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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027417

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul (RGS), was considered schistosomiasis-free until 1998 when a low endemic focus was identified in Esteio, a city located next to the capital of RGS. In the last two decades, the control interventions applied in the region have been apparently successful, and the absence of new cases indicated the possibility of interrupted schistosomiasis transmission. The objective of this study was to update the clinical and epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Esteio. METHODS: We reviewed all 28 individuals diagnosed with the infection since 1997 and a survey was applied to a group of 29 school-aged children residing in Vila Pedreira, one of the most affected neighborhoods. RESULTS: No eggs were detected in fecal samples using the Helmintex method, and all samples were negative for serum antibodies on examination by the western blot technique using the Schistosoma mansoni microsomal antigen (MAMA- WB). In contrast, 23 individuals (79%) tested positive for the cathodic circulating antigen with the point-of-care immunochromatographic test (POC-CCA) on urine samples. Of the 28 formerly infected individuals, only eight were located, of which four tested positive, and four tested negative for serum antibodies using the MAMA-WB technique. CONCLUSIONS: Current adverse conditions for S. mansoni transmission in Esteio and the absence of a confirmed diagnosis suggests that there is (i) a lack of specificity of the POC-CCA test in low endemic settings, and (ii) a high probability that interruption of schistosomiasis has been achieved in Esteio.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Brasil , Criança , Humanos
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 384-388, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of various agroforestry systems for snail control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the construction of agroforestry schistosomiasis control projects in plateau hilly regions. METHODS: The pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built in snail-breeding farmlands in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province in 2010, and the economic benefits and snail control effect were investigated in 2018. In addition, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was created to screen the agroforestry system with high comprehensive benefits. RESULTS: A total of 14 types of pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built. Economic benefit analysis showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best economic benefit, with annual economic benefits of 270 000 Yuan/hm2, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern (annual economic benefits of 120 000 Yuan/hm2) and the "walnut + vegetables"pattern (annual economic benefits of 105 000 Yuan/hm2). No snails were detected in 8 types of the agroforestry systems, including the"walnut + chili"pattern, the"walnut + tobacco"pattern and the"walnut + garlic"pattern; however, there were snail found with various densities in other types of systems. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best comprehensive control effect, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern and the"walnut + tobacco" pattern, while the pure grassland pattern showed no effect on snail control. CONCLUSIONS: The agroforestry system is a preferential approach of forestry schistosomiasis control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas, which not only achieves snail control effects, but also promotes economic development and ecological construction in poor hilly areas.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Controle de Pragas , Caramujos , Animais , China , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Humanos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/normas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/fisiologia
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 405-408, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of shear-wave elastography (SWE) of the liver and spleen for predicting the risk of esophageal-gastric varices (EGV) and the bleeding from EGV (EGVB) in patients with advanced schistosomiasis. METHODS: The medical records of 90 patients with definitive diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis in Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from January 2017 through January 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The severity of EGV was graded in the 90 patients with advanced schistosomiasis using gastroscopic findings as a golden standard. Then, the subjects were assigned to the non-EGV and EGV groups, and the low- and high-risk EGVB groups according to the grading. The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were measured and compared between groups. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen for predicting the high risk of EGV and EGVB. RESULTS: The 90 patients with advanced schistosomiasis included 61 men and 29 women, and had a mean age of (74.3 ± 8.6) years (range, 62 to 83 years). If gastroscopic findings were employed as a golden standard, there were 32 cases with grade 0 (35.5%), 17 cases with grade 1 (18.9%), 15 cases with grade 2 (16.7%) and 26 cases with grade 3 EGV (28.9%). There were 32 cases in the non-EGV group (35.6%) and 58 cases in the EGV group (64.4%), and 41 cases in the high-risk EGV group (45.6%) and 49 cases in the low-risk EGV group (54.4%), respectively. The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were both significantly greater in the EGV group than in the non-EGV group (t = 5.73 and 7.26, both P values < 0.05). The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen had AUCs of 0.70 and 0.75, optimal cut-off of 16.1 kPa and 22.6 kPa, sensitivities of 80.6% and 83.9% and specificities of 71.4% and 78.6% for the prediction of EGV, respectively. In addition, the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were significantly greater in the high-risk EGVB groups than in the low-risk EGVB group (t = 7.35 and 9.61, both P values < 0.05), and the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen had AUCs of 0.68 and 0.71, optimal cut-off of 22.7 kPa and 33.8 kPa, sensitivities of 70.4% and 73.6% and specificities of 89.3% and 93.1% for the prediction of high-risk EGV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SWE is useful to predict the risk of EGV and EGVB in patients with advanced schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia , Esquistossomose , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/normas , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 414-418, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos, so as to propose the corresponding healthy policies and suggestions. METHODS: A SWOT analysis was performed to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat for the schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, and the corresponding policy suggestions were proposed. RESULTS: The national schistosomiasis elimination program of Laos receives governmental emphases and great supports. A strategy based on mass drug administration was proposed and a sentinel site-bases surveillance system has been built for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos; however, there are several challenges for the national schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, including insufficient financial supports, inadequate professional capability, weak schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations and difficulty in vector control. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent governmental leadership, increasing financial supports, strengthening professional team building and improving schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations are required to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Laos.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Esquistossomose , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Humanos , Laos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Controle de Pragas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 419-422, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935521

