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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008129, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease associated with severe pathology, mortality and economic loss worldwide. Programs for disease control may benefit from specific and sensitive diagnostic methods to detect Schistosoma trematodes in aquatic environments. Here we report the development of novel environmental DNA (eDNA) qPCR assays for the presence of the human-infecting species Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first tested the specificity of the assays across the three species using genomic DNA preparations which showed successful amplification of target sequences with no cross amplification between the three focal species. In addition, we evaluated the specificity of the assays using synthetic DNA of multiple Schistosoma species, and demonstrated a high overall specificity; however, S. japonicum and S. haematobium assays showed cross-species amplification with very closely-related species. We next tested the effectiveness of the S. mansoni assay using eDNA samples from aquaria containing infected host gastropods, with the target species revealed as present in all infected aquaria. Finally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the S. mansoni and S. haematobium assays using eDNA samples from eight discrete natural freshwater sites in Tanzania, and demonstrated strong correspondence between infection status established using eDNA and conventional assays of parasite prevalence in host snails. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our results suggest that eDNA monitoring is able to detect schistosomes in freshwater bodies, but refinement of the field sampling, storage and assay methods are likely to optimise its performance. We anticipate that environmental DNA-based approaches will help to inform epidemiological studies and contribute to efforts to control and eliminate schistosomiasis in endemic areas.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/parasitologia , Schistosoma/classificação , Schistosoma/genética , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tanzânia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18481, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876734

RESUMO

To study the clinical presentation of Chronic Schistosomiasis (CS) in immigrants from East Africa to Israel and the tests that were useful in confirming the diagnosis.A retrospective study of all medical notes pertaining to hospitalized patients who were immigrants from East Africa with a pathological or microscopic confirmation of CS. Literature review was also conducted focusing on diagnosis of schistosomiasis among immigrants from endemic countries.We identified 32 suspected and 11 confirmed cases of CS. Most of the patients (82%) presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Sensitivity of stool smear, serology and tissue diagnosis (by histopathology or microscopy) were 14%, 100%, 89%, respectively. Patients have undergone extensive diagnostic evaluation with long hospitalization stays (median 10 days, range 4 to 33 days).CS has multiple presentations and is seen in Israel among refugees from Eritrea and Sudan. Most of the manifestations are gastrointestinal, suggestive of infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni). Standard diagnostic techniques used in endemic countries, such as microscopy for ova and parasites were unhelpful, necessitating more advanced procedures like colonoscopic or liver biopsy. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for CS in this patient population in order to make an accurate diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive procedures.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adulto , África Oriental/etnologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Schistosoma , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 217-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578845

RESUMO

The majority of the population in Yemen lives in rural areas and suffers from parasitic infections. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses and schistosome infections among the students enrolled in the primary schools in Hajjah governorate ­ north of Yemen, along with an assessment of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of microscopy-confirmed cases of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. For this purpose, 780 samples (320 stool and 460 urine) were examined microscopically. The present study revealed an overall infection rate of 75.3% (241/320) with intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni. The detected parasite species included Entamoeba histolytica (27.8%), Hymenolepis nana (12.2%), Giardia lamblia (9.7%), Entamoeba coli (9.4%), S. mansoni (9.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.9%), Trichuris trichiura (3.1%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.8%) and Ancylostoma duodenale (2.2%). Schistosoma haematobium was prevalent among 1.7% (8/460) of the investigated students. On the other hand, PZQ yielded a cure rate of 75.7% of Schistosoma-infected students when administered at 40 mg/kg body weight. However, a 100% cure rate was achieved when administered at 60 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the findings of the present study highlight the importance of monitoring PZQ efficacy through large-scale studies in different settings endemic for schistosomosis in the country.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Estudantes , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/parasitologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000485, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622335

