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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163381

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni uses different mechanisms to escape its host's immunity. Understanding the ability of memory T cells to withstand this pathogen's manipulation is important for the development of effective vaccines against this immunomodulatory pathogen. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) transgenic S. mansoni is used as a tool to investigate whether fully differentiated Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells are able to withstand pathogen manipulation. Naïve T cells from OT-II T cell receptor transgenic mice with a specificity for OVA were differentiated into Th1, Th2, and Th17 polarised memory cells in vitro. These cells were adoptively transferred into recipient mice to investigate whether these polarised immune memory T cells are resilient in the face of pathogen-mediated manipulation. After transferring memory cells, mice were challenged with OVA-transduced S. mansoni eggs as well as wild-type controls. The in vitro differentiated Th1, Th2 and Th17 memory cells continued to produce the same cytokines when challenged by OVA-expressing S. mansoni eggs as to these they produced when transferred in vivo, suggesting that the Th phenotypes of the memory T cells remains unaltered in the face of stimulation by S. mansoni. The ability of memory T cells to remain resilient to manipulation by the parasite suggests that vaccines might be able to produce immune memory responses able to withstand S. mansoni immune manipulation and hence protect the host from infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Polaridade Celular , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Memória Imunológica , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Óvulo/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
2.
Cytokine ; 149: 155701, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741881

RESUMO

The severity of chronic schistosomiasis has been mainly associated with the intensity and extension of the inflammatory response induced by egg-secreted antigens in the host tissue, especially in the liver and intestine. During acute schistosomiasis, eosinophils account for approximately 50% of the cells that compose the liver granulomas; however, the role of this cell-type in the pathology of schistosomiasis remains controversial. In the current study, we compared the parasite burden and liver immunopathological changes during experimental schistosomiasis in wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice selectively deficient for the differentiation of eosinophils (ΔdblGATA). Our data demonstrated that the absence of eosinophil differentiation did not alter the S. mansoni load or the liver retention of parasite eggs; however, there were significant changes in the liver immune response profile and tissue damage. S. mansoni infection in ΔdblGATA mice resulted in significantly lower liver concentrations of IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, IL-17, IL-10, and TGF-ß and higher concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as compared to WT mice. The changes in liver immune response observed in infected ΔdblGATA mice were accompanied by lower collagen deposition, but higher liver damage and larger granulomas. Moreover, the absence of eosinophils resulted in a higher mortality rate in mice infected with a high parasite load. Therefore, the data indicated that eosinophils participate in the establishment and/or amplification of liver Th-2 and regulatory response induced by S. mansoni, which is necessary for the balance between liver damage and fibrosis, which in turn is essential for modulating disease severity.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/parasitologia , Feminino , Fibrose/imunologia , Fibrose/parasitologia , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/parasitologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Hepatopatias/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0009375, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing morbidity is the main target of schistosomiasis control efforts, yet only rarely do control programmes assess morbidity linked to Schistosoma sp. infection. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and particularly in north-eastern Ituri Province, little is known about morbidity associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection. For this reason, we aimed to assess intestinal and hepatosplenic morbidity associated with S. mansoni infection in Ituri Province. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 13 villages in Ituri Province, DRC. S. mansoni infection was assessed with a Kato-Katz stool test (2 smears) and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine test. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and information about experienced intestinal morbidity. Each participant underwent an abdominal ultrasonography examination to diagnose hepatosplenic morbidity. Of the 586 study participants, 76.6% tested positive for S. mansoni. Intestinal morbidity reported in the two preceding weeks was very frequent, and included abdominal pain (52.7%), diarrhoea (23.4%) and blood in the stool (21.5%). Hepatosplenic morbidity consisted of abnormal liver parenchyma patterns (42.8%), hepatomegaly (26.5%) and splenomegaly (25.3%). Liver pathology (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.37, p = 0.005) was positively and significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. Hepatomegaly (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 0.99-2.32, p = 0.053) and splenomegaly (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.72, p = 0.619) were positively but not significantly associated with S. mansoni infection at the individual level. At the village level, S. mansoni prevalence was positively associated with the prevalence of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. High-intensity S. mansoni infections were associated with diarrhoea, blood in the stool, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and liver parenchyma (C, D, E and F pathology patterns). Four study participants were diagnosed with ascites and five reported hematemesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study documents a high burden of intestinal and hepatosplenic morbidity associated with S. mansoni infection status in Ituri Province. The findings call for targeted interventions to address both S. mansoni infection and related morbidity.


