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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 1391583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029193

RESUMO

Purpose: We aimed to analyze and evaluate the safety signals of ribavirin-interferon combination through data mining of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), so as to provide reference for the rationale use of these agents in the management of relevant toxicities emerging in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods: Reports to the FAERS from 1 January 2004 to 8 March 2020 were analyzed. The proportion of report ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and Bayesian confidence interval progressive neural network (BCPNN) method were used to detect the safety signals. Results: A total of 55 safety signals were detected from the top 250 adverse event reactions in 2200 reports, but 19 signals were not included in the drug labels. All the detected adverse event reactions were associated with 13 System Organ Classes (SOC), such as gastrointestinal, blood and lymph, hepatobiliary, endocrine, and various nervous systems. The most frequent adverse events were analyzed, and the results showed that females were more likely to suffer from anemia, vomiting, neutropenia, diarrhea, and insomnia. Conclusion: The ADE (adverse drug event) signal detection based on FAERS is helpful to clarify the potential adverse events related to ribavirin-interferon combination for novel coronavirus therapy; clinicians should pay attention to the adverse reactions of gastrointestinal and blood systems, closely monitor the fluctuations of the platelet count, and carry out necessary mental health interventions to avoid serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Mineração de Dados , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Med Vasc ; 45(5): 288-293, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is increasing. Its management is sometimes complex and difficult due to its complications and the lack of strong recommendations. The aim was to describe the practice of vascular physicians in Occitanie region in the management of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a descriptive observational study in the form of a declarative survey by means of a questionnaire from April to May 2019 among vascular physicians. RESULTS: Of the 142 physicians contacted, 84 responded, with a reply rate of 59.1%. The majority of physicians introduced low-molecular-weight heparin treatment (60.71%) and 29.76% direct oral anticoagulation after a diagnosis of UEDVT. Three months of anticoagulation was chosen by 69% of physicians against 27.4% for a duration of 6 months. Diagnostic work-up included biological risk factors, chest and/or cervical radiography and ultrasonography with dynamic maneuvers. Three quarters of doctors recommended venous compression. A control ultrasonography was performed for 67.86% of patients at one month and at the end of treatment. After the acute phase, 63% of physicians introduced direct oral anticoagulation and 11% recommended venous revascularization. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The mobilization of vascular physicians reflects their interest for this pathology. The management of UEDVT requires specific studies to address therapeutic modalities, the duration of anticoagulation or the place of venous compression in the acute phase.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Bandagens Compressivas/tendências , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/tendências , Administração Oral , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , França/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/epidemiologia
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(10): 761-774, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946830

RESUMO

All malaria infections are harmful to both the pregnant mother and the developing fetus. One in ten maternal deaths in malaria endemic countries are estimated to result from Plasmodium falciparum infection. Malaria is associated with a 3-4 times increased risk of miscarriage and a substantially increased risk of stillbirth. Current treatment and prevention strategies reduce, but do not eliminate, malaria's damaging effects on pregnancy outcomes. Reviewing evidence generated from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and observational data, the first paper in this Series aims to summarise the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy on the fetus and how the current drug treatment and prevention strategies can alleviate these effects. Although evidence supports the safety and treatment efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies in the first trimester, these therapies have not been recommended by WHO for the treatment of malaria at this stage of pregnancy. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is contraindicated in the first trimester and provides imperfect chemoprevention because of inadequate dosing, poor (few and late) antenatal clinic attendance, increasing antimalarial drug resistance, and decreasing naturally acquired maternal immunity due to the decreased incidence of malaria. Alternative strategies to prevent malaria in pregnancy are needed. The prevention of all malaria infections by providing sustained exposure to effective concentrations of antimalarial drugs is key to reducing the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Pirimetamina/efeitos adversos , Sulfadoxina/efeitos adversos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
6.
Am Heart J ; 228: 81-90, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866928