RESUMO

Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect over 200 million people, causing the neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis. A single drug, praziquantel, is used to treat schistosome infection. Limitations in mass drug administration programs and the emergence of schistosomiasis in nontropical areas indicate the need for new strategies to prevent infection. It has been known for several decades that rotifers colonizing the schistosome's snail intermediate host produce a water-soluble factor that paralyzes cercariae, the life cycle stage infecting humans. In spite of its potential for preventing infection, the nature of this factor has remained obscure. Here, we report the purification and chemical characterization of Schistosome Paralysis Factor (SPF), a novel tetracyclic alkaloid produced by the rotifer Rotaria rotatoria. We show that this compound paralyzes schistosome cercariae and prevents infection and does so more effectively than analogous compounds. This molecule provides new directions for understanding cercariae motility and new strategies for preventing schistosome infection.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Rotíferos/química , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Cercárias/patogenicidade , Cercárias/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/fisiologia , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489072

RESUMO

Introduction: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) and schistosomiasis have serious consequences for the health, education and nutrition of children in developing countries. As Loum is known as a highly endemic commune for these infections, several deworming campaigns have been carried out in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine any changes that have occurred since then in the characteristics of these infections among schoolchildren in this site. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2016 on 289 schoolchildren. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections. Results: The highest prevalence was noted for Schistosoma haematobium (34.2%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), S. mansoni (4.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.9%) in decreasing order. A prevalence of less than 2% was noted for each of the other two helminths. The highest mean intensity was found for S. haematobium (39.6 eggs/10 ml of urine), followed by A. lumbricoides (24.2 eggs per gram of faeces: epg), Strongyloides stercoralis (16.6 epg) and Schistosoma mansoni (12.3 epg). The prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly higher in boys and that of S. haematobium in children aged 10 years or older, while the differences between other values of prevalence or between egg burdens were not significant. Conclusion: Compared with values reported in 2003, the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiases and STH infections in Loum has sharply decreased in 2016. Confirmation of this decrease in the years to come allowed to space deworming campaigns among schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 383, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mekongi, which causes schistosomiasis in humans, is an important public health issue in Southeast Asia. Treatment with praziquantel is the primary method of control but emergence of praziquantel resistance requires the development of alternative drugs and vaccines. Calcium-dependent cysteine protease (calpain) is a novel vaccine candidate that has been studied in S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and protozoans including malaria, leishmania and trypanosomes. However, limited information is available on the properties and functions of calpain in other Schistosoma spp., including S. mekongi. In this study, we functionally characterized calpain 1 of S. mekongi (SmeCalp1). RESULTS: Calpain 1 of S. mekongi was obtained from transcriptomic analysis of S. mekongi; it had the highest expression level of all isoforms tested and was predominantly expressed in the adult male. SmeCalp1 cDNA is 2274 bp long and encodes 758 amino acids, with 85% to 90% homology with calpains in other Schistosoma species. Recombinant SmeCalp1 (rSmeCalp1), with a molecular weight of approximately 86.7 kDa, was expressed in bacteria and stimulated a marked antibody response in mice. Native SmeCalp1 was detected in crude worm extract and excretory-secretory product, and it was mainly localized in the tegument of the adult male; less signal was detected in the adult female worm. Thus, SmeCalp1 may play a role in surface membrane synthesis or host-parasite interaction. We assessed the protease activity of rSmeCalp1 and demonstrated that rSmeCalp1 could cleave the calpain substrate N-succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, that was inhibited by calpain inhibitors (MDL28170 and E64c). Additionally, rSmeCalp1 could degrade the biological substrates fibronectin (blood clotting protein) and human complement C3, indicating important roles in the intravascular system and in host immune evasion. CONCLUSIONS: SmeCalp1 is expressed on the tegumental surface of the parasite and can cleave host defense molecules; thus, it might participate in growth, development and survival during the entire life-cycle of S. mekongi. Information on the properties and functions of SmeCalp1 reported herein will be advantageous in the development of effective drugs and vaccines against S. mekongi and other schistosomes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Calpaína/genética , Calpaína/metabolismo , Schistosoma/enzimologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Cisteína Proteases/genética , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunização , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/imunologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 734, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most chronic infections worldwide. Based on their demonstrable impact on human health, the WHO recently recommended the implementation of robust strategies aimed at controlling or eliminating schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths by 2020. The implementation of this strategy, however, warrants a clear understanding of the community's knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to these infections. This study sought to identify sociocultural gaps that should be addressed to ensure the success of cost-effective community-based schistosomiasis-soil-transmitted helminths control and elimination programs. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional mixed methodology study. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 442 caregivers of preschool aged children. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among caregivers, preschool teachers, traditional authorities and community caregivers. All interviews were captured using an audio recorder to maximize accuracy. Quantitative data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate techniques while qualitative data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Findings reflected inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths while awareness of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths was high (87.1 and 79.2% respectively). Correct knowledge on transmission, prevention, signs and symptoms and life cycle was low (below 50%) for both infections among those who had heard of the disease. From multivariate analysis, being aged at least 35 years increased the odds of reporting good practices on schistosomiasis by 65% (COR 1.652, 95% CI: 1.073-2.543) while receiving health information through community meetings (COR 0.072, 95% CI: 0.010-0.548) significantly reduced the odds of having good knowledge on schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are valuable in designing behavioural change approaches towards enhancing health outcomes through community-based interventions to ensure effective control and elimination of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. There is a critical need for channelling efforts towards making health education the core of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths programs aimed at achieving intensified control or elimination of these infections by 2020.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/normas , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/terapia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Professores Escolares/normas , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007617, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve schistosomiasis control programs in Uganda, where intestinal schistosomiasis is a widespread public health problem, a country-wide assessment of the disease prevalence among all age ranges is needed. Few studies have aimed to quantify the relationships between disease prevalence and water and sanitation characteristics across Uganda to understand the potential to interrupt disease transmission with an integrated package of interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nationally representative survey was undertaken that included a household and individual questionnaire followed by disease testing based on detection of worm antigens (circulating cathodic antigen-CCA), diagnosis and treatment. A comprehensive set of questions was asked of randomly sampled individuals, two years of age and above, to understand their water and sanitation infrastructure, open defecation behaviors, exposure to surface water bodies, and knowledge of schistosomiasis. From a set of 170 randomly sampled, geographically diverse enumeration areas, a total of 9,183 study participants were included. After adjustment with sample weights, the national prevalence of schistosomiasis was 25.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.3, 29.0) with children ages two to four most at risk for the disease with 36.1% infected (95% CI: 30.1, 42.2). The defecation behaviors of an individual were more strongly associated with infection status than the household water and sanitation infrastructure, indicating the importance of incorporating behavior change into community-led total sanitation coverage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the importance of incorporating monitoring and evaluation data into control programs in Uganda to understand the geographic distribution of schistosomiasis prevalence outside of communities where endemicity is known to be high. The high prevalence of schistosomiasis among the youngest age group, ineligible to receive drug treatment, shows the imperative to develop a child-appropriate drug protocol that can be safely administered to preschool-aged children. Water and sanitation interventions should be considered an essential investment for elimination alongside drug treatment.


