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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 853, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decade, Brazil has significantly reduced the prevalence of schistosomiasis through a combined effort of early treatment of infected people, expansion of basic sanitation infrastructure and educational measures. Despite these efforts, in some areas, prevalence of schistosomiasis exceeds 20% of the school population, who lack knowledge of the risks of the disease. Action can be taken in schools to empower this population about their health condition. This paper describes the role of the teacher as a multiplier of knowledge about schistosomiasis and proposes two different approaches to training these teachers. METHODS: This study used mixed methods to evaluate training of teachers and educational intervention with those teachers' pupils. Two training courses, each with 40 h of face-to-face activity, were offered to 19 teachers, using two different but complementary approaches, based on theoretical references and specific educational strategies: Critical Pedagogical Approach (Training Course I, held in 2013) and Creative Play Approach (Training Course II, held in 2014).The courses included classroom activities, laboratory and field work. After the training, the teachers conducted activities on schistosomiasis with their pupils. These activities involved constructing educational materials and cultural productions. The pupils' knowledge about the disease was evaluated before the activities and 12 months later. The teachers' acceptance and perceptions were assessed through structured interviews and subsequent thematic analysis. The Shistosoma mansoni infection status of teachers and their students was also assessed using the Kato Katz stool test. RESULTS: The parasitological study showed 31.6% of the teachers and 21.4% of the pupils to be positive for S. mansoni. The teachers' knowledge of important aspects of schistosomiasis transmission and prevention was fragmented and incorrect prior to the training. The teachers' knowledge changed significantly after the training and they were strongly accepting of the pedagogical methods used during the training. The level of their pupils' knowledge about the disease had increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, pupils responded that, even after the educational activities, they still had contact with the city's contaminated waters (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underline the importance of schools and teachers as partners in controlling and eliminating schistosomiasis. Teacher training on the disease significantly increases their pupils' knowledge, reflecting empowerment with regard to local health conditions.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Docentes , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 1041-1046, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395745

RESUMO

Pretransplant recommendations advise risk-based screening for strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease. We evaluated the implementation of a chronic parasite screening protocol at a health system in a nonendemic region serving a large foreign-born population. Candidates listed for kidney transplant at Hennepin Healthcare (Minneapolis, MN) between 2010 and 2020 were included. Country of birth and serologic screening for strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease were retrospectively obtained from electronic medical records. Parasite screening frequency and seropositivity was assessed before and after implementation of a geographic risk factor-based screening protocol in 2014. Cost-efficiency of presumptive treatment was modeled. Of 907 kidney transplant candidates, 312 (34%) were born in the United States and 232 (26%) outside the United States, with the remainder missing country of birth information. The 447 (49%) candidates evaluated after implementation of the screening protocol had fewer unidentified countries of birth (53%-27%, P < 0.001) and were more frequently screened for strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease (14%-44%, 8%-22%, and 1-14%, respectively, all Ps < 0.001). The number of identified seropositive candidates increased after protocol implementation from two to 14 for strongyloidiasis and from one to 11 for schistosomiasis, with none seropositive for Chagas disease. The cost-efficiency model favored presumptive ivermectin when strongyloidiasis prevalence reaches 30% of those screened. Implementing a geographic risk screening protocol before kidney transplant increases attention to infectious disease risk associated with country of birth and identification of chronic parasitic infections. In populations with higher strongyloidiasis prevalence or lower ivermectin costs, presumptive treatment may be cost-efficient.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Transplante de Rim , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Esquistossomose , Estrongiloidíase , Animais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Ivermectina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010894, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315503