RESUMO

This paper summarizes the changes in the policy associated with schistosmiasis control in the new era, analyzes the background of Health China Strategy and its association with the current schistosomiasis control program in China, describes several schistosomiasis control models and proposes some suggestions responding to the challenges in current schistosomiasis control program of China, so as to provide insights into the development of the effective control strategy for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Políticas , Esquistossomose , China , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008609, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822351

RESUMO

As a unique feature among otherwise hermaphroditic trematodes, Schistosoma species are gonochoric parasites whose sex is genetically determined (ZZ for males and ZW for females). However, schistosome larvae are morphologically identical, and sex can only be discriminated by molecular methods. Here, we integrated published Schistosoma. japonicum transcriptome and genome data to identify W chromosome-specific genes as sex biomarkers. Three W chromosome-specific genes of S. japonicum were identified as sex biomarkers from a panel of 12 genes expressed only in females. An efficient duplex real-time PCR (qPCR) method for sexing cercariae was developed which could identify the sex of cercariae within 2 h without DNA extraction. Moreover, this method can be used to identify not only single-sex but also mixed-sex schistosome-infected snails. We observed a nearly equal proportion of single-male, single-female, and mixed-sex schistosome infections in artificially infected snails. Sex-known schistosome-infected snail models can be efficiently constructed with the aid of duplex qPCR. A field study revealed that single-sex schistosome infections were predominant among naturally infected snails. Finally, a schistosomiasis mouse model based on sex-known cercariae infection was shown to be more reliable than a model based on sex-unknown cercariae infection. The developed duplex qPCR method for sexing S. japonicum cercariae can be widely used for schistosomiasis modeling, genetic experiments, and field-based molecular epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Cercárias/genética , Cromossomos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , China/epidemiologia , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008665, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease acquired through contact with cercaria-infested water. Communities living in endemic regions often rely on parasite-contaminated freshwater bodies for their daily water contact activities, resulting in recurring schistosomiasis infection. In such instances, water treatment can provide safe water on a household or community scale. However, to-date there are no water treatment guidelines that provide information on how to treat water containing schistosome cercariae. Here, we rigorously test the effectiveness of chlorine against Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. METHOD: S. mansoni cercariae were chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite under lab and field condition. The water pH was controlled at 6.5, 7.0 or 7.5, the water temperature at 20°C or 27°C, and the chlorine dose at 1, 2 or 3 mg/l. Experiments were conducted up to contact times of 45 minutes. 100 cercariae were used per experiment, thereby achieving up to 2-log10 inactivations of cercariae. Experiments were replicated under field conditions at Lake Victoria, Tanzania. CONCLUSION: A CT (residual chlorine concentration x chlorine contact time) value of 26±4 mg·min/l is required to achieve a 2-log10 inactivation of S. mansoni cercariae under the most conservative condition tested (pH 7.5, 20°C). Field and lab-cultivated cercariae show similar chlorine sensitivities. A CT value of 30 mg·min/l is therefore recommended to disinfect cercaria-infested water, though safety factors may be required, depending on water quality and operating conditions. This CT value can be achieved with a chlorine residual of 1 mg/l after a contact time of 30 minutes, for example. This recommendation can be used to provide safe water for household and recreational water activities in communities that lack safe alternative water sources.


