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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 420-423, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the surveillance data of schistosomiasis in Xiaogan City, Hubei Province from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for understanding the epidemiological changes of schistosomiasis and evaluating the schistosomiasis control strategy. METHODS: A total of 16 surveillance sites were selected in the schistosomiasis endemic foci of Xiaogan City from 2016 to 2020, where Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock and Oncomelania snails and the schistosomiasis transmission risk were monitored. The schistosomiasis surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: During the period from 2016 to 2020, there was no schistosomiasis emergency epidemic in Xiaogan City. A total of 660 sero-positive individuals were identified in Xiaogan City during the 5-year period, and the seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 2.08% in 2016 to 0.97% in 2020. Higher seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections was detected in men than in women, and in individuals at ages of over 60 years than in those at other age groups; however, no egg-positives were detected in humans or livestock. The mean density of living snails was 0.05 to 0.06 snails/0.1 m2 during the 5-year period, and the occurrence of frames with snails increased from 2.99% in 2016 to 3.92% in 2020; however, no S. japonicum infection was found in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis remarkably decreases in Xiaogan City during the period from 2016 through 2020. Further improvements of the sensitive and effective schistosomiasis surveillance system are required with an emphasis on the monitoring of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and management of floating populations.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 642895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336754

RESUMO

In recent decades, computer vision has proven remarkably effective in addressing diverse issues in public health, from determining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases in humans to predicting infectious disease outbreaks. Here, we investigate whether convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can also demonstrate effectiveness in classifying the environmental stages of parasites of public health importance and their invertebrate hosts. We used schistosomiasis as a reference model. Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease transmitted to humans via snail intermediate hosts. The parasite affects more than 200 million people in tropical and subtropical regions. We trained our CNN, a feed-forward neural network, on a limited dataset of 5,500 images of snails and 5,100 images of cercariae obtained from schistosomiasis transmission sites in the Senegal River Basin, a region in western Africa that is hyper-endemic for the disease. The image set included both images of two snail genera that are relevant to schistosomiasis transmission - that is, Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi - as well as snail images that are non-component hosts for human schistosomiasis. Cercariae shed from Bi. pfeifferi and Bulinus spp. snails were classified into 11 categories, of which only two, S. haematobium and S. mansoni, are major etiological agents of human schistosomiasis. The algorithms, trained on 80% of the snail and parasite dataset, achieved 99% and 91% accuracy for snail and parasite classification, respectively, when used on the hold-out validation dataset - a performance comparable to that of experienced parasitologists. The promising results of this proof-of-concept study suggests that this CNN model, and potentially similar replicable models, have the potential to support the classification of snails and parasite of medical importance. In remote field settings where machine learning algorithms can be deployed on cost-effective and widely used mobile devices, such as smartphones, these models can be a valuable complement to laboratory identification by trained technicians. Future efforts must be dedicated to increasing dataset sizes for model training and validation, as well as testing these algorithms in diverse transmission settings and geographies.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Senegal
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 225-233, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286522

RESUMO

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Caramujos
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 234-239, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. METHODS: The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. RESULTS: A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups (χ2 = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease-type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow-up is required.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Lagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esplenomegalia
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 240-247, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish an indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk after transmission interruption in Hubei Province, so as to provide insights into the precise control of schistosomiasis. METHODS: The indicator system was preliminarily established based on data collection, literature review, expert interviews. Two rounds of expert consultation were performed. The indicator system was screened based on the importance, operability, sensitivity and comprehensive score of the indicators, and the weights of each indicator were calculated. The credibility of the Delphi method was evaluated by calculating the active coefficient of the experts, degree of expert authority and coordination levels of experts' opinions. RESULTS: An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk was preliminarily established, including 3 primary indicators, 12 secondary indicators and 44 tertiary indicators. A Delphi consultation was performed among 17 experts participating in schistosomiasis control, management and research. Following two rounds of consultation, a risk assessment indicator system was finally constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 10 secondary indicators and 35 tertiary indicators. Among the primary indicators, the variable with the highest normalized weight was the current status of schistosomiasis (0.420 2), followed by social factors (0.397 3) and natural environments (0.182 5). Among the secondary indicators, those with high combined weights included risk monitoring (0.142 3), current snail status (0.140 1), and current prevalence of human and livestock infections (0.137 8). Among the tertiary indicators, those with high combined weights included the positive rate of wild feces (0.049 8), the prevalence of snail infections (0.047 4), and the area of snail habitats submerged by floods (0.046 8). During the two-round consultation, the active coefficients of the experts were 85.00% and 100.00%, the degree of expert authority was both 0.75 and greater, and the coordination levels of experts' opinions were 0.405 to 0.521 and 0.592 to 0.695 (all P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk is successfully established after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method, which provides insights into the identification of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and the targets for schistosomiasis control in Hubei Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Inundações , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 301-304, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286534