Assuntos
Saneamento/métodos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Água/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Características da Família , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 309-318, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451437

RESUMO

To date, no risk prediction tools have been developed to identify high mortality risk of patients with advanced schistosomiasis within 2 years after discharge. We aim to derive and validate a risk prediction model to be applied in clinical practice. The risk prediction model was derived from 1487 patients from Jingzhou and externally validated by 723 patients of Huangshi, two prefecture-level cities in Hubei province, China (from September 2014 to January 2015, with follow-up to January 2017). The baseline variables were collected. The mean age [SD] was 62.89 [10.38] years for the derivation cohort and 62.95 [12.22] years for the external validation cohort. The females accounted for 36.3% and 43.7% of the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. 8.27% patients (123/1487) in the derivation cohort and 7.75% patients (56/723) in the external validation cohort died within 2 years after discharge. We constructed 4 models based on the 7 selected variables: age, clinical classification, serum direct bilirubin (DBil), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) at admission. In the external validation cohort, the multivariate model including 7 variables had a C statistic of 0.717 (95% CI, 0.646-0.788) and improved integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) value and net reclassification improvement (NRI) value compared to the other reduced models. Therefore, a multivariate model was developed to predict the 2-year mortality risk for patients with advanced schistosomiasis after discharge. It could also help guide follow-up, aid prognostic assessment and inform resource allocation.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/mortalidade , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 45-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297759