Assuntos
Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose mansoni/complicações , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 779534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970264

RESUMO

This is a case series study to evaluate immunological markers associated with schistosomiasis advanced fibrosis, including 69 patients from an endemic area from the State of Sergipe and from the Hepatology Service of the University Hospital in Sergipe, Brazil. Hepatic fibrosis was classified based on Niamey protocol for ultrasonography (US). Immune response to Schistosoma mansoni antigens was evaluated by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these patients with either adult worm (SWAP-10 µg/ml) or egg (SEA-10 µg/ml) antigens or purified protein derivative of turberculin (PPD-10 µg/ml) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA-1 µg/ml) for 72 h. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-17 were measured in these supernatants by ELISA and IL-9 by Luminex. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-17, IL10, and CD209 genes were genotyped using TaqMan probe by qPCR. Higher levels of IL-9, IL-10, and IL-17 were found in PBMC supernatants of patients with advanced hepatic fibrosis. Direct correlations were detected between IL-9 and IL-17 levels with US spleen sizes, portal vein diameters, and periportal thickening. The CD209 rs2287886 AG polymorphism patients produce higher IL-17 levels. Together, these data suggest a role of these cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of advanced fibrosis in human schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-17/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/parasitologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748387, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956183

RESUMO

Beyond transient control of the infection, additional benefits of mass drug administration of praziquantel in endemic communities have been suggested in communities but not mechanistically investigated experimentally. The present study sought to evaluate the additional and hitherto unreported benefits of repeated mass drug administration of praziquantel. We used a tractable mouse model of Schistosoma mansoni infection to assess the effects of repeated infection-treatment cycles on the host susceptibility to reinfection. Parasitaemia was assessed by quantification of Schistosoma egg burden in liver tissues and morbidity was followed up by histological observation of liver lesions by microscopy and using biochemical measurement of liver transaminases. Immune responses were further determined by serum probing of schistosoma-specific antibodies, cytokines and quantification of liver cellular and soluble mediator responses by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. At similar ages and comparable gender distribution, groups of mice undergoing higher number of infections treatment cycles over a longer period, remained susceptible to reinfection by the parasite, as judged by the presence of eggs and the associated increasing pathology in the liver tissues. However, notably, there was a clear and significantly higher propensity to lower egg burden upon reinfection when compared to counterparts undergoing a lower number of infection-treatment cycles. This relative reduction of susceptibility to infection was paralleled by a more robust humoral response against parasite antigens, elevated serum IL-4 and liver cytokines. Of note, praziquantel treatment of infected mice left them at a higher baseline of serum IL-4, IgE and liver cytokines but lower CD4+ T cell -derived cytokines when compared to infected non-treated mice supporting an immunological treatment-induced advantage of previously infected mice over naïve mice and infected/not treated mice. Notably, repeated infection-treatment cycles did not preclude the infection-driven aggravation of collagen deposition in the livers over time and was corroborated by a more robust local production of inflammatory cytokines in the most exposed livers. Taken together, our data reveal that treatment of S. mansoni-infected hosts with praziquantel rewires the immune system to a conformation less permissive to subsequent reinfection in mice. Provided the data are translatable from mouse to human, our findings may provide mechanistic support to the potential benefits of more frequent MDAs in high transmission areas to allow rapid acquisition of protective immunity against reinfection.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Citometria de Fluxo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009981, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793443