Assuntos
Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/farmacologia , Halogenação , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos , Tanzânia , Temperatura , Água/parasitologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008517, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810153

RESUMO

Currently there is only one method of treatment for human schistosomiasis, the drug praziquantel. Strong selective pressure has caused a serious concern for a rise in resistance to praziquantel leading to the necessity for additional pharmaceuticals, with a distinctly different mechanism of action, to be used in combination therapy with praziquantel. Previous treatment of Schistosoma mansoni included the use of oxamniquine (OXA), a prodrug that is enzymatically activated in S. mansoni but is ineffective against S. haematobium and S. japonicum. The oxamniquine activating enzyme was identified as a S. mansoni sulfotransferase (SmSULT-OR). Structural data have allowed for directed drug development in reengineering oxamniquine to be effective against S. haematobium and S. japonicum. Guided by data from X-ray crystallographic studies and Schistosoma worm killing assays on oxamniquine, our structure-based drug design approach produced a robust SAR program that tested over 300 derivatives and identified several new lead compounds with effective worm killing in vitro. Previous studies resulted in the discovery of compound CIDD-0066790, which demonstrated broad-species activity in killing of schistosome species. As these compounds are racemic mixtures, we tested and demonstrate that the R enantiomer CIDD-007229 kills S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum better than the parent drug (CIDD-0066790). The search for derivatives that kill better than CIDD-0066790 has resulted in a derivative (CIDD- 149830) that kills 100% of S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum adult worms within 7 days. We hypothesize that the difference in activation and thus killing by the derivatives is due to the ability of the derivative to fit in the binding pocket of each sulfotransferase (SmSULT-OR, ShSULT-OR, SjSULT-OR) and to be efficiently sulfated. The purpose of this research is to develop a second drug to be used in conjunction with praziquantel to treat the major human species of Schistosoma. Collectively, our findings show that CIDD-00149830 and CIDD-0072229 are promising novel drugs for the treatment of human schistosomiasis and strongly support further development and in vivo testing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Oxamniquine/análogos & derivados , Oxamniquine/farmacologia , Schistosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Oxamniquine/química , Ligação Proteica
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008494, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833994