RESUMO

Recurrent pericarditis (RP) occurs in 15% to 30% of patients following a first episode, despite standard treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, and corticosteroids; many patients become dependent on corticosteroids. Rilonacept (KPL-914), an interleukin-1α and ß inhibitor, is in development for the treatment of RP. RHAPSODY, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal (RW) pivotal Phase 3 trial (NCT03737110), enrolls patients 12 years or older presenting with at least a third pericarditis episode, pericarditis pain score ≥4 (11-point numeric rating scale [NRS]), and C-reactive protein ≥1 mg/dL at screening. After a subcutaneous loading dose (adults, 320 mg; children, 4.4 mg/kg), all patients receive blinded weekly subcutaneous rilonacept (adults, 160 mg; children, 2.2 mg/kg) during the run-in period. Patients must taper and discontinue concomitant pericarditis medications during the blinded run-in period and achieve clinical response (C-reactive protein ≤0.5 mg/dL and weekly average NRS ≤2.0 during the 7 days prior to and including the day of randomization) by end of the run-in (while on rilonacept monotherapy) to be randomized to either continued rilonacept or placebo in the RW period. Primary efficacy end point was time to adjudicated pericarditis recurrence during the RW period; secondary efficacy end points were proportion of patients maintaining clinical response, percentage of days with NRS ≤2, and percentage of patients with no-to-minimal pericarditis symptoms at week 16 of the RW period. Safety evaluations include adverse event monitoring, physical examinations, and laboratory tests. The RHAPSODY trial will evaluate the efficacy and safety of rilonacept in the treatment of RP to improve outcomes and patient health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Pericardite , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interleucina-1alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pericardite/diagnóstico , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Pericardite/fisiopatologia , Pericardite/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos
7.
Ann Hematol ; 99(11): 2589-2598, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892275

RESUMO

The induction therapy containing ixazomib, an oral proteasome inhibitor, has shown favorable efficacy and safety in clinical trials, but its experience in real-life remains limited. In routine practice, few patients received ixazomib-based induction therapy due to reasons including (1) patients' preference on oral regimens, (2) concerns on adverse events (AEs) of other intravenous/subcutaneous regimens, (3) requirements for less center visits, and (4) fears of COVID-19 and other infectious disease exposures. With the aim of assessing the real-life effectiveness and safety of ixazomib-based induction therapy, we performed this multi-center, observational study on 85 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients from 14 medical centers. Ixazomib-based regimens included ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd) in 44.7% of patients, ixazomib-dexamethasone (Id) in 29.4%, and Id plus another agent (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, or daratumumab) in 25.9%. Different ixazomib-based therapies were applied due to (1) financial burdens or limitations on local health insurance coverage, (2) concerns on treatment tolerance, and (3) drug accessibility issue. Ten patients received ixazomib maintenance. The median age was 67 years; 43.5% had ISS stage III disease; 48.2% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score ≥ 2; and 17.6% with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. Overall response rate for all 85 patients was 95.3%, including 65.9% very good partial response or better and 29.5% complete responses. The median time to response was 30 days. The response rate was similar across different ixazomib-based regimens. Median progression-free survival was not reached. Severe AEs (≥ grade 3) were reported in 29.4% of patients. No grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy (PN) occurred. Patients received a median of 6 (range 1-20) cycles of ixazomib treatment; 56.6% remained on treatment at data cutoff; 15.3% discontinued treatment due to intolerable AEs. These results support that the ixazomib-based frontline therapy was highly effective with acceptable toxicity in routine practice and the ixazomib oral regimens could be good alternative options for NDMM patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Boro/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Indução de Remissão , Análise de Sobrevida , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Virology ; 550: 61-69, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882638

RESUMO

The world is in the midst of a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus and is desperately searching for possible treatments. The antiviral remdesivir has shown some effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in a recent animal study. We use data from a study of remdesivir in rhesus macaques to fit a viral kinetics model in an effort to determine the most appropriate mathematical descripton of the effect of remdesivir. We find statistically significant differences in the viral decay rate and use this to inform a possible mathematical formulation of the effect of remdesivir. Unfortunately, this model formulation suggests that the application of remdesivir will lengthen SARS-CoV-2 infections, putting into question its potential clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/sangue , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacocinética , Alanina/sangue , Alanina/farmacocinética , Animais , Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Inflamação , Macaca mulatta , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
9.
APMIS ; 128(11): 583-592, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865844