RESUMO

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are an integral component of cellular/organismal communication and have been found in the excreted/secreted (ES) products of both protozoan and metazoan parasites. Within the blood fluke schistosomes, EVs have been isolated from egg, schistosomula, and adult lifecycle stages. However, the role(s) that EVs have in shaping aspects of parasite biology and/or manipulating host interactions is poorly defined. Herein, we characterise the most abundant EV-enriched protein in Schistosoma mansoni tissue-migrating schistosomula (Schistosoma mansoni Larval Extracellular Vesicle protein 1 (SmLEV1)). Comparative sequence analysis demonstrates that lev1 orthologs are found in all published Schistosoma genomes, yet homologs are not found outside of the Schistosomatidae. Lifecycle expression analyses collectively reveal that smlev1 transcription peaks in cercariae, is male biased in adults, and is processed by alternative splicing in intra-mammalian lifecycle stages. Immunohistochemistry of cercariae using a polyclonal anti-recombinant SmLEV1 antiserum localises this protein to the pre-acetabular gland, with some disperse localisation to the surface of the parasite. S. mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen exhibit a strong IgG1 response against SmLEV1 (dropping significantly after praziquantel treatment), with 11% of the cohort exhibiting an IgE response and minimal levels of detectable antigen-specific IgG4. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with rSmLEV1 show a slightly reduced parasite burden upon challenge infection and significantly reduced granuloma volumes, compared with control animals. Collectively, these results describe SmLEV1 as a Schistosomatidae-specific, EV-enriched immunogen. Further investigations are now necessary to uncover the full extent of SmLEV1's role in shaping schistosome EV function and definitive host relationships.


Assuntos
Cercárias/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Cercárias/genética , Cercárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma mansoni/química , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/genética , Vacinas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6181, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702841

RESUMO

The rhesus macaque provides a unique model of acquired immunity against schistosomes, which afflict >200 million people worldwide. By monitoring bloodstream levels of parasite-gut-derived antigen, we show that from week 10 onwards an established infection with Schistosoma mansoni is cleared in an exponential manner, eliciting resistance to reinfection. Secondary challenge at week 42 demonstrates that protection is strong in all animals and complete in some. Antibody profiles suggest that antigens mediating protection are the released products of developing schistosomula. In culture they are killed by addition of rhesus plasma, collected from week 8 post-infection onwards, and even more efficiently with post-challenge plasma. Furthermore, cultured schistosomula lose chromatin activating marks at the transcription start site of genes related to worm development and show decreased expression of genes related to lysosomes and lytic vacuoles involved with autophagy. Overall, our results indicate that enhanced antibody responses against the challenge migrating larvae mediate the naturally acquired protective immunity and will inform the route to an effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Granulócitos/imunologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Reinfecção/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009866, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644290

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-loaded nano-scaled particles that are extracellularly released by eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Parasite's EVs manipulate the immune system, making them probable next-generation vaccines. Schistosomal EVs carry different proteins of promising immunizing potentials. For evaluating the immune-protective role of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) egg-derived EVs against murine schistosomiasis, EVs were isolated from cultured S. mansoni eggs by progressive sequential cooling ultra-centrifugation technique. Isolated EVs were structurally identified using transmission electron microscope and their protein was quantified by Lowry's technique. Experimental mice were subcutaneously immunized with three doses of 20 µg EVs (with or without alum adjuvant); every two weeks, then were challenged with S. mansoni cercariae two weeks after the last immunizing dose. Six weeks post infection, mice were sacrificed for vaccine candidate assessment. EVs protective efficacy was evaluated through parasitological, histopathological, and immunological parameters. Results showed significant reduction of tegumentally deranged adult worms, hepatic and intestinal egg counts reduction by 46.58%, 93.14% and 93.17% respectively, accompanied by remarkable amelioration of sizes, numbers and histopathology of hepatic granulomata mediated by high interferon gamma (IFN γ) and antibody level. Using sera from vaccinated mice, the molecular weight of EVs' protein components targeted by the antibody produced was recognized by western immunoblot. Results revealed two bands of ~ 14 KDa and ~ 21 KDa, proving that EVs are able to stimulate specific antibodies response. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of S. mansoni-egg derived EVs as a potential vaccine candidate against murine schistosomiasis mansoni.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711907, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484215