RESUMO

Helminth control at the national level is currently based on mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Perception of the MDA programs for helminth control by the affected populations influences compliance and future designs of the programs. We determined the perception of Zimbabwe's National Helminth Control Program (2012-2017) with a specific focus on schistosomiasis in the school children treated with praziquantel, schoolteachers and village health workers (VHW). The study enrolled 409 children from Grades 6 and 7 who had the full benefit of the 6 years of MDA from 2012 to 2017. Thirty-six schoolteachers and 22 VHW serving the schools were also recruited. A structured questionnaire developed in English, translated into the local language Shona, and validated prior to the study was administered to the children and the adults. The questions focused on the perceived impact on health, school attendance and performance and Knowledge Attitudes and Practice (KAP) among the school children. Data were captured electronically on android platforms using the Open Data Kit. Overall, 84% of the children responded that their awareness of schistosomiasis (transmission, disease, treatment and infection avoidance) had improved because of participating in the MDAs. Of the 151 children self-diagnosed with schistosomiasis, 74% reported that their health had improved following treatment with praziquantel. This included resolution of haematuria, painful urination, sore stomach, tiredness and falling asleep during class lessons. The children and teachers reported improvements in both pupil school attendance and performance at school while the VHW and teachers reported an increase in health-seeking behaviour amongst the school children for schistosomiasis treatment in-between MDAs. The majority of VHW (96%) reported improvement in handwashing behaviour, schistosomiasis awareness (96%) and treatment uptake (91%) within the communities where the school children belonged. However, only 59% of the VHW reported improvement in toilet use while only 50% of the VHW reported improvement in clean water use within their communities. This study indicated that the surveyed children perceived the MDA program had improved their health, school attendance, school performance and awareness of schistosomiasis. The VHW also perceived that the MDA program had improved the community KAP.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008635, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In view of the potential immunosuppressive and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), we investigated whether transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) could be used to control the granulomatous reaction in the liver of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni after Praziquantel (PZQ) treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6 mice infected with S. mansoni were treated with PZQ and transplanted intravenously with ASC from uninfected mice. Liver morpho-physiological and immunological analyses were performed. The combined PZQ/ASC therapy significantly reduced the volume of hepatic granulomas, as well as liver damage as measured by ALT levels. We also observed that ASC accelerated the progression of the granulomatous inflammation to the advanced/curative phase. The faster healing interfered with the expression of CD28 and CTLA-4 molecules in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and the levels of IL-10 and IL-17 cytokines, mainly in the livers of PZQ/ASC-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ASC therapy after PZQ treatment results in smaller granulomas with little tissue damage, suggesting the potential of ASC for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to minimize hepatic lesions as well as a granulomatous reaction following S. mansoni infection. Further studies using the chronic model of schistosomiasis are required to corroborate the therapeutic use of ASC for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Hepatopatias/terapia , Fígado/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Granuloma , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/patologia , Esquistossomose mansoni
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008417, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is responsible for the second highest burden of disease among neglected tropical diseases globally, with over 90 percent of cases occurring in African regions where drugs to treat the disease are only sporadically available. Additionally, human re-infection after treatment can be a problem where there are high numbers of infected snails in the environment. Recent experiments indicate that aquatic factors, including plants, nutrients, or predators, can influence snail abundance and parasite production within infected snails, both components of human risk. This study investigated how snail host abundance and release of cercariae (the free swimming stage infective to humans) varies at water access sites in an endemic region in Senegal, a setting where human schistosomiasis prevalence is among the highest globally. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected snail intermediate hosts at 15 random points stratified by three habitat types at 36 water access sites, and counted cercarial production by each snail after transfer to the laboratory on the same day. We found that aquatic vegetation was positively associated with per-capita cercarial release by snails, probably because macrophytes harbor periphyton resources that snails feed upon, and well-fed snails tend to produce more parasites. In contrast, the abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrate snail predators was negatively associated with per-capita cercarial release by snails, probably because of several potential sublethal effects on snails or snail infection, despite a positive association between snail predators and total snail numbers at a site, possibly due to shared habitat usage or prey tracking by the predators. Thus, complex bottom-up and top-down ecological effects in this region plausibly influence the snail shedding rate and thus, total local density of schistosome cercariae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that aquatic macrophytes and snail predators can influence per-capita cercarial production and total abundance of snails. Thus, snail control efforts might benefit by targeting specific snail habitats where parasite production is greatest. In conclusion, a better understanding of top-down and bottom-up ecological factors that regulate densities of cercarial release by snails, rather than solely snail densities or snail infection prevalence, might facilitate improved schistosomiasis control.