RESUMO

The invalid patents associated with schistosomiasis control were retrieved in the Chinese Patent Database of China National Intellectual Property Administration, the Baiten database and the incoPat database, and the overall trends, legal status, types, patent indexing and technical fields of all retrieved invalid patents were analyzed. As of December 30, 2020, there were totally 859 patents relating to schistosomiasis control, and 512 were invalid patents, with an invalid rate of 59.6%. The number of patent applications and invalid patents peaked in 2018, including 71 patent applications and 53 invalid patents. Among the 511 schistosomiasis control-related invalid patents with complete records, there were 425 invention patents, 81 utility model patents and 5 design patents, and 219 patents (42.9%) were invalid due to the termination of the patented right and 292 (57.1%) due to loss of the right for patent applications. The major technical points included medicines (chemicals), basic research, devices and detections, and the specialized fields were mainly concentrated in A61P33, G01N33, C12N15, C07K14 and A01N65. Our data demonstrate a high invalid rate of patents relating to schistosomiasis control in China. Secondary development and mining of the invalid patents in relation to schistosomiasis are recommended to make use of their values in the national schistosomiasis elimination program of China.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1064, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the health behavior of the target population is crucial for sustainable schistosomiasis control. The aim of this study was to assess schistosomiasis related levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices of communities in lowland areas of western Ethiopia, where schistosomiasis is endemic. METHODS: A community-based multilevel triangulation mixed-methods design was conducted in three schistosomiasis endemic villages in the Abbey and Didessa valleys of the Benishangul Gumuz Region of Western Ethiopia, where mass drug administration (MDA) was done 30 years back and again the last 5 years. A structured survey questionnaire, in-depth interviews, focused group discussions, and observation was conducted to assess levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices related to schistosomiasis in the communities. RESULTS: Among the survey participants, 13% reported having heard of schistosomiasis, locally called Pecka (meaning worm). The majority of this 13% believe that schistosomiasis is caused by the biting of the worm Pecka, while others say drinking dirty water is the cause of infection, or they didn't know what the cause is. A majority of respondents answered "I don't know" to most of the questions about established knowledge of schistosomiasis. Male participants and students were more aware of schistosomiasis than their counterparts, and awareness increased with the educational level. Only one participant perceived that schistosomiasis was a serious disease. There were negative attitudes and misconceptions about the drug used in the mass treatment and many complaints were raised related to the size of the tablet and its side effects. There was no local budget and specific plan to prevent and control the disease. Local health personnel had insufficient knowledge about schistosomiasis, and the diagnosis and treatment capacities of local health institutions were poor. CONCLUSION: In the current research area, schistosomiasis prevention and control recommendations should be redesigned to change the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the community and local health workers. It is also necessary to have the local budget and trained manpower in order to diagnose and treat schistosomiasis locally. There is a great need to have a safer Praziquantel pediatric formulation.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009351, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983937