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are early effectors of mucosal type 2 immunity, producing cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13 to mediate responses to helminth infection and allergen-induced inflammation. ILC2s are also present in lymph nodes (LNs) and can express molecules required for antigen presentation, but to date there are limited data on their dynamic behaviour. We used a CD2/IL-13 dual fluorescent reporter mouse for in vivo imaging of ILC2s and Th2 T cells in real time following a type 2 priming helminth infection or egg injection. After helminth challenge, we found that ILC2s were the main source of IL-13 in lymphoid organs (Peyer's patches and peripheral LNs), and were located in T cell areas. Intravital imaging demonstrated an increase in IL-13+ ILC2 size and movement following helminth infection, but reduced duration of interactions with T cells compared with those in homeostasis. In contrast, in the intestinal mucosa, we observed an increase in ILC2-T cell interactions post-infection, including some of prolonged duration, as well as increased IL-13+ ILC2 movement. These data suggest that ILC2 activation enhances cell motility, with the potential to increase the area of distribution of cytokines to optimise the early generation of type 2 responses. The prolonged ILC2 interactions with T cells within the intestinal mucosa are consistent with the conclusion that contact-based T cell activation may occur within inflamed tissues rather than lymphoid organs. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of the in vivo biology of ILC2s and the way in which these cells facilitate adaptive immune responses.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Nippostrongylus , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Genes Reporter , Interleucina-13/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Microscopia Intravital , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/química , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Células Th2/química
10.
Immunohorizons ; 5(8): 721-732, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462311

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are potent producers of type I IFN (IFN-I) during viral infection and respond to IFN-I in a positive feedback loop that promotes their function. IFN-I shapes dendritic cell responses during helminth infection, impacting their ability to support Th2 responses. However, the role of pDCs in type 2 inflammation is unclear. Previous studies have shown that pDCs are dispensable for hepatic or splenic Th2 responses during the early stages of murine infection with the trematode Schistosoma mansoni at the onset of parasite egg laying. However, during S. mansoni infection, an ongoing Th2 response against mature parasite eggs is required to protect the liver and intestine from acute damage and how pDCs participate in immune responses to eggs and adult worms in various tissues beyond acute infection remains unclear. We now show that pDCs are required for optimal Th2 cytokine production in response to S. mansoni eggs in the intestinal-draining mesenteric lymph nodes throughout infection and for egg-specific IFN-γ at later time points of infection. Further, pDC depletion at chronic stages of infection led to increased hepatic and splenic pathology as well as abrogated Th2 cell cytokine production and activation in the liver. In vitro, mesenteric lymph node pDCs supported Th2 cell responses from infection-experienced CD4+ T cells, a process dependent on pDC IFN-I responsiveness, yet independent of Ag. Together, these data highlight a previously unappreciated role for pDCs and IFN-I in maintaining and reinforcing type 2 immunity in the lymph nodes and inflamed tissue during helminth infection.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/parasitologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/parasitologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/parasitologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/parasitologia
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(9): 1098-1109, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We measured the production of cytokines, chemokines and antibodies involved in allergic responses and sCD23 levels during Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: Individuals (n = 164) were selected using the ISAAC questionnaire and parasitological exams. The subjects were divided as follows: those infected individuals with allergy-related symptoms (A-I), those with allergy-related symptoms only (A-NI); those only infected (NA-I); and those non-infected individuals without allergy-related symptoms (NA-NI). We used supernatants from cell culture (mitogenic stimulation) to measure cytokine and chemokine levels using cytometric bead arrays. Serum levels of anti-Ascaris lumbricoides (Asc) and anti-Blomia tropicalis IgE were measured using ImmunoCAP, and sCD23 was measured using ELISA. RESULTS: Schistosoma mansoni infection was associated with a lower risk of allergy-related symptoms. In A-I, there were higher levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ and CXCL8 than in NA-NI group, with TNF-α and IL-6 also at higher levels compared to A-NI group. Levels of IL-6, CXCL8, total and anti-Asc IgE, as well as the numbers of eosinophils, were higher in NA-I than in NA-NI, and the antibodies were also lower in A-NI than in NA-I group. In AI and NA-I, there was less production of CCL2 than in NA-NI. There were no differences in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, CCL5, sCD23 and anti-Blomia IgE. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with allergy-related symptoms and infected (simultaneously) had higher levels of IL-10; due to the infection, there was increased production of IL-6 and CXCL8 and less CCL2. These data may characterize deviation to Th1 or attenuation of the Th2 response in allergy sufferers in areas endemic for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mol Biotechnol ; 63(11): 983-991, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165770