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity in the world; it is second only to malaria as a major infectious disease. Globally, it is estimated that the disease affects over 250 million people in 78 countries of the world and is responsible for some 280,000 deaths each year. The three major schistosomes infecting humans are Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium. This chapter covers a wide range of aspects of schistosomiasis, including basic biology of the parasites, epidemiology, immunopathology, treatment, control, vaccines, and genomics/proteomics. In this chapter, the reader will understand the significant toll this disease takes in terms of mortality and morbidity. A description of the various life stages of schistosomes is presented, which will be informative for both those unfamiliar with the disease and experienced scientists. Clinical and public health aspects are addressed that cover acute and chronic disease, diagnosis, current treatment regimens and alternative drugs, and schistosomiasis control programs. A brief overview of genomics and proteomics is included that details recent advances in the field that will help scientists investigate the molecular biology of schistosomes. The reader will take away an appreciation for general aspects of schistosomiasis and research advances.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 7(4)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325285

RESUMO

While disease and outbreaks are mainly clonal for bacteria and other asexually reproducing organisms, sexual reproduction in schistosomes and other helminths usually results in unique individuals. For sexually reproducing organisms, the traits conserved in clones will instead be conserved in the group of organisms that tends to breed together, the population. While the same tools are applied to characterize DNA, how results are interpreted can be quite different at times (see another article in this collection, http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018). It is difficult to know what the real effect any control program has on the parasite population without assessing the health of this population, how they respond to the control measure, and how they recover, if they do. This review, part of the Microbiology Spectrum Curated Collection: Advances in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, concentrates on one approach using pooled samples to study schistosome populations and shows how this and other approaches have contributed to our understanding of this parasite family's biology and epidemiology. *This article is part of a curated collection.