RESUMO

Locally tailored interventions for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are becoming increasingly important for ensuring that the World Health Organization (WHO) goals for control and elimination are reached. Mathematical models, such as those developed by the NTD Modelling Consortium, are able to offer recommendations on interventions but remain constrained by the data currently available. Data collection for NTDs needs to be strengthened as better data are required to indirectly inform transmission in an area. Addressing specific data needs will improve our modelling recommendations, enabling more accurate tailoring of interventions and assessment of their progress. In this collection, we discuss the data needs for several NTDs, specifically gambiense human African trypanosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH), trachoma, and visceral leishmaniasis. Similarities in the data needs for these NTDs highlight the potential for integration across these diseases and where possible, a wider spectrum of diseases.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/transmissão , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/transmissão , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 529, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) calls for schistosomiasis endemic countries to integrate schistosomiasis control measures into the primary health care (PHC) services; however, in Tanzania, little is known about the capacity of the primary health care system to assume this role. The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of the primary health care system to diagnose and treat schistosomiasis in endemic regions of north-western Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 80 randomly-selected primary health care facilities located in the Uyui, Geita and Ukerewe districts of North-western Tanzania participated in the study. At each facility, the in-charge clinician, or any other healthcare worker appointed by the in-charge clinician, participated in the questionnaire survey. A quantitative questionnaire installed in a Data Tool Kit software was used to collect data. Healthcare workers working at various stations (laboratory, pharmacy, data clerks, outpatient section) were interviewed. The questionnaire collected information related to healthcare workers' knowledge about urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis symptoms, human and material resources, laboratory services, data capture, and anti-schistosomiasis treatment availability. RESULTS: A total of 80 healthcare workers were interviewed. Bloody stool (78.3 %) and haematuria (98.7 %) were the most common symptoms of intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis mentioned by healthcare workers. Knowledge on the chronic symptoms such as hepatosplenomegaly and hematemesis for intestinal schistosomiasis, and oliguria and dysuria for urogenital schistosomiasis, were inadequate. Laboratory services were only available in 33.8 % (27/80) of the health facilities and direct wet preparation was the most common diagnostic technique used for both urine and stool samples. All healthcare workers knew that praziquantel was the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis and the drug was available in 91.3 % (73/80) of the health facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The capacity of the primary health care facilities included in the current study is inadequate in terms of diagnosis, treatment, reporting and healthcare workers' knowledge of schistosomiasis. Thus, the integration of schistosomiasis control activities into the primary healthcare system requires these gaps to be addressed.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 107-109, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008355

RESUMO

Surveillance is an important part of the national schistosomiasis control program of China, which play a critical role in facilitating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China. The coverage of schistosomiasis surveillance has shifted from the high-risk regions at the initial stage of the national schistosomiasis control program of China to the current all endemic counties (cities, districts), and the surveillance contents have extended from single surveillance of endemic status to comprehensive surveillance of endemic status, epidemic factors and transmission risks. With the continuous progress towards schistosomiasis elimination, the national schistosomiasis control program has shifted from "extensive control" to surveillance and early warning-based "precision control" in China, which proposes much higher requirements for schistosomiasis surveillance. Currently, the surveillance of schistosomiasis has been covered in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) of China, and the development of rapid and early identification of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae and S. japonicum-infected Oncomelania hupensis snails will greatly improve the sensitivity of and the duration of responses to schistosomiasis surveillance, which will provide powerful tools for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 120-126, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. METHODS: According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. RESULTS: S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Gado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 127-132, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. METHODS: According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. RESULTS: Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. CONCLUSIONS: The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 133-137, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create a model based on meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis during the flood season, so as to provide insights into the surveillance and forecast of schistosomiasis. METHODS: An interactive schistosomiasis forecast system was created using the open-access R software. The schistosomiasis risk index was used as a basic parameter, and the species distribution model of Oncomelania hupensis snails was generated according to the cumulative rainfall and temperature to predict the probability of O. hupensis snail distribution, so as to identify the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood season. RESULTS: The framework of the web page was built using the Shiny package in the R program, and an interactive and visualization system was successfully created to predict the distribution of O. hupensis snails, containing O. hupensis snail surveillance site database, meteorological and environmental data. In this system, the snail distribution area may be displayed and the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission may be predicted using the species distribution model. This predictive system may rapidly generate the schistosomiasis transmission risk map, which is simple and easy to perform. In addition, the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission were predicted to be concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the flood period. CONCLUSIONS: A schistosomiasis forecast system is successfully created, which is accurate and rapid to utilize meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood period.