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis causes significant morbidity and mortality. Vaccine efforts to date indicate the need to increase the immunogenicity of Schistosoma antigens. The multiple antigen-presenting system, whereby proteins are genetically fused to rhizavidin and affinity linked to biotinylated templates, enables the generation of robust immune responses. The objective of this work was to express and purify the S. mansoni antigens, SmTSP-2 and SmCD59.2, in fusion with rhizavidin. The fusion with rhizavidin greatly decreased the expression level of rSmTSP-2, but not rSmCD59.2, and both were expressed in the insoluble fraction, requiring optimization of culture conditions. Evaluation of different E. coli strains and media showed that BL21-DE3 cultured in Terrific Broth provided the highest expression levels of both proteins. Investigation of a range of time and temperature of induction showed that E. coli strains expressing rRzv:SmTSP-2 and rRzv:SmCD59.2 showed the highest protein production at 23 °C for 15 h. Recombinant proteins were purified by a single step of affinity chromatography allowing isolation of these proteins in high concentration and purity. The optimization process increased final soluble protein yield of rRzv:SmTSP-2 by fourfold and rRzv:SmCD59.2 by tenfold, providing ~ 20 mg/L of each protein. Optimized fusion protein production will allow antigen use in biotin-rhizavidin affinity platforms.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Antígenos de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/química , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10530, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006964

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the potential of schistosomula crude antigen (SCA) as a diagnostic target for anti-S. mansoni antibody detection. Cercariae were transformed into schistosomula, homogenized through sonication, and then centrifuged to obtain the SCA. SCA was evaluated using ELISA and dot blots immunoassays on 30 S. mansoni infected sera samples obtained from chronic patients and 30 non-infected humans' sera samples. Either Kato-Katz or saline gradient method or both were employed as the diagnostic reference. Dot blots immunoassay was further performed on protein eluted from 10 to 12 kDa immunoreactive band identified by Western blot analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.95 (AUC 0.95, CI 0.88-1.01, p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of SCA-ELISA and dot blots assays were 96.67% and 86.67% respectively. The human IgG-specific response against SCA was significantly higher in S. mansoni infected individuals (OD = 0.678 ± 0.249) compared to the non-infected population (OD = 0.235 ± 0.136) (p < 0.0001). Our study showed that SCA and its 10-12 kDa component could be useful as diagnostic tools for chronic schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Doenças Endêmicas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968028