RESUMO

CRISPR gene drives could revolutionize the control of infectious diseases by accelerating the spread of engineered traits that limit parasite transmission in wild populations. Gene drive technology in mollusks has received little attention despite the role of freshwater snails as hosts of parasitic flukes causing 200 million annual cases of schistosomiasis. A successful drive in snails must overcome self-fertilization, a common feature of host snails which could prevents a drive's spread. Here we developed a novel population genetic model accounting for snails' mixed mating and population dynamics, susceptibility to parasite infection regulated by multiple alleles, fitness differences between genotypes, and a range of drive characteristics. We integrated this model with an epidemiological model of schistosomiasis transmission to show that a snail population modification drive targeting immunity to infection can be hindered by a variety of biological and ecological factors; yet under a range of conditions, disease reduction achieved by chemotherapy treatment of the human population can be maintained with a drive. Alone a drive modifying snail immunity could achieve significant disease reduction in humans several years after release. These results indicate that gene drives, in coordination with existing public health measures, may become a useful tool to reduce schistosomiasis burden in selected transmission settings with effective CRISPR construct design and evaluation of the genetic and ecological landscape.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/genética , Caramujos/parasitologia , Água Doce , China/epidemiologia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 363, 2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snail control is critical to schistosomiasis control efforts in China. However, re-emergence of Oncomelania hupensis is challenging the achievements of schistosomiasis control. The present study aimed to test whether the amphibious snails can spread across watersheds using a combination of population genetics and geographic statistics. METHODS: The digital maps and attributes of snail habitats were obtained from the national survey on O. hupensis. Snail sampling was performed in 45 counties of Sichuan Province. The cox1 gene of specimens was characterized by sequencing. Unique haplotypes were found for phylogenetic inference and mapped in a geographical information system (GIS). Barriers of gene flow were identified by Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm. The watercourses and watersheds in the study area were determined based on a digital elevation model (DEM). Plain areas were defined by a threshold of slope. The slope of snail habitats was characterized and the nearest distance to watercourses was calculated using a GIS platform. Spatial dynamics of high-density distributions were observed by density analysis of snail habitats. RESULTS: A total of 422 cox1 sequences of O. hupensis specimens from 45 sampling sites were obtained and collapsed into 128 unique haplotypes or 10 clades. Higher haplotype diversity in the north of the study area was observed. Four barriers to gene flow, leading to five sub-regions, were found across the study area. Four sub-regions ran across major watersheds, while high-density distributions were confined within watersheds. The result indicated that snails were able to disperse across low-density areas. A total of 63.48% habitats or 43.29% accumulated infested areas were distributed in the plain areas where the overall slope was < 0.94°. Approximately 90% of snail habitats were closer to smaller watercourses. Historically, high-density areas were mainly located in the plains, but now more were distributed in hilly region. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed the cross-watershed distribution of Oncomelania snails at a large scale. Natural cross-watershed spread in plains and long-distance dispersal by humans and animals might be the main driver of the observed patterns. We recommend cross-watershed joint control strategies for snail and schistosomiasis control.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Filogenia , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1600-e1611, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In line with movement restrictions and physical distancing essential for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic, WHO recommended postponement of all neglected tropical disease (NTD) control activities that involve community-based surveys, active case finding, and mass drug administration in April, 2020. Following revised guidance later in 2020, and after interruptions to NTD programmes of varying lengths, NTD programmes gradually restarted in the context of an ongoing pandemic. However, ongoing challenges and service gaps have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of the programmatic interruptions and strategies to mitigate this effect. METHODS: For seven NTDs, namely soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, visceral leishmaniasis, and human African trypanosomiasis, we used mathematical transmission models to simulate the effect of programme interruptions on the dynamics of each of these diseases in different endemic settings. We also explored the potential benefit of implementing mitigation strategies, primarily in terms of minimising the delays to control targets. FINDINGS: We show that the effect of the COVID-19-induced interruption in terms of delay to achieving elimination goals might in some cases be much longer than the duration of the interruption. For schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and visceral leishmaniasis, a mean delay of 2-3 years for a 1-year interruption is predicted in areas of highest prevalence. We also show that these delays can largely be mitigated by measures such as additional mass drug administration or enhanced case-finding. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought infectious disease control to the forefront of global consciousness. It is essential that the NTDs, so long neglected in terms of research and financial support, are not overlooked, and remain a priority in health service planning and funding. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Medical Research Council, and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leishmaniose Visceral , Oncocercose , Esquistossomose , Tracoma , Medicina Tropical , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Solo , Tracoma/epidemiologia
7.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 227, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early childhood development of millions of children in some low- and medium-income countries may be compromised by schistosomiasis infections contracted at the age of 5 years and below. Currently, there are no standard guidelines for treating schistosomiasis in children that are 5 years and younger using praziquantel (PZQ), the only drug that the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends for treating schistosomiasis. The review is on processes and resources involved in the treatment of schistosomiasis in children aged 5 years and below. METHODS: An electronic search for peer-reviewed articles published in the period from January 2011 to August 2021 was done in the Academic Search Complete, CINAHL with Full Text, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and MEDLINE databases via EBSCOHost and Google Scholar databases. The search targeted journals that described the treatment of schistosomiasis in children 5 years and below using praziquantel. RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The patient journey for treating schistosomiasis in children aged 5 years old and below using PZQ included the following activities: enrolment of the children into the treatment program; clinical examination; diagnosis; taking anthropometric measurements; feeding the children, making the PZQ palatable to the children; administration of PZQ; and monitoring of side effects. There was also a variation in the resources used to treat children aged 5 and below for schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: A PZQ mass drug administration program for children aged 5 years old and below in endemic areas should exclude the diagnosis of schistosomiasis before treatment. The resources required in the treatment process should be affordable, and should not require skills and maintenance resources that are beyond those that are available at the primary healthcare level.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Esquistossomose , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 2, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158934