Assuntos
Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reprodução Assexuada , Schistosoma/genética , Schistosoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(2): 121-125, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the reporting situation of schistosomiasis cases in National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) in China from 2015 to 2017, and to seek current deficiencies on case reporting as well as to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases. METHODS: The data of schistosomiasis cases in China from 2015 to 2017 were collected from NNDRS, and the reporting situation and epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases were analyzed. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2017, totally 59 981 schistosomiasis cases were reported in China, among which, 1 460 cases were deleted, and 58 521 were censored cases. The statistics and analysis showed that a part of the case reporting had been carried out in nonstandard ways, mainly involving the random deletion of cases, reporting time not compliance with regulations, incorrect classification, and severe omission of cases. Among the 58 521 censored cases, the sex ratio of the male to the female was 1.83∶1, the average age of the cases was (51.91 ± 11.30) years, and farmers and fishermen accounted for 93.26% (54 577 cases) and 3.46% (2 022 cases), respectively. The reported cases mainly concentrated in Anhui, Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, accounting for 99.73% of the total number in China. During this period, Beijing, Zhejiang and other provinces (cities and regions) reported 11 imported schistosomiasis cases, all of them were schistosomiasis mansoni cases or schistosomiasis haematobia cases. CONCLUSIONS: From 2015 to 2017, the reported cases of schistosomiasis are mainly clinically diagnosed cases. Compared with the annual report of the national schistosomiasis control, the number of confirmed cases in NNDRS is seriously missed. Therefore, the endemic provinces should strengthen the supervision on confirmed cases and reporting quality of schistosomiasis cases in accordance with the relevant law and regulation.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/normas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 47, 2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases remain widely prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data suggest that these infections are prevalent among preschool aged children (PSAC) in poor communities. Evidence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infection patterns and prevalence among PSAC is essential for effective treatment and control programmes. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, intensity and risk factors of schistosomiasis and STH infection among PSAC in the Ingwavuma area of uMkhanyakude District, South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1143 PSAC aged 1-5 years in 34 preschools and early childhood development (ECD) centres. Data on risk factors was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the differences in infection intensity with age. Pearson Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the association between PSAC infection status, sociodemographic, household, water and sanitation variables and hygiene practices of PSAC and their caregivers. RESULTS: We observed a low prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (1.0%) and S. mansoni (0.9%). The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides (18.3%) was high compared to Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), hookworms (1.6%) and Taenia (6.4%). The odds of schistosome infection were lowest among PSAC under younger (15-24 years) caregivers (0.1, 95% CI: 0.02-0.54) and those who used tap water (0.3, 95% CI: 0.09-0.78) for domestic purposes. Schistosome infection was however higher among PSAC who bathed in river water (17.4, 95% CI: 5.96-51.04). STH infection on the other hand was lowest among PSAC who did not play in soil (0.1, 95% CI: 0.51-0.28), were from households that used tap water for domestic purposes (0.5, 95% CI: 0.27-0.80) and PSAC under the care of younger (25-35 years) caregivers (0.3, 95% CI: 0.10-0.75). The risk of STH infection was highest among PSAC who did not wash their hands with soap (3.5, 95% CI: 1.04-11.67) and PSAC whose nails were not trimmed (3.6, 95% CI: 1.75-7.26). CONCLUSIONS: The findings show low prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis and STH infection except A. lumbricoides among PSAC. Factors predicting schistosomiasis and STH infection among PSAC were related to caregivers' age, educational status, water and hygiene practices. STH infection was exclusively associated with PSAC playing and handwashing habits. These findings highlight the need to include PSAC caregivers in schistosomiasis and STH prevention and control programmes.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(17): e109-e113, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. If left untreated, intestinal (Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, S. mekongi) and urogenital (S. haematobium) chronic disease manifestations occur depending on the parasite load. The early phase however is characterized by fever and an immune-complex-mediated illness. Long-distance travel to tropical regions is on the rise, academic partnerships and humanitarian missions take even young people to developing countries. METHODS: 12 students from a German secondary school had fresh water exposure during a 14-day school trip to Rwanda in Lake Kivu in the west of the country. After returning to Germany, one of the students fell ill with acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome), which led to examination of the other students. WBC, differential blood count, serology for schistosomal antibodies and ova detection in urine and stool were performed on first presentation and 6 and 12 months after therapy. RESULTS: Positive antibody results indicated infection in all students, eosinophilia was found in 9 patients, ova of S. mansoni were detected in 3 cases. At presentation in our outpatient department 11 of the 12 students were asymptomatic. All patients received therapy with praziquantel. DISCUSSION: Tropical diseases will further increase due to high global mobility. For their prevention and diagnosis physicians need to be sensitized beyond subject specific units. We describe an outbreak of schistosomiasis in a school class to sensitize physicians outside endemic areas. Since the disease is often asymptomatic a high number of unrecognized infections and illnesses can be assumed. When suspecting or treating schistosomiasis, a specialized center should always be consulted.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Viagem , Adolescente , Animais , Eosinofilia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Ruanda , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/fisiopatologia , Estudantes , Medicina Tropical
15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(2): 135-144, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104405

RESUMO

There have been some reports on schistosomiasis of school children in Sudan's Nile River basin area; however, information about the infection status of Schistosoma species and intestinal helminths among village residents of this area is very limited. Urine and stool samples were collected from the 1,138 residents of the Al Hidaib and Khour Ajwal villages of White Nile State, Sudan in 2014. The prevalence of overall schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis was 36.3% and 7.7%, respectively. Egg positive rates were 35.6% for Schistosoma haematobium, 2.6% for S. mansoni, and 1.4% were mixed. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher in men (45.6%) than in women (32.0%), in Khou Ajwal villagers (39.4%) than in Al Hidaib villagers (19.2%), and for age groups ≤15 years old (51.5%) than for age groups >15 years old (13.2%). The average number of eggs per 10 ml urine (EP10) of S. haematobium infections was 18.9, with 22.2 eggs in men vs 17.0 in women and 20.4 in Khou Ajwal villagers vs 8.1 in Al Hidaib villagers. In addition to S. mansoni eggs, 4 different species of intestinal helminths were found in the stool, including Hymenolepis nana (6.6%) and H. diminuta (1.0%). Collectively, urinary schistosomiasis is still prevalent among village residents in Sudan's White Nile River basin and was especially high in men, children ≤15 years, and in the village without a clean water system. H. nana was the most frequently detected intestinal helminths in the 2 villages.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Hymenolepis diminuta/isolamento & purificação , Hymenolepis nana/isolamento & purificação , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , População Rural , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Urina/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1245-1247, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107237

RESUMO

Molecular analysis of atypical schistosome eggs retrieved from children in Malawi revealed genetic interactions occurring between human (Schistosoma haematobium) and livestock (S. mattheei and S. bovis) schistosome species. Detection of hybrid schistosomes adds a notable new perspective to the epidemiology and control of urogenital schistosomiasis in central Africa.