RESUMO

Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by blood-dwelling flatworms which develop from skin-penetrating cercariae, the freely swimming water-borne infective stage of Schistosoma mansoni, into adult worms. This natural course of infection can be mimicked in experimental mouse models of schistosomiasis. However, only a maximum of 20-30% of penetrated cercariae mature into fecund adults. The reasons for this are unknown but could potentially involve soluble factors of the innate immune system, such as complement factors and preexisting, natural antibodies. Materials and Methods: Using our recently developed novel serum- and cell-free in vitro culture system for newly transformed schistosomula (NTS), which supports long-term larval survival, we investigated the effects of mouse serum and its major soluble complement factors C1q, C3, C4 as well as preexisting, natural IgM in vitro and assessed worm development in vivo by infecting complement and soluble (s)IgM-deficient animals. Results: In contrast to sera from humans and a broad variety of mammalian species, serum from mice, surprisingly, killed parasites already at skin stage in vitro. Interestingly, the most efficient killing component(s) were heat-labile but did not include important members of the perhaps best known family of heat-labile serum factors, the complement system, nor consisted of complement-activating natural immunoglobulins. Infection of complement C1q and sIgM-deficient mice with S. mansoni as well as in vitro tests with sera from mice deficient in C3 and C4 revealed no major role for these soluble factors in vivo in regard to parasite maturation, fecundity and associated immunopathology. Rather, the reduction of parasite maturation from cercariae to adult worms was comparable to wild-type mice. Conclusion: This study reveals that not yet identified heat-labile serum factors are major selective determinants of the host-specificity of schistosomiasis, by directly controlling schistosomal development and survival.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/sangue , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Animais , Complemento C1q/genética , Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Complemento C4/genética , Complemento C4/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009200, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657133

RESUMO

Control of the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis relies almost entirely on praziquantel (PZQ) monotherapy. How PZQ clears parasite infections remains poorly understood. Many studies have examined the effects of PZQ on worms cultured in vitro, observing outcomes such as muscle contraction. However, conditions worms are exposed to in vivo may vary considerably from in vitro experiments given the short half-life of PZQ and the importance of host immune system engagement for drug efficacy in animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of in vivo PZQ exposure on Schistosoma mansoni. Measurement of pro-apoptotic caspase activation revealed that worm death occurs only after parasites shift from the mesenteric vasculature to the liver, peaking 24 hours after drug treatment. This indicates that PZQ is not directly schistocidal, since PZQ's half-life is ~2 hours in humans and ~30 minutes in mice, and focuses attention on parasite interactions with the host immune system following the shift of worms to the liver. RNA-Seq of worms harvested from mouse livers following sub-lethal PZQ treatment revealed drug-evoked changes in the expression of putative immunomodulatory and anticoagulant gene products. Several of these gene products localized to the schistosome esophagus and may be secreted into the host circulation. These include several Kunitz-type protease inhibitors, which are also found in the secretomes of other blood feeding animals. These transcriptional changes may reflect mechanisms of parasite immune-evasion in response to chemotherapy, given the role of complement-mediated attack and the host innate/humoral immune response in parasite elimination. One of these isoforms, SmKI-1, has been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory and anti-coagulant properties. These data provide insight into the effect of in vivo PZQ exposure on S. mansoni, and the transcriptional response of parasites to the stress of chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fígado/parasitologia , Camundongos , Doenças Negligenciadas , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 621706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737928

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains a serious health issue nowadays for an estimated one billion people in 79 countries around the world. Great efforts have been made to identify good vaccine candidates during the last decades, but only three molecules reached clinical trials so far. The reverse vaccinology approach has become an attractive option for vaccine design, especially regarding parasites like Schistosoma spp. that present limitations for culture maintenance. This strategy also has prompted the construction of multi-epitope based vaccines, with great immunological foreseen properties as well as being less prone to contamination, autoimmunity, and allergenic responses. Therefore, in this study we applied a robust immunoinformatics approach, targeting S. mansoni transmembrane proteins, in order to construct a chimeric antigen. Initially, the search for all hypothetical transmembrane proteins in GeneDB provided a total of 584 sequences. Using the PSORT II and CCTOP servers we reduced this to 37 plasma membrane proteins, from which extracellular domains were used for epitope prediction. Nineteen common MHC-I and MHC-II binding epitopes, from eight proteins, comprised the final multi-epitope construct, along with suitable adjuvants. The final chimeric multi-epitope vaccine was predicted as prone to induce B-cell and IFN-γ based immunity, as well as presented itself as stable and non-allergenic molecule. Finally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics foresee stable interactions between the putative antigen and the immune receptor TLR 4. Our results indicate that the multi-epitope vaccine might stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses and could be a potential vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Informática Médica/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Biologia Computacional , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Epitopos Imunodominantes/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Vacinas/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades , Vacinologia
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 624191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777004