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease which affects the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, the in vivo effects of ATRA, calcitriol, and their combinations on the expression of murine CD4+ T cell cytokines and their specific transcription factors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced mice were explored. Thirty-two EAE induced inbred C57BL/6 female mice with an age ranged from 8 to 10 weeks were divided into four categories in a random manner. The first, second, and third groups received ATRA, calcitriol, ATRA+ calcitriol, respectively, and the fourth group received vehicle. The treatment started on the day prior to immunization and through the IP injections every other days for 21 days. The dosages of administration for calcitriol, ATRA, and calcitriol+ ATRA were 100 ng, 250 µg, and 50ng + 125 µg, respectively per mouse. An equal volume of excipient was administered for the vehicle group. T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA-3, and IL-4 genes expression were assessed in the splenocytes of EAE -induced mice. The expression of T-bet and IFN-γ genes in the splenocytes of ATRA, calcitriol and combination- treated mice were significantly reduced compared to vehicle group (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in T-bet expression was observed in the combination-treated group compared to the ATRA-treated group (p < 0.05). The expression of GATA3 and IL-4 genes was significantly increased in the ATRA-, calcitriol-, and combination-treated mice when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of calcitriol alone and in combination with ATRA was more considerable than that of ATRA alone. The nutraceutical approaches may be promising in the prevention and/or treatment of MS.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/imunologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia
10.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e724-e736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who are 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Pharmacodynamic studies have suggested superiority of the longer 10-day regimen of decitabine that has shown promising results in patients with high-risk AML in phase 2 trials. We hypothesised that venetoclax with 10-day decitabine could have improved activity in patients with newly diagnosed AML and those with relapsed or refractory AML, particularly in high-risk subgroups. METHODS: This single centre, phase 2 trial was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). The study enrolled older patients (aged >60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy; secondary AML (progressed after myelodysplastic syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia); and relapsed or refractory AML. Patients were required to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 3 or less, white blood cell count less than 10 × 109 per L, and adequate end-organ function. Patients with favourable-risk cytogenetics (eg, t[15;17] or core-binding factor AML) or who had received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 10 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, followed by decitabine for 5 days with daily venetoclax for consolidation. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. The secondary endpoints analysed within this report include safety, overall survival, and duration of response, in keeping with recommendations of European LeukemiaNet 2017 guidelines. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were eligible for safety and response assessments. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03404193) and continues to accrue patients. FINDINGS: Between Jan 19, 2018, and Dec 16, 2019, we enrolled 168 patients; 70 (42%) had newly diagnosed AML, 15 (9%) had untreated secondary AML, 28 (17%) had treated secondary AML, and 55 (33%) had relapsed or refractory AML. The median age was 71 years (IQR 65-76) and 30% of patients had ECOG performance status of 2 or higher. The median follow-up for all patients was 16 months (95% CI 12-18; actual follow-up 6·5 months; IQR 3·4-12·4). The overall response rate was 74% (125 of 168 patients; 95% CI 67-80) and in disease subgroups were: 89% in newly diagnosed AML (62 of 70 patients; 79-94), 80% in untreated secondary AML (12 of 15 patients; 55-93), 61% in treated secondary AML (17 of 28 patients; 42-76), and 62% in relapsed or refractory AML (34 of 55 patients; 49-74). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events included infections with grades 3 or 4 neutropenia (n=79, 47%) and febrile neutropenia (n=49, 29%). 139 (83%) of 168 patients had serious adverse events, most frequently neutropenic fever (n=63, 38%), followed by pneumonia (n=17, 10%) and sepsis (n=16, 10%). The 30-day mortality for all patients was 3·6% (n=6, 95% CI 1·7-7·8). The median overall survival was 18·1 months (95% CI 10·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 7·8 months (2·9-10·7) in untreated secondary AML, 6·0 months (3·4-13·7) in treated secondary AML, and 7·8 months (5·4-13·3) relapsed or refractory AML. The median duration of response was not reached (95% CI 9·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 5·1 months (95% CI 0·9-not reached) in untreated secondary AML, not reached (95% CI 2·5-not reached) in previously treated secondary AML, and 16·8 months (95% CI 6·6-not reached) in relapsed or refractory AML. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax with 10-day decitabine has a manageable safety profile and showed high activity in newly diagnosed AML and molecularly defined subsets of relapsed or refractory AML. Future larger and randomised studies are needed to clarify activity in high-risk subsets. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520958594, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide range of severity, ranging from an asymptomatic presentation to a severe illness requiring intensive care unit admission. Identification of a strategy to manage the severity of this disease will not only help to reduce its case fatality but also help to remove some of the burden from the already overwhelmed health care systems. While successful management of symptoms in general is important, identifying measures to modify the severity of the illness is a key factor in the fight against this pandemic. METHODS: This paper presents a short literature review to suggest a new treatment modality for COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 is less severe and rarely fatal in children than in adults, which could be caused by greater fluctuations of plasma epinephrine in children. Our literature survey endorses this hypothesis according to both the epidemiological and immunological findings. CONCLUSION: Application of epinephrine pulses with a specific amplitude may be considered an intervention to minimize the severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Epinefrina/sangue , Epinefrina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Imunológicos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 837-843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975057