Assuntos
Schistosoma haematobium/classificação , Schistosoma/classificação , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Schistosoma/genética , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007358, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048882

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a chronic but preventable disease that affects 260 million people worldwide. In the Philippines, 860,000 people are afflicted with Schistosoma japonicum annually, and another 6.7 million live in endemic areas. The disease's complex epidemiology as well as the influence of poverty in endemic areas demand an integrated, multi-sectoral approach to disease control. Results from behavioral or sociocultural studies on schistosomiasis could improve the content and impact of schistosomiasis control in rural villages in the Philippines. We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to schistosomiasis transmission and control in an endemic village in Leyte Province, Philippines. We administered a questionnaire to 219 participants covering 1) knowledge and attitudes related to schistosomiasis, its symptoms, and its transmission; 2) attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis prevention; 3) willingness to comply with public health control programs; and 4) whether the respondent had previously contracted schistosomiasis. Responses revealed fairly high measures of schistosomiasis knowledge (mean 17.0 out of 23 questions, range 6-23), but also inconsistent disease prevention behavior. A high proportion of participants (72.6%, n = 159) reported previous disease. Participant belief in the preventability of schistosomiasis was revealed to be a key attitude, as carabao owners who believed in prevention were over five times more likely to be willing to vaccinate their carabaos (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.20-27.68, P = 0.04). Additionally, participants who did not believe in prevention were about twice as likely to report previous disease (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.02-5.63, P = 0.05). Our results suggest that future public health interventions should address barriers to disease-preventing behavior, as well as maintaining community belief in disease prevention. Comprehensive disease control programs should be supplemented by sociocultural and behavioral context in order to improve their impact in endemic communities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose/psicologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016921

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is one of zoonoses (diseases that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and human),and it is widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is one of the important infectious diseases that the World Health Organization plans to eliminate. Hybridization within Genus Schistosoma is an emerging public health concern in our changing world.Schistosoma spp. are dioecious trematode, in which there are lots of species infecting human and animals. Several schistosome species also overlap in their geographical and host range, which allows male and female schistosomes of different species to pair within their definitive hosts. The hybridization among different species and the production of dominant hybrid species and changes of their biological characteristics, such as host selectivity, fertility and infectivity, can lead to the evolution of schistosoma species, regional distribution of the population, the changes of epidemic patterns, and pathogenicity to human and animals, and all of them have an impact on the global schistosomiasis elimination plan.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
20.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 370-379, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment and control of schistosomiasis, one of the most insidious and serious parasitic diseases, depend almost entirely on a single drug, praziquantel. Since the funding for drug development for poverty-associated diseases is very limited, drug repurposing is a promising strategy. In this study, 73 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly used in medical and veterinary fields were evaluated for their anti-schistosomal properties. METHODS: The efficacy of NSAIDs was first tested against adult Schistosoma mansoni ex vivo using phenotypic screening strategy, effective drugs were further tested in a murine model of schistosomiasis. The disease parameters measured were worm and egg burden, hepato- and splenomegaly. FINDINGS: From 73 NSAIDs, five (mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, celecoxib, and diclofenac) were identified to effectively kill schistosomes. These results were further supported by scanning electron microscopy analysis. In addition, the octanol-water partition coefficient, both for neutral and ionized species, revealed to be a critical property for the ex vivo activity profile. Compounds were then tested in vivo using both patent and a prepatent S. mansoni infection in a mouse model. The most effective NSAID was mefenamic acid, which highly reduced worm burden, egg production, and hepato- and splenomegaly. INTERPRETATION: The treatment regimen used in this study is within the range for which mefenamic acid has been used in clinical practice, thus, it is demonstrated the capacity of mefenamic acid to act as a potent anti-schistosomal agent suitable for clinical repurposing in the treatment of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ácido Mefenâmico/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Schistosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomicidas/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Mefenâmico/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária/métodos , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomicidas/administração & dosagem
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