Assuntos
Plantas , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Cercárias/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Perifíton , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Senegal
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008337, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the potentially causal association of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) with HIV-1 infection, improved diagnostics are urgently needed to scale-up FGS surveillance. The BILHIV (bilharzia and HIV) study assessed the performance of home-based self-collection methods (cervical and vaginal swabs) compared to cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) for the detection of Schistosoma DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Between January and August 2018, a consecutive series of female participants from the Population-Cohort of the previous HIV prevention trial HPTN 071 (PopART), resident in Livingstone, Zambia were invited to take part in BILHIV if they were 18-31 years old, non-pregnant and sexually active. Genital self-collected swabs and a urine specimen were obtained and a questionnaire completed at home visits. CVL was obtained at clinic follow-up. RESULTS: 603 women self-collected genital swabs. Of these, 527 women had CVL performed by a mid-wife during clinic follow-up. Schistosoma DNA was more frequently detected in genital self-collected specimens (24/603, 4.0%) compared to CVL (14/527, 2.7%). Overall, 5.0% (30/603) women had female genital schistosomiasis, defined as a positive PCR by any genital sampling method (cervical swab PCR, vaginal swab PCR, or CVL PCR) and 95% (573/603) did not have a positive genital PCR. The sensitivity of any positive genital self-collected swab against CVL was 57.1% (95% CI 28.9-82.3%), specificity 97.3% (95.5-98.5%). In a subset of participants with active schistosome infection, determined by detectable urine Circulating Anodic Antigen (CAA) (15.1%, 91/601), positive PCR (4.3%, 26/601), or positive microscopy (5.5%, 33/603), the sensitivity of any positive self-collected specimen against CVL was 88.9% (51.8-99.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Genital self-sampling increased the overall number of PCR-based FGS diagnoses in a field setting, compared with CVL. Home-based sampling may represent a scalable alternative method for FGS community-based diagnosis in endemic resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Vagina/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Autoexame , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections remain widespread in developing countries and constitute a major public health problem in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It is prevalent among children under 5 years and pregnant women; however, studies among the later high risk group is limited in the northern part of Ghana. Here, we evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of parasitic infections among pregnant women at first antenatal care visit in northern Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bolgatanga Regional Hospital, Upper East Region-Ghana. A total of 334 consecutive consenting pregnant women were included. Questionnaires were administered to obtain socio-demographic data. Venous blood, stool and urine samples were collected for parasite identification using microscopy. Factors associated with parasitic infections were evaluated using regression models. Statistical analysis was performed using R. RESULTS: Parasitic infections identified were giardiasis (30.5%), P. falciparum malaria (21.6%) and schistosomiasis (0.6%). Polyparasitic infection was identified in 6.6% of the population. Increasing age [Age of 20-29 years: AOR = 0.16, 95% CI (0.06-0.38); Age of 30-39 years: AOR = 0.21, 95% CI (0.08-0.50); Age >39 years: AOR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.11-0.83)] was associated with lower odds whiles presence of domestic animals [AOR = 1.85, 95% CI (1.01-3.39)], being in the second trimester of pregnancy [AOR = 2.21, 95% CI (1.17-4.19)], having no formal education [AOR = 3.29, 95% CI (1.47-7.35)] and basic education as the highest educational level [AOR = 6.03, 95% CI (2.46-10.81)] were independent predictors of increased odds of giardiasis. Similarly, having no formal education [AOR = 2.88, 95% CI (1.21-8.79)] was independently associated with higher odds of P. falciparum malaria. The use of insecticide treated net (ITN) [AOR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.21-0.89)] and mosquito repellent [AOR = 0.09, 95% CI (0.04-0.21)] were independent predictors of lower odds of P. falciparum malaria. CONCLUSION: Giardiasis and P. falciparum malaria are common among pregnant women in northern Ghana. The major associated factors of giardiasis are lack of or low level of formal education, the presence of domestic animals and being in the second trimester of pregnancy. Increasing age confers protection against giardiasis. Likewise, lack of formal education is an associated factor for P. falciparum malaria among pregnant women in northern Ghana. The use of ITN and mosquito repellents reduce the risk of P. falciparum malaria. Given the possible role of parasitic infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes, our findings highlight the need for regular screening and treatment of infected women in the northern parts of Ghana. Public health education and improving socio-economic status could help reduce the risk of parasitic infections among pregnant women in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232867, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Neglected Tropical Diseases Roadmap of the WHO set targets for potential elimination as a "public health problem" for the period 2012-2020 in multiple countries in Africa, with the aim of global