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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 353-355, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612666

RESUMO

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great achievements have been obtained in parasitic diseases control in China, and some important parasitic diseases have been eliminated or moving towards elimination in the country. With the socioeconomic development, the implementation of the "Road and Belt Initiative" and the increase in the international communication and overseas investment, there is a rise in the number of overseas labors, businessmen, students, travelers, visitors and participants in national and international communication activities, resulting in a gradual increase in the number of cases with parasitic diseases imported from endemic to non-endemic areas of China and from foreign countries to China. The increase in the number of imported cases causes new challenges for the elimination of parasitic diseases in China. The paper describes the current status of malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis, analyzes the challenges for the current control activities, and proposes the control strategies and interventions.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Malária , Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 358-361, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612668

RESUMO

This paper reviews the evolution of the schistosomiasis control strategy in China at various stages after the founding of the People's Republic of China, and analyzes the roles and main problems of the schistosomiasis control strategy at different stages. At the end stage of schistosomiasis elimination, the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control should be continued to be sustained and the problems regarding the implementation of this integrated strategy are analyzed. In addition, the countermeasures to solve these problems are proposed.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Política de Saúde , Esquistossomose , China , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 368-373, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for designing schistosomiasis surveillance sites, so as to improve the efficiency and quality of schitsosomiasis surveillance. METHODS: By using the minimum spanning tree-based Spatial Kluster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal (SKATER) method, spatially constrained clustering was performed upon 31 historical schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in Anhui Province. A surveillance site was selected from each cluster to evaluate the representativeness and surveillance efficiency of these cluster-based surveillance sites for the endemic situation of schistosomiassi in Anhui Province, and to compare the surveillance efficiency with local national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the environmental factors between the cluster-based schistosomiasis surveillance sites and the whole region, showing a high homogeneity. If the same number of schistosomiasis surveillance sites was selected, there was no significant difference between the cluster-based surveillance sites and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the efficiency of the mean risk and long-term trend of schistosomiasis surveillance in Anhui Province; however, the cluster-based surveillance sites were superior to the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites for the prediction and estimation of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in the unmonitored areas. CONCLUSIONS: The SKATER-based selection of schistosomiasis surveillance sites may better represent the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, which may serve as an effective supplement for the conventional method of selecting schistosomiasis surveillance sites.