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The standard schedule for sunitinib treatment is 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off (4/2) in first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Schedule modifications, including 2 weeks on and 1 week off (2/1), appear to reduce the total number of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) without compromising efficacy. Even though TRAEs can qualitatively differ from each other, it is not clear as to what effects a 2/1 schedule has on individual TRAEs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This meta-analysis included one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and four non-randomized controlled studies (non-RCTs) that compared the two schedules in parallel. The primary objective was to estimate risk of individual adverse events (AEs) with a sunitinib 2/1 schedule versus a 4/2 schedule. Seven representative AEs were evaluated as standard data for the RCT and as weighted pooling data of the non-RCTs. Random effects modelling with Review Manager v5.3 was used to pool study-level data using the inverse-variance of each study as the weight. RESULTS: The five selected studies included a total of 484 patients with mRCC. Risk ratios for fatigue for a 2/1 schedule were significantly lower than those for a 4/2 schedule {0.69 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.51, 0.95] in the RCT and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.63, 0.94) in the non-RCTs}. Other TRAEs, except diarrhea and anorexia, also tended to decrease in both sets. Efficacy outcomes were comparable between 2/1 and standard schedules. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that a 2/1 schedule of sunitinib lowers the risk of fatigue and the occurrence other AEs without compromising efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237665, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866166

