mild or moderate and transient. There were no serious AEs (SAEs). There were no treatment-related AEs with tretinoin 0.05% lotion. There were slight transient increases in scaling and burning over the first 4-8 weeks. Mild hyperpigmentation was reported at baseline (mean score, 0.8) and remained mild throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Post hoc analysis showed that tretinoin 0.05% lotion was significantly more effective than its vehicle in achieving reductions in noninflammatory acne lesions and improvements in QoL in an Asian population. The novel lotion formulation was well-tolerated, with no treatment-related AEs and no concerns with skin dryness, irritation, or hyperpigmentation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(9):910-916.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratolíticos/administração & dosagem , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem , Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratolíticos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
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