RESUMO

Introduction: South Sudan is affected by a high burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The country is very vulnerable to NTDs due to its favourable tropical climate and multiple risk factors. However, the distribution of the diseases and the populations at risk for the various NTDs is unknown. This paper described the distribution of schistosomiasis in 58 counties and 261 schools in South Sudan. Methods: a descriptive quantitative cross-sectional study of schistosomiasis in 58 counties in 8 states of South Sudan recruited school-aged children. Using different laboratory techniques, the children were tested for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium). A quantitative descriptive statistical was performed to determine the prevalence rates and the endemicity of schistosomiasis among 13,286 school-aged children. Results: the overall prevalence of S. mansoni and S. haematobium were 6.1% and 3.7% using Kato Katz and urine filtration concentration testing techniques. The highest state prevalence was reported in Western Equatoria for both S. mansoni (14.7%) and S. haematobium (7.3%). The age of the participants varied from 4 to 18 years; of these, children 10 to 12 years old had the highest prevalence of S. mansoni (6.8%) and S. haematobium (3.7%). The prevalence of S. mansoni (7% male vs 5% female) and S. haematobium (3.6% male vs 3.1% female) were higher in males than females. The likelihood of the prevalence of S. mansoni in males was 1.42 (95% CI:1.23, 1.64) higher than in females, while for S. haematobium, 1.36 (95% CI:1.12, 1.65) higher than in females. The prevalence of S. mansoni and S. haematobium showed a statistically significant gender difference (P< 0.05). Conclusion: the study had provided evidence of the distribution of schistosomiasis in South Sudan for policy direction and recommended annual preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel in all endemic areas.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Urinária , Esquistossomose , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Sudão do Sul
9.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 36, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a global health problem affecting 250 million people, with 90% in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Botswana, the burden is high in the Okavango delta because of the water channels. WHO recommends integrated measures, including access to clean water, sanitation, health education, and drugs to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Gauging knowledge and awareness of schistosomiasis for School-Aged Children (SAC) is crucial. Our study aimed at assessing knowledge and awareness of schistosomiasis among SAC in the Okavango Delta. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey assessing awareness and knowledge of schistosomiasis in schools was conducted. 480 questionnaires were administered to gather demographic profiles, awareness, and knowledge of risky behaviors. Chi-square and descriptive analysis determined the differences in SAC`s awareness and knowledge levels based on localities, gender, age, and health education. RESULTS: The results showed a low awareness level, with only (42%) of respondents having heard about the disease and (52%) knowing its local name. Younger children from Sekondomboro (83%) and Samochima lacked awareness, while children from Mohembo (77%) and those who had health education (70%) demonstrated significant awareness levels (P ≤ 0.001). Seventy-two percent (72%) lacked knowledge of the cause and (95%) did not know the disease life-cycle. Children from Xakao (91%), (85%) Sepopa, and (75%) of younger children did not know haematuria is a symptom of the disease. Older and SAC with health education were more likely to know that swimming is a risk factor (P ≤ 0.001) and (P ≤ 0.05) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although respondents from four schools demonstrated some level of awareness of the disease, and knowledge of risky behaviors, the study showed a lack of in-depth knowledge on the life-cycle and cause of the diseases. We, therefore, recommend the implementation of an integrated approach to health education and improvement in access to clean water and sanitation in all study areas.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Água
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(4): 329-336, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116921

RESUMO

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People's Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero-positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person-time individuals and 256 913 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.50 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(4): 337-340, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116922