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in atherothrombosis. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory drug that may attenuate this process. Cardiovascular protective effects of anti-inflammatory drugs, however, seem to be limited to patients with a biochemical response. We therefore investigated whether short-term exposure to colchicine reduced inflammatory markers and whether additional laboratory changes occur in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. METHODS & RESULTS: In 138 consecutive patients with chronic coronary artery disease and a high sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) ≥ 2 mg/L, inflammatory markers, lipids, haematologic parameters and renal function were measured at baseline and after 30 days exposure to colchicine 0.5mg once daily. Hs-CRP decreased from baseline 4.40 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR] 2.83-6.99 mg/L) to 2.33 mg/L (IQR 1.41-4.17, median of the differences -1.66 mg/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.17 - -1.22 mg/L, p-value <0.01), corresponding to a median change from baseline of -40%. Interleukin-6 decreased from 2.51 ng/L (IQR 1.59-4.32 ng/L) to 2.22 ng/L (median of the differences -0.36 ng/L, 95%CI -0.70 - -0.01 ng/L, p-value 0.04), corresponding to a median change from baseline of -16%. No clinically relevant changes in lipid fractions were observed. Both leukocyte and thrombocyte count decreased (median change from baseline -7% and -4% respectively). Estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased with a mean change from baseline of -2%. CONCLUSION: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease and elevated hs-CRP, one-month exposure to colchicine 0.5 mg once daily was associated with a reduction of inflammatory markers. A small effect was seen on white blood cell count and platelet count, as well as a small decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colchicina/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/imunologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5229-5235, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is implicated in the tumorigenesis of breast and prostate cancers where it drives cell proliferation, survival, and migration. LFA102 is a humanized monoclonal antibody against PRLR with promising preclinical antitumor activity. To determine the maximum tolerated dose or a recommended dose, and to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile of LFA102 in Japanese patients, we conducted a phase I study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: LFA102 was intravenously infused every 4 weeks to patients with advanced breast or castration-resistant prostate cancer, and the dose increased from 3 to 40 mg/kg. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were treated, and toxicities were reported in 9 (64%) patients. They were all grade 1 or 2, and the most frequently observed toxicity was nausea (3 patients, 21%). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. LFA102 did not show antitumor activity as a single agent. CONCLUSION: Treatment with LFA102 was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/etiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5237-5243, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a relatively refractory CD4-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma. VCAP-AMP-VECP (mLSG15) is one of the standard chemotherapeutic regimens for patients with aggressive ATLL. Mogamulizumab (moga), a monoclonal antibody for C-C chemokine receptor 4 antigen expressed on the cell surface, has recently been poised for use as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. However, to date, a significant survival benefit has not been obtained with the combination of moga + mLSG15 therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients diagnosed with aggressive ATLL. Of them, 22 were treated with moga + a chemotherapy regimen comprised of etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone (EPOCH), 16 with moga + mLSG15, and 39 with chemotherapy alone. RESULTS: A risk reduction of approximately 30% was obtained with moga + EPOCH compared with moga + mLSG15. CONCLUSION: The addition of moga to chemotherapy did not result in a survival benefit compared with chemotherapy alone. However, a statistically significant overall survival benefit was observed in patients with moga-induced skin disorders.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5255-5261, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer remains challenging due to the development of resistance to chemotherapy. Cabazitaxel is a new taxane that has demonstrated beneficial effect in prostate cancer patients resistant to docetaxel. Therefore, it could be anticipated to possibly also have an effect on chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with chemotherapy-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer were treated with cabazitaxel at a dose of 25 mg/m2 (on day 1 of each 3-week cycle), until progression or inacceptable toxicity, between September 2015 and April 2018. The fraction of patients without progression after three months of treatment was the primary endpoint. Prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was prescribed to all patients. RESULTS: The median number of cabazitaxel infusions was 4 (range=1-18). In general, cabazitaxel was well-tolerated. The fraction of patients alive and without progression after 3 months of treatment was 54% (14/26). The response rate was 46% (12/26) according to the Gynecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) criteria for CA125. Partial response (PR), evaluated by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), was found in 4/26 patients (15%). By intention-to-treat analysis, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.9 months (95% CI=1.9-4.4) using the combination of CA125 or RECIST (whichever came first), while the median overall survival (OS) was 8.4 months (95% CI=5.1-11.0). CONCLUSION: Cabazitaxel holds promise as a drug in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. It demonstrated efficacy and in general, the toxicity was manageable.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Retratamento , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5263-5270, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer is difficult and challenging because available chemotherapeutic agents only offer short survival improvements. The efficacy of re-treatment with platinum-based agents including nedaplatin for platinum-resistant patients has not been fully investigated. CASE REPORT: We describe herein three cases of heavily treated platinum-resistant ovarian cancer that were successfully treated with weekly nedaplatin followed by olaparib. After becoming platinum-resistant, the cases were treated with non-platinum chemotherapies. Following these regimens, weekly nedaplatin was introduced, followed by olaparib. At the time of writing, survival since the start of weekly nedaplatin was 30 months for case 1, 20 months for case 2, and 17 months for case 3, with all patients showing no evidence of disease. CONCLUSION: Weekly nedaplatin followed by olaparib might represent a good treatment option for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and is a solid candidate for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4869-4874, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant administration of oral recombinant methioninase (o-rMETase) against recurrence and metastasis in a 4T1 murine breast-cancer syngeneic model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4T1 cells were orthotopically implanted into the 2nd mammary fat pad of BALB/c mice. The 4T1 orthotopic syngeneic models were randomized into 2 groups after primary tumor resection: untreated control and o-rMETase (100 units, oral, daily, 2 weeks). RESULTS: The frequency and extent of local recurrence were reduced by o-rMETase. The number of individual cancer cells and metastatic nodules on the lung surface was significantly lower in the o-rMETase-treated mice than the untreated control mice. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant o-rMETase inhibited local recurrence and lung metastasis after primary tumor resection.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/cirurgia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2351-2356, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865607