RESUMO

In spite of several decades of research, an effective vaccine against schistosomiasis remains elusive. The radiation-attenuated (RA) cercarial vaccine is still the best model eliciting high protection levels, although the immune mechanisms have not yet been fully characterized. In order to identify genes and pathways underlying protection we investigated patterns of gene expression in PBMC and skin draining Lymph Nodes (LN) from mice using two exposure comparisons: vaccination with 500 attenuated cercariae versus infection with 500 normal cercariae; one versus three doses. Vaccinated mice were challenged with 120 normal parasites. Integration of PBMC and LN data from the infected group revealed early up-regulation of pathways associated with Th2 skewing and polarization of IgG antibody profiles. Additionally, hemostasis pathways were downregulated in infected mice, correlating with platelet reduction, potentially a mechanism to assist parasite migration through capillary beds. Conversely, up regulation of such mechanisms after vaccination may explain parasite blockade in the lungs. In contrast, a single exposure to attenuated parasites revealed early establishment of a Th1 bias (signaling of IL-1, IFN-γ; and Leishmania infection). Genes encoding chemokines and their receptors were more prominent in vaccinated mice, indicating an enhanced capacity for inflammation, potentially augmenting the inhibition of intravascular migration. Increasing the vaccinations from one to three did not dramatically elevate protection, but there was a clear shift towards antibody-mediated effectors. However, elements of the Th1 bias were still evident. Notable features after three vaccinations were markers of cytotoxicity (including IL-6 and NK cells) together with growth factors and their receptors (FGFR/VEGF/EGF) and the apoptosis pathway. Indeed, there is evidence for the development of anergy after three vaccinations, borne out by the limited responses detected in samples after challenge. We infer that persistence of a Th1 response puts a limit on expression of antibody-mediated mechanisms. This feature may explain the failure of multiple doses to drive protection towards sterile immunity. We suggest that the secretions of lung stage parasites would make a novel cohort of antigens for testing in protection experiments.


Assuntos
Hemostasia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Biologia de Sistemas , Animais , Cercárias/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemostasia/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise em Microsséries , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th1/parasitologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2 , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 630934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777015

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis and Leishmaniasis are chronic parasitic diseases with high prevalence in some tropical regions and, due to their wide distribution, a risk of co-infections is present in some areas. Nevertheless, the impact of this interaction on human populations is still poorly understood. Thus, the current study evaluated the effect of previous American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) on the susceptibility and immune response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in residents from a rural community in Northern of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, an area endemic for both parasitic infections. The participants answered a socioeconomic questionnaire and provided stool and blood samples for parasitological and immunological evaluations. Stool samples were examined by a combination of parasitological techniques to identify helminth infections, especially S. mansoni eggs. Blood samples were used for hemograms and to measure the serum levels of cytokines and chemokines. Reports on previous ATL were obtained through interviews, clinical evaluation forms, and medical records. S. mansoni infection was the most prevalent parasitic infection in the study population (46%), and the majority of the infected individuals had a very low parasite burden. In the same population, 93 individuals (36.2%) reported previous ATL, and the prevalence of S. mansoni infection among these individuals was significantly higher than among individuals with no ATL history. A multiple logistic regression model revealed that S. mansoni infection was positively associated with higher levels of CCL3 and CCL17, and a higher frequency of IL-17 responders. Moreover, this model demonstrated that individuals with an ATL history had a 2-fold higher probability to be infected with S. mansoni (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.04-3.68). Among S. mansoni-infected individuals, the logistic regression demonstrated that a previous ATL history was negatively associated with the frequency of IL-17 responders and CXCL10 higher responders, but positively associated with higher IL-27 responders. Altogether, our data suggest that previous ATL may alter the susceptibility and the immune response in S. mansoni-infected individuals, which may likely affect the outcome of schistosomiasis and the severity of the disease in humans.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimiocinas/sangue , Criança , Citocinas/sangue , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose mansoni/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Trop ; 217: 105863, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587944