elimination of schistosomiasis as a "public health problem" by 2025. AIM: The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost from a provider's perspective of the Department of Health's Schistosomiasis Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal in 2012, with a view to project the costs for the entire KwaZulu Natal Province. METHODS: A total of 491 public schools and 16 independent schools in Ugu District, a predominantly rural district in KwaZulu-Natal with a total of 218 242 learners, were included in the schistosomiasis control programme. They were randomly selected from schools situated below an altitude of 300 meters, where schistosomiasis is endemic. A retrospective costing study was conducted using the provider's perspective to cost. Cost data were collected by reviewing existing records including financial statements, invoices, receipts, transport log books, equipment inventories, and information from personnel payroll, existing budget, and the staff diaries. RESULTS: A total of 15571 children were treated in 2012, resulting in a total cost of the MDA programme of ZAR 2 137 143 and a unit cost of ZAR 137. The three main cost components were Medication Costs (37%), Human Resources Cost (36%) and Capital items (16%). The total cost for treating all eligible pupils in KwaZulu-Natal will be ZAR 149 031 888. However, should the capital cost be excluded, then the unit cost will be ZAR 112 per patient and this will translate to a total cost of ZAR 121 836 288. CONCLUSIONS: Low coverage exacerbates the cost of the programme and makes a decision to support such a programme difficult. However, a normative costing study based on the integration of the programme within the Department of Health should be conducted.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Praziquantel/economia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Adolescente , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Gastos de Capital/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Folhetos , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Amostragem , Esquistossomose/economia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 63, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A steady progress on schistosomiasis control in the Peoples' Republic of China (P.R. China) was achieved and broadened into the twelve-year medium and long term national plan (MLNP) which marled the implementation of an integrated control strategy across all endemic areas in P.R. China in 2004. To understand the endemic trends of schistosomiasis to assess the effectiveness of an integrated strategy, we conducted an analysis of schistosomiasis surveillance data spanned from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: The schistosomiasis sentinel surveillance data from sentinel sites were collected and analyzed from 2005 to 2015. In these sentinel sites, residents aged 6 years or above were screened annually by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), while only antibody positives were followed by stool examination either Kato-katz method (KK) and/or hatching technique (HT). Domestic animals raised in sentinel sites were examined by HT for confirming the infection of schistosomes. Snail investigation was conducted each year through systematic sampling method combined with environmental sampling method. The snails collected from field were tested by microscopic dissection method. The infection rates of schistosomes in residents, domestic animals and snails, as well as the indicators reflecting the snails' distribution were calculated and analyzed. ANOVA analysis was used to examine the changes of the number of eggs per gram feces in population and Chi-square test was used to examine any change in proportions among groups. RESULTS: A total of 148 902 residents from sentinel sites attended this study and 631 676 blood samples were examined by IHA test during the 11 covered years. The annual average antibody positive rates presented a significant decrease trends, from 17.48% (95% CI: 17.20-17.75%) in 2005 to 5.93% (95% CI: 5.71-6.15%) (χ2 = 8890.47, P < 0.001) in 2015. During 2005-2015, the average infection rate of schistosomes in residents declined from 2.07% (95% CI: 1.96-2.17%) to 0.13% (95% CI: 0.09-0.16%), accompanied by significant decrease of infection intensity in population. In 2015, the stool positives were only found in farmers, fishermen and boatmen with infection rate of 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%), 0.17% (95% CI: 0-0.50%) respectively. The infection rate of schistosomes in domestic animals dropped from 9.42% (538/5711, 95% CI: 8.66-10.18%) to 0.08% (2/2360, 95% CI: 0-0.20%) from 2005 to 2015. Infections were found in eight species of domestic animals at the beginning of surveillance while only two cattle were infected in 2015. Totally 98 ha of new snail habitats were found, while 94.90% (93/98) distributed in lake and marshland regions. The percentage of frames with snails decreased from 16.96% (56 884/33 5391, 95% CI: 16.83-17.09%) in 2005 to 4.28% (18 121/423 755, 95% CI: 4.22-4.34%) in 2014, with a slightly increase in 2015. Meanwhile, the infection rate of schistosomes in snails was decreased from 0.26% (663/256 531, 95% CI: 0.24-0.28%) to zero during 2005-2015. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of schistosomes declined significantly, providing evidence that the goal of the MLNP was achieved. Elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem defined as WHO was also reached in P.R. China nationwide. Surveillance-response system should be improved and strengthened to realize the final goal of schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Esquistossomose , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2531-2537, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562067