RESUMO

Lenalidomide (Len) and dexamethasone (dex) therapy is a standard therapy in patients with multiple myeloma. Elderly or unfit patients may reduce Len or dex doses to prevent toxicities that lead to treatment discontinuation. However, there have been few studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of lower doses of Len and dex. We conducted a phase II study of 1.5-year low-dose Len and dex therapy following melphalan and prednisolone (MP), the number of which cycles was determined by a response within 9 cycles. The Len dose was 10 mg daily and the dex dose was 20 mg weekly, which were continued for 1.5 years. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The median number of cycles of MP was 3 (range, 2-9). The overall response rate was 81% and a very good partial response or better was achieved in 33.3% of patients. The median follow-up time for survivors was 70.5 months (range, 42-83 months), the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27 months (95% CI, 21-33 months), and the median overall survival was not reached. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were observed in 28.6% of patients. In conclusion, the low-dose Len and dex therapy safely achieved comparable efficacies to the standard-dose regimen in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. UMIN000007889.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD010458, 2020 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria has a persistent liver stage that causes relapse of the disease and continued P vivax transmission. Primaquine (PQ) is used to clear the liver stage of the parasite, but treatment is required for 14 days. Primaquine also causes haemolysis in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Tafenoquine (TQ) is a new alternative to PQ with a longer half-life and can be used as a single-dose treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of tafenoquine 300 mg (single dose) on preventing P vivax relapse. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following up to 3 June 2020: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; and three other databases. We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials for ongoing trials using "tafenoquine" and "malaria" as search terms up to 3 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that gave TQ to prevent relapse in people with P vivax malaria. We planned to include trials irrespective of whether participants had been screened for G6PD enzyme deficiency. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. As true relapse and reinfection are difficult to differentiate in people living in endemic areas, studies report "recurrences" of infection as a proxy for relapse. We carried out meta-analysis where appropriate, and gave estimates as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Three individually randomized RCTs met our inclusion criteria, all in endemic areas, and thus reporting recurrence. Trials compared TQ with PQ or placebo, and all participants received chloroquine (CQ) to treat the asexual infection). In all trials, pregnant and G6PD-deficient people were excluded. Tafenoquine 300 mg single dose versus no treatment for relapse prevention Two trials assessed this comparison. TQ 300 mg single dose reduces P vivax recurrences compared to no antihypnozoite treatment during a six-month follow-up, but there is moderate uncertainty around effect size (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.88; 2 trials, 504 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In people with normal G6PD status, there is probably little or no difference in any type of adverse events (2 trials, 504 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). However, we are uncertain if TQ causes more serious adverse events (2 trials, 504 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Both RCTs reported a total of 23 serious adverse events in TQ groups (One RCT reported 21 events) and a majority (15 events) were a drop in haemoglobin level by > 3g/dl (or >30% reduction from baseline). Tafenoquine 300 mg single dose versus primaquine 15 mg/day for 14 days for relapse prevention Three trials assessed this comparison. There is probably little or no difference between TQ and PQ in preventing recurrences (proxy measure for relapse) up to six months of follow-up (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.34; 3 trials, 747 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In people with normal G6PD status, there is probably little or no difference in any type of adverse events (3 trials, 747 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if TQ can cause more serious adverse events compared to PQ (3 trials, 747 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Two trials had higher point estimates against TQ while the other showed the reverse. Most commonly reported serious adverse event in TQ group was a decline in haemoglobin level (19 out of 29 events). Some other serious adverse events, though observed in the TQ group, are unlikely to be caused by it (Hepatitis E infection, limb abscess, pneumonia, menorrhagia). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: TQ 300 mg single dose prevents relapses after clinically parasitologically confirmed P vivax malaria compared to no antihypnozoite treatment, and with no difference detected in studies comparing it to PQ to date. However, the inability to differentiate a true relapse from a recurrence in the available studies may affect these estimates. The drug is untested in children and in people with G6PD deficiency. Single-dose treatment is an important practical advantage compared to using PQ for the same purpose without an overall increase in adverse events in non-pregnant, non-G6PD-deficient adults.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Secundária , Adulto , Aminoquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Humanos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Placebos , Primaquina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva
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