RESUMO

Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and O. hupensis control is an important measure for schistosomiasis control. With the progress of national schistosomiasis control program, the prevalence of schistosomiasis is low in China; however, there are still multiple challenges for O. hupensis breeding and schistosomiasis transmission risk. Considering the target of the national schistosomiasis elimination program and environmental protection in the new era, the introduction of precision identification, precision interventions and precision assessment into O. hupensis control may facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Assuntos
Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(4): 404-406, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of 25% wettable powder of pyriclobenzuron sulphate (WPPS) against Oncomelania snails in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions and test its toxicity to fish. METHODS: In October 2020, a snail-infested setting which had been cleared was selected in Nanjian County, Yunnan Province and divided into several blocks, and the natural snail mortality was estimated. 25% WPPS was prepared into solutions at concentrations of 1 and 2 g/L, and 25% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPNES) was prepared into solutions at a concentration of 2 g/L. The different concentrations of drugs were sprayed evenly, and the same amount of water was used as blank control. Snails were surveyed using the systematic sampling method 1, 3 and 7 days post-treatment, and snail survival was observed. A fish pond was selected in Nanjian County, and 2 kg 25% WPPS was evenly sprayed on the water surface to allow the effective concentration of 20 g/L. Fish mortality was estimated 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. RESULTS: One-day treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES resulted in 97.99%, 97.99% and 94.11% adjusted snail mortality rates (χ2 = 3.509 and 3.509, both P values > 0.05), and the adjusted snail mortality was all 100% 3 d post-treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES, while 7-day treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES resulted in 91.75%, 86.57% and 57.76% adjusted snail mortality rates (χ2 = 14.893 and 42.284, both P values < 0.05). Treatment with 2 g/L WPPS for 72 h resulted in a 0.67% cumulative mortality rate of fish. CONCLUSIONS: 25% WPPS is effective for snail control and highly safe for fish, which is feasible for use in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Etanolamina/farmacologia , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos , Pós/farmacologia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Água
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(4): 412-416, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic status of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the future schistosomiasis control strategy. METHODS: The data pertaining to the endemic status of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved from the annual schistosomiasis control report, the information management platform of schistosomiasis (parasitic diseases) in Jiangsu Province and the Parasitic Diseases Control Information Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, including snail survey data, snail control data and schistosomiasis examination data, and were retrospectively reviewed. Differences of proportions were tested for statistical significance with chi-square test, and the trends in proportions were evaluated using the chi-square test for trends. RESULTS: Elimination of schistosomiasis was achieved in Suzhou City in 2018, and there were 3.528 9 million residents living in schistosomiasis-endemic villages of 81 townships in 9 counties. A total of 707 600 labor-days were used for snail survey in 11 586 village-times in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020, covering 18 572.73 hm2, and snail habitats were detected with an area of 68.61 hm2, including emerging snail habitats of 37.30 hm2. A total of 23 144 snails were dissected, and no Schistosoma japonicum infection was detected. Reemerging and emerging snail habitats were predominantly found in inlands. During the period from 2010 to 2020, snail control was performed in Suzhou City for 71 000 labor-times, and snail control was done covering 269.34 hm2 through chemical treatment and covering 3.48 hm2 through environmental improvements. A total of 674 002 person-times received serological tests for S. japonicum infections in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020, with seroprevalence of 0.38%, and a total of 33 835 person-times received stool examinations, with no egg-positives identified. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a rise in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020 (χ2 = 129.48, P < 0.001). The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared high among local residents in 2016, and remained stable in other years, while the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a rise among mobile populations (χ2 = 54.11, P < 0.001). There were 278 800 and 175 202 serological tests among local residents and mobile populations in Suzhou City from 2013 to 2020, and 0.50% and 0.35% sero-prevalence rates were detected, respectively. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was significantly higher among local residents than among mobile populations in Suzhou City (χ2= 54.76, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is a risk of rebound of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City. Integrated control should be reinforced to prevent the risk of rebound of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/parasitologia
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(8): e1010706, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939508