Assuntos
Inundações , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Rios , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 200-204, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: From 2015 to 2019, 63 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Sichuan Province, in which Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in humans, livestock, wild feces and snails. The monitoring data were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 94 119 person-time local residents were serologically screened for S. japonicum infections in 63 national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2019, with sero-prevalence rates ranging from 1.28% to 3.11%, and the sero-positives were predominantly detected in local residents at ages of over 50 years and in farmers. A total of 94 119 person-time mobile populations were serologically screened for S. japonicum infections in the national surveillance sites during the 5-year period, with sero-prevalence of 1.10% to 1.59%. There were no egg-positives identified in either local residents or mobile populations. Among the 6 126 herd-time livestock detected, no egg-positives were identified, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in the 205 wild feces. Snail survey was performed covering an area of 8 484.08 hm2, and 724.80 hm2 snail habitats were identified, including 2.43 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 63.00 hm2 re-emerging snail habitats. The mean occurrence of frames with snails was 6.87% to 19.63%, and the mean density of living snails was 0.18 to 0.62 snails/0.1 m2 in the national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2019; however, no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis has reduced to the lowest level in Sichuan Province; however, there is a rise in snail habitats, and there is still a risk of schistosomiasis resurgence. Further improvements of the surveillance system for schistosomiasis are required to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in Sichuan Province as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Gado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Caramujos
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 205-208, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, so as to provide insights into the assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis transmission and the scientific formulation of the schistosomiasis surveillance strategy. METHODS: From 2015 to 2019, a total of 19 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, including 4 fixed sites and 15 mobile sites. Snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling in combination with environmental sampling, and the infection of Schistosoma japonicum was detected by the crushing method combined with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2019, snail habitats were detected at areas of 17 040 to 39 527 m2, including 6 214 m2 emerging snail habitats and 16 563 m2 re-emerging snail habitats. The overall mean density of living snails was 0.019 2 snails/0.1 m2 and the occurrence of frames with snails was 1.11% in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites; however, no S. japonicum infection was identified in snails. The area of snail habitats increased by 121.46% in the national surveillance sites in 2019 as compared to that in 2015; however, 50.34% (Z = -0.422, P > 0.05) and 42.85% (χ2 = 130.41, P < 0.01) reductions were seen in the overall means density of living snails and the occurrence of frames with snails. All snail habitats were distributed in the 4 fixed surveillance sites, and were mainly found in ditches, paddy fields and dry lands, with weeds as the primary vegetation type. CONCLUSIONS: There are still risk factors leading to re-emergent transmission of schistosomiasis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, such as local snail spread, and the monitoring of schistosomiasis remains to be reinforced to further consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination in the region.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
16.
Geospat Health ; 16(1)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000789

RESUMO

This study aimed to demonstrate the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in identifying factors contributing to schistosomiasis endemicity and identifying high-risk areas in a schistosomiasis- endemic municipality in the Philippines, which was devastated by Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Data on schistosomiasis determinants, obtained through literature review, the Philippine Department of Health, and concerned local government units, were standardized and incorporated into a GIS map using ArcGIS. Data gathered included modifiable [agriculture, poverty, sanitation, presence of intermediate and reservoir hosts, disease prevalence and mass drug administration (MDA) coverage] and nonmodifiable (geography and climate) determinants for schistosomiasis. Results showed that most barangays (villages) are characterized by favourable conditions for schistosomiasis transmission which include being located in flood-prone areas, presence of vegetation, low sanitary toilet coverage, presence of snail intermediate host, high carabao (water buffalo) population density, previously reported ≥1% prevalence using Kato-Katz technique, and low MDA coverage. Similarly, barangays not known to be endemic for schistosomiasis but also characterized by the same favourable conditions for schistosomiasis as listed above and may therefore be considered as potentially endemic, even if not being high-risk areas. This study demonstrated the importance of GIS technology in characterizing schistosomiasis transmission. Maps generated through application of GIS technology are useful in guiding program policy and planning at the local level for an effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control and prevention.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Esquistossomose , Agricultura , Clima , Humanos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
17.
J Theor Biol ; 523: 110727, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887298