Assuntos
Métodos Epidemiológicos , Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia , Análise Espacial
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 374-381, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats at the administrative village scale in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Hubei Province, so as to provide scientific bases for precise control of O. hupensis snails in the province. METHODS: Data regarding snail distribution at the village level in Hubei Province in 2017 were collected to create a spatial analysis database of snail distribution in Hubei Province. The spatial aggregations of O. hupensis distribution were analyzed using Moran's I index and Local Moran's I index. In addition, the distances from schistosomiasis-endemic villages to the Yangtze River were captured using the software ArcGIS 13.0, and their correlations with area of snail habitats were examined with the Spearman correlation method. RESULTS: O. hupensis snails were mainly distributed in 5 450 endemic villages from 63 counties of 13 cities in Hubei Province in 2017. The global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed spatial aggregations in the areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats, areas of snail habitats outside the embankment and snail habitats inside the embankment (all Z Scores > 0, all P values < 0.05), and no spatial aggregation was seen in the areas of snail habitats in hilly areas (Z Score > 0, P > 0.05). There were four types of spatial distribution of historically accumulated areas of snail habitats, areas of current snail habitats, areas of snail habitats outside the embankment and snail habitats inside the embankment, including the high-high type (H-H type), high-low type (H-L type), low-high type (L-H type) and random distribution type, and a high percentage of the H-H type was found. There were 340, 125 and 110 endemic villages with the H-H type of areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats and areas of snail habitats outside the embankment, and these villages were mainly concentrated in Wuhan and Jingzhou cities, with almost consistent spatial aggregation locations. There were 319 endemic villages with the H-H type of distribution of snail habitats inside the embankment, which were mainly distributed in Jingzhou, Xiaogan and Huangshi cities. In addition, the areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats and areas of snail habitats outside the embankment negatively correlated with the distance from the endemic villages to the Yangtze River (r = -0.094, P < 0.01; r = -0.225, P < 0.01; r = -0.177, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The clustering areas of snail habitats along the Yangtze River Basin, notably the villages near the Yangtze River are key regions for snail monitoring and control in Hubei Province.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Rios , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Rios/parasitologia , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia , Análise Espacial
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 434-435, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the surveillance data after schistosomiasis transmission interruption from 1985 to 2018, so as to provide scientific basis for the future prevention and control of schistosomiasis. METHODS: The data pertaining to snail survey, surveillance of schistosomiasis in humans and livestock, and health education were collected and analyzed in Songjiang District after schistosomiasis transmission interruption from 1985 to 2018. RESULTS: From 1985 to 2018, there were 8 townships, 68 villages and 1 462 settings with snails in Songjiang District, covering an area of 96.399 hm2. There were 4 townships and 59 villages with snails newly identified in previously schistosomiasis non-endemic areas, with emerging snail habitats of 60.161 hm2. A total of 26 148 snails were captured, and no infections were detected. The snail habitats were mainly distributed in the river course, ditches and farmlands, which accounted for 45.28%, 33.17% and 21.55% of total snail habitats, respectively. A total of 245 955 humans were subjected to the serological test, with a positive rate of 0.03%, and 37 humans were subjected to the parasitological test, with 3 positives detected. These three egg-positives were all imported chronic cases with schistosomiasis. A total of 9 109 livestock were detected using the serological test, and no infection was found. Most of the awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the rate of correct behavior formation were over 80% in residents and students. CONCLUSIONS: The achievements of schistosomiasis control are consolidated in Songjiang District; however, there are still risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission, including residual snails, snail diffusion and importation of external source of infection. The future surveillance of schistosomiasis should focus on snails and sources of infection.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Rios , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 337-338, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential risk of schistosomiasis transmission so as to provide the evidence for formulating the control strategy. METHODS: Two villages were selected as the investigated sites in Chuxiong City and the risk of schistosomiasis transmission was evaluated by reviewing the data of schistosomiasis epidemic situation and prevention and control work, and carrying out the field survey for Oncomelania hupensis snail status, wild faeces, and schistosome infection of the population from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: There was 1.49 hm2 area of snail habitats, with an average density of 0.54 snails/0.1 m2. The occurrence rate of frames with snails was 5.41%. No schistosome-infected snails were found. The positive rate of schistosomiasis serological tests of the residents was 3.36%, but the stool examination positive cases were not found. A total of 58 wild faeces samples were collected but no schistosome infested cases were found. The risk levels of schistosomiasis transmission in both villages were Grade III. CONCLUSIONS: Although Chuxiong City has been in a low risk state of schistosomiasis transmission, the density of snails is still high, and there is a risk of infection source importation. In the future, the infection source control and snail control should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 229-230, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544398

RESUMO

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Following the concerted efforts for more than 60 years, great successes have been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly regions of China. Recently, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces seized the opportunity created in the rural and agriculture development, implemented the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control, utilized modern information techniques, innovated schistosomiasis control models, built sensitive and highly effective surveillance-response systems, and actively tackled the challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, which greatly facilitated the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in mountainous and hilly regions of China.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , China , Geografia , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 231-237, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544399

RESUMO

This review describes the epidemic characteristics and endemic situation of schistosomiasis in mountainous and hilly regions of China, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly regions and proposes targeted suggestions for the future schistosomiasis control, with aims to accelerate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in mountainous and hilly regions and facilitate the achievement of the goal set in The Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in China and The Three-year Tough Action Plan for Endemic Diseases Control (2018-2020) in China.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Esquistossomose , China , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 238-243, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544400

RESUMO

Transmission control and interruption of schistosomiasis has been gradually achieved in the mountainous and hilly endemic areas with the implementation of the schistosomiasis control programmes, which are moving towards the progress of schistosomiasis elimination. As an important measure of schistosomiasis control, health education is experiencing new challenges and problems in the new situation, and conventional health education of schistosomiasis control has already failed to meet the needs of socioeconomic and cultural development and the increasing changes of human production and life styles in the endemic areas. Therefore, a precision health education model for schistosomiasis control is of great need to be established to highly effectively promote the implementation of schistosomiasis control measures. This review summarizes the