RESUMO

Hybridization between different species of parasites is increasingly being recognised as a major public and veterinary health concern at the interface of infectious diseases biology, evolution, epidemiology and ultimately control. Recent research has revealed that viable hybrids and introgressed lineages between Schistosoma spp. are prevalent across Africa and beyond, including those with zoonotic potential. However, it remains unclear whether these hybrid lineages represent recent hybridization events, suggesting hybridization is ongoing, and/or whether they represent introgressed lineages derived from ancient hybridization events. In human schistosomiasis, investigation is hampered by the inaccessibility of adult-stage worms due to their intravascular location, an issue which can be circumvented by post-mortem of livestock at abattoirs for Schistosoma spp. of known zoonotic potential. To characterise the composition of naturally-occurring schistosome hybrids, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 21 natural livestock infective schistosome isolates. To facilitate this, we also assembled a de novo chromosomal-scale draft assembly of Schistosoma curassoni. Genomic analyses identified isolates of S. bovis, S. curassoni and hybrids between the two species, all of which were early generation hybrids with multiple generations found within the same host. These results show that hybridization is an ongoing process within natural populations with the potential to further challenge elimination efforts against schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Schistosoma , Esquistossomose , Animais , Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Gado/parasitologia , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/genética , Esquistossomose/veterinária
16.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102415, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower eosinophil counts observed during acute malaria episodes could hide helminth-related eosinophilia. METHOD: Retrospective observational study with sub-Saharan migrants with imported malaria from May-2007 to May-2020. Absolute eosinophil count was determined upon diagnosis at hospital admission and at least once after clearance of parasitemia. Helminthic co-infections were investigated by searching for stool and urine parasites, serology for Strongyloides spp. and Schistosoma spp., and Knott and/or saponin tests for blood microfilariae. RESULTS: A total of 259 patients were included. Most of them were male (n = 237; 91.5%) and VFR travelers (n = 241; 93.1%). 131 patients (50.6%) were diagnosed with probable schistosomiasis, 15 (5.8%) with confirmed schistosomiasis, 16 (6.2%) with strongyloidiasis, 4 (1.6%) with soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and 4 (1.6%) with filariasis (Mansonella perstans). Prevalence of eosinophilia increased from 2.7% on admission to 32.5% during outpatient follow-up. Eosinophilia did not appear until several weeks after hospital discharge in up to 24% of the confirmed helminthic co-infections and in 61.1% of patients with probable schistosomiasis. Eosinophilia was associated with confirmed schistosomiasis and mansonellosis while 56.2% and 75% of cases with strongyloidiasis and soil-transmitted worms did not present eosinophilia at any time, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the absence of eosinophilia, patients hospitalized because of acute imported malaria might benefit from the screening of the main parasitic diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Eosinofilia , Malária , Esquistossomose , Estrongiloidíase , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Eosinófilos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273503, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006980