RESUMO

Human cercarial dermatitis is a parasitic disease that causes an allergic reaction in the skin (swimmer's itch) as a consequence of contact with cercariae of bird schistosomes present in water, mainly of the genus Trichobilharzia Skrjabin et Zakarow, 1920. The main objective of the study was to confirm the presence of the zoonotic disease agent following reports of human infections in recreational water in Slovakia. We identified two species of freshwater snails at Kosice Lake, Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) and Physa acuta (Draparnaud, 1805). Trematode infections were observed only in R. auricularia. Of the 62 snails collected, 11 (17.7%) were infected with 5 different species of larval stages of trematodes. The blood fluke Trichobilharzia franki was found in 2 (3.2%) of the examined snails. The present record provides the first evidence that T. franki from the pulmonate snail R. auricularia represents a source of human cercarial dermatitis in recreational water in Slovakia. Our finding complements the easternmost records of both swimmer's itch and the confirmed occurrence of a bird schistosome in a waterbody in Europe. The present work suggests that the health risks associated with trichobilharziasis need to be further studied by detailed monitoring of the occurrence of the major causative agent of human cercarial dermatitis, T. franki.


Assuntos
Dermatite/parasitologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Schistosomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Schistosomatidae/classificação , Schistosomatidae/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(7): e165-e172, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595046

RESUMO

Although preventive chemotherapy has been instrumental in reducing schistosomiasis incidence worldwide, serious challenges remain. These problems include the omission of certain groups from campaigns of mass drug administration, the existence of persistent disease hotspots, and the risk of recrudescent infections. Central to these challenges is the fact that the diagnostic tools currently used to establish the burden of infection are not sensitive enough, especially in low-endemic settings, which results in underestimation of the true prevalence of active Schistosoma spp infections. This central issue necessitates that the current schistosomiasis control strategies recommended by WHO are re-evaluated and, possibly, adapted. More targeted interventions and novel approaches have been used to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis, such as establishing infection burden by use of precision mapping, which provides high resolution spatial information that delineates variations in prevalence within a defined geographical area. Such information is instrumental in guiding targeted intervention campaigns. However, the need for highly accurate diagnostic tools in such strategies is a crucial factor that is often neglected. The availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests also opens up the possibility of applying strategies of sample pooling to reduce the cost of control programmes. To interrupt the transmission of, and eventually eliminate, schistosomiasis, better local targeting of preventive chemotherapy, in combination with highly sensitive diagnostic tools, is crucial.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 208-212, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458615

RESUMO

Oncomelania snail is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and controlling snail breeding and spread is an important intervention for schistosomiasis control. This review summarizes factors affecting snail spread, characteristics of snail spread in various endemic areas, high-risk environments of snail spread and monitoring methods of snail spread, so as to provide insights into the prevention of snail spread.


Assuntos
Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China , Humanos , Crescimento Demográfico , Reprodução , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 222-224, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468781

RESUMO

The culture of schistosomiasis control is specific in the history of Chinese culture. Broadly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is a summary of specific social mood, social consciousness and material culture created by Chinese populations during the progress of schistosomiasis control since the founding of the People's Republic of China. Narrowly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is the spiritual culture that is jointly created and nurtured by schistosomiasis control workers since the founding of the People's Republic of China. The spiritual features of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture are characterized by the patriotism and care about the people, the matter-to-fact attitude, the pioneering and enterprising spirit, and the spirit of sacrifice and dedication. The ultimate goal of the research on the culture of schistosomiasis control is to facilitate the achievement of the strategic goal of Healthy China 2030 as scheduled, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis, and to promote the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in China.


Assuntos
Cultura , Esquistossomose , China , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
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