RESUMO

A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen in urine (POCCCA) has been proposed for mapping infection and defining prevalence thresholds for mass drug administration (MDA). However, there is increasing evidence that POCCCA may yield false-positive results, which requires rigorous specificity evaluation in non-endemic areas. POCCCA was applied in an area known to be free from infection and devoid of any condition for schistosomiasis transmission as part of a multicentre study to evaluate the performance of POCCCA in Brazil's low or potentially endemic settings. Besides POCCCA detection in urine, a search for eggs in stool was performed by Kato-Katz (KK) and Helmintex (HTX) methods. One-hundred-and-seventy-four participants returned urine samples, 140 of which delivered stool samples. All these were HTX-negative for Schistosoma mansoni, and all 118 tested with KK were negative for both S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. POCCCA results from freshly collected urine yielded a specificity of 62.1% (95% CI: 53.6% - 70.2%), taking trace outcomes as positive according to the manufacturer's instructions. Retesting urine from the 140 HTX-negatives after one-year storage at -20 °C with two new POCCCA batches simultaneously yielded significantly different specificities (34.3%; 95%CI: 26.5% - 42.8% and 75.0%; 95% CI: 67.0% - 81.9%). These two batches had a weak agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.56; 95%CI: 0.44-0.68) among the 174 urine samples retested. At present, POCCCA cannot be recommended either as a cut-off point for MDA or a reliable diagnostic tool for treatment of the infection carriers (selective chemotherapy) in low endemic areas and at final stages of transmission interruption. Manufacturers should be required to optimize production standardization and to assure quality and reproducibility of the test. Extended rigorous performance evaluations by different users from different regions are needed before POCCCA is widely recommended.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Testes Imediatos , Esquistossomose mansoni/sangue , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107462, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611055

RESUMO

Although doxycycline exhibits immunomodulatory properties, its effects on pulmonary infection by Schistosoma mansoni remain overlooked. Thus, we investigated the impact of this drug on lung granulomatous inflammation and microstructural remodeling in a murine model of schistosomiasis. Swiss mice were randomized in four groups: (i) uninfected, (ii) infected with S. mansoni and untreated, (iii) infected treated with praziquantel (Pzq; 200 mg/kg), and (iv) infected treated with Dox (50 mg/kg). Pz was administered in a single dose, and Dox for 60 days. S. mansoni induced marked granulomatous lung inflammation, which was associated to cytokines upregulation (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TGF-ß), neutrophils and macrophages recruitment, alveolar collapse, lung fibrosis, and extensive depletion of elastic fibers. These parameters were attenuated by Pzq and aggravated by Dox. Exudative/productive granulomas were predominant in untreated and Dox-treated animals, while fibrotic granulomas were more frequent in Pzq-treated mice. The number and size of granulomas in Dox-treated animals was higher than untreated and Pzq-treated mice. Dox treatment inhibited the increase in MMP-1 and MMP-2 activity but upregulated myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity compared to untreated and Pzq-treated animals. Dox and Pzq exerted no effect on elastin depletion and upregulation of elastase activity. Together, our findings indicated that Dox aggravated granulomatous inflammation, accelerating lung microstructural remodeling by downregulating MMP-1 and MMP-2 activity without impair neutrophils and macrophages recruitment or elastase activity. Thus, Dox potentiates inflammatory damage associated with lung fibrosis, elastin depletion and massive alveolar collapse, profoundly subverting lung structure in S. mansoni-infected mice.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Granuloma/etiologia , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/patologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/imunologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/imunologia , Camundongos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/complicações , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/patologia
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