RESUMO

The Ministry of Public Health in Yemen continues the implementation of school and community-based preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel and albendazole for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The latest remapping to update the distribution of schistosomiasis and STH was conducted seven years ago. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni and STH among schoolchildren in An-Nadirah District, Ibb Governorate, Yemen. A cross-sectional study was carried out among schoolchildren aged 6-15 years in four selected schools. Biological, demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. S. mansoni and STH eggs were detected and counted by the microscopic examination of Kato-Katz fecal smears. Out of 417 schoolchildren, 17.0% were infected with at least one intestinal helminth. Prevalence of S. mansoni and STH were 6.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The most prevalent parasite among STH was Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%). Unemployed fathers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 8.52; P = 0.018), eating exposed food (AOR: 2.9; 95%CI = 1.24, 6.89; P = 0.014), not washing hands before eating and after defecation (AOR: 4.8; 95%CI = 1.77, 12.81; P = 0.002), and schools located close to water stream (AOR: 22.1; 95%CI = 5.12, 95.46; P <0.001) were independent risk factors of ascariasis. Swimming in ponds/stream (AOR: 3.9; 95%CI = 1.63, 9.55; P = 0.002), and schools close to the stream (AOR: 24.7; 95%CI = 3.05, 200.07; P = 0.003) were independent risk factors of intestinal schistosomiasis. The present study does not indicate a reduction in the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in this rural area since the latest remapping conducted in 2014, although ascariasis was reduced by half. The prevalence of the two parasites was highly focal in areas close to the valley, suggesting a significant role of the stream in sustaining and accelerating the parasitic infection. Children practicing swimming and having poor hygienic practices were at high exposure to S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene intervention, school-based health education, and snail control, in addition to mass drug administration, will help in the interruption of transmission of schistosomiasis and STH.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Água , Iêmen/epidemiologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 301, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate behaviour change with regard to safe water contact practices will facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health concern. Various approaches to effecting this change have been trialled in the field but with limited sustainable outcomes. Our case study assessed the effectiveness of a novel theatre-based behaviour change technique (BCT), in combination with cohort awareness raising and capacity training intervention workshops. METHODOLOGY: Our study was carried out in four rural communities in the Mwanza region of Tanzania and in the semi-urban town of Kemise, Ethiopia. We adapted the Risk, Attitude, Norms, Ability and Self-regulation (RANAS) framework and four phases using a mixed methods approach. Participatory project phase engagement and qualitative formative data were used to guide the design of an acceptable, holistic intervention. Initial baseline (BL) data were collected using quantitative questionnaire surveys with 804 participants in Tanzania and 617 in Ethiopia, followed by the theatre-based BCT and capacity training intervention workshops. A post-intervention (PI) survey was carried out after 6 months, with a participant return rate of 65% in Tanzania and 60% in Ethiopia. RESULTS: The intervention achieved a significant improvement in the knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission being associated with poorly managed sanitation and risky water contact. Participants in Tanzania increased their uptake of preventive chemotherapy (males: BL, 56%; PI, 73%, females: BL, 43%; PI, 50%). There was a significant increase in the selection of sanitation (Tanzania: BL, 13%; PI, 21%, Ethiopia: BL, 63%; PI, 90%), safe water and avoiding/minimising contact with infested waters as prevention methods in Tanzania and Ethiopia. Some of the participants in Tanzania followed on from the study by building their own latrines. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that substantial positive behaviour changes in schistosomiasis control can be achieved using theatre-based BCT intervention and disease awareness training. With the appropriate sensitisation, education and stakeholder engagement approaches, community members were more open to minimising risk-associated contact with contaminated water sources and were mobilised to implement preventive measures.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saneamento/métodos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Água
19.
Elife ; 112022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040013

RESUMO

The global community has adopted ambitious goals to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and new tools are needed to achieve them. Mass drug administration programs, for example, have reduced the burden of schistosomiasis, but the identification of hotspots of persistent and reemergent transmission threaten progress toward elimination and underscore the need to couple treatment with interventions that reduce transmission. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies make whole-genome sequencing a valuable and increasingly feasible option for population-based studies of complex parasites such as schistosomes. Here, we focus on leveraging genomic data to tailor interventions to distinct social and ecological circumstances. We consider two priority questions that can be addressed by integrating epidemiological, ecological, and genomic information: (1) how often do non-human host species contribute to human schistosome infection? and (2) what is the importance of locally acquired versus imported infections in driving transmission at different stages of elimination? These questions address processes that can undermine control programs, especially those that rely heavily on treatment with praziquantel. Until recently, these questions were difficult to answer with sufficient precision to inform public health decision-making. We review the literature related to these questions and discuss how whole-genome approaches can identify the geographic and taxonomic sources of infection, and how such information can inform context-specific efforts that advance schistosomiasis control efforts and minimize the risk of reemergence.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Esquistossomose , Animais , Genômica , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(9): e1355-e1359, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961358

RESUMO

WHO's 2021-30 road map for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) outlines disease-specific and cross-cutting targets for the control, elimination, and eradication of NTDs in affected countries. For schistosomiasis, the criterion for elimination as a public health problem (EPHP) is defined as less than 1% prevalence of heavy-intensity infections (ie, ≥50 Schistosoma haematobium eggs per 10 mL of urine or ≥400 Schistosoma mansoni eggs per g of stool). However, we believe the evidence supporting this definition of EPHP is inadequate and the shifting distribution of schistosomiasis morbidity towards more subtle, rather than severe, morbidity in the face of large-scale control programmes requires guidelines to be adapted. In this Viewpoint, we outline the need for more accurate measures to develop a robust evidence-based monitoring and evaluation framework for schistosomiasis. Such a framework is crucial for achieving the goal of widespread EPHP of schistosomiasis and to meet the WHO road map targets. We encourage use of overall prevalence of schistosome infection (instead of the prevalence of heavy-intensity infections), development of species-dependent and age-dependent morbidity markers, and construction of a standardised monitoring and evaluation protocol.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
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