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a parasite infection that affects millions of people around the world. It is endemic in 13 different states in Brazil and responsible for increasing morbidity in the population. One of its main characteristics is a heterogeneous distribution of worm burden in the human population, which makes the diagnosis difficult. We aimed to investigate how the sensitivity of the diagnostic method may contribute to successful control interventions against infections in a population. In order to do that, we present an ordinary differential equations model that considers three levels of worm burden in the human population, a snail population, and a miracidium reservoir. Through a steady-state analysis and its local stability, we show how this worm-burden heterogeneity can be responsible for the persistence of infection, especially due to reinfection in the highest level of worm burden. The analysis highlights sensitive diagnosis, besides treatment and sanitary improvements, as a key factor for schistosomiasis transmission control.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Alimentos , Humanos , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos
18.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0851, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esgotos
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009175, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We were tasked by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the following question: What techniques should be used to diagnose Schistosoma infections in snails and in the water in potential transmission sites? Our goal was to review and evaluate the available literature and provide recommendations and insights for the development of WHO's Guidelines Development Group for schistosomiasis control and elimination. METHODOLOGY: We searched several databases using strings of search terms, searched bibliographies of pertinent papers, and contacted investigators who have made contributions to this field. Our search covered from 1970 to Sept 2020. All papers were considered in a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework, and retained papers were grouped by technique and subjected to our GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) evidence assessment profile determined in consultation with WHO. We also considered issues of sensitivity, specificity, coverage, cost, robustness, support needs, schistosome species discrimination, and relevant detection limits. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our PRISMA process began with the perusal of 949 articles, of which 158 were retained for data extraction and evaluation. We identified 25 different techniques and for each applied a GRADE assessment considering limitations, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness, and publication bias. We also provide advantages and disadvantages for each category of techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Our GRADE analysis returned an assessment of moderate quality of evidence for environmental DNA (eDNA), qPCR and LAMP (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification). No single ideal diagnostic approach has yet been developed, but considerable recent progress has been made. We note a growing trend to use eDNA techniques to permit more efficient and replicable sampling. qPCR-based protocols for follow-up detection offer a versatile, mature, sensitive, and specific platform for diagnosis though centralized facilities will be required to favor standardization. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can play a complementary role if inhibitors are a concern, or more sensitivity or quantification is needed. Snail collection, followed by shedding, is encouraged to provide specimens for sequence verifications of snails or schistosomes. LAMP or other isothermal detection techniques offer the prospect of less expensive and more distributed network of analysis but may face standardization and verification challenges related to actual sequences amplified. Ability to detect schistosome infections in snails or in the water is needed if control and elimination programs hope to succeed. Any diagnostic techniques used need to be regularly verified by the acquisition of DNA sequences to confirm that the detected targets are of the expected species. Further improvements may be necessary to identify the ideal schistosome or snail sequences to target for amplification. More field testing and standardization will be essential for long-term success.


Assuntos
Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA Ambiental/análise , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/genética
20.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 41: 102041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few data on imported schistosomiasis - especially in children. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of imported schistosomiasis in at-risk children in the greater Paris region of France and to compare diagnostic methods. METHOD: Children at risk of schistosomiasis who consulted or were hospitalized in four hospitals in the greater Paris region were prospectively included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Urine and feces samples were screened for Schistosoma spp. using microscopy, a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Serum samples were screened using Western blot, ELISA, indirect hemagglutination, and immunochromatographic assays. The diagnosis was characterized as confirmed (positive microscopy analysis) and as suspected (positive ELISA and Western blot assays). The prevalence of schistosomiasis and the tests' performances were estimated using the latent class method. RESULTS: A total of 114 children were included. Most of the children were newly arrived migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The mean age was 13.2 years-old. There were 12 (10.5%) confirmed cases and 13 (11.4%) suspected cases. Half of the confirmed and suspected cases were asymptomatic. The prevalence was 24.3%. The ELISA and the Western blot assays presented the same sensitivity (83%) and specificity (99%). The serum immunochromatographic assay also showed good performance. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of imported schistosomiasis among at-risk children in the greater Paris region confirms the need for systematic screening. A serum immunochromatographic assay appears to be one of the most effective screening methods for a low cost.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Adolescente , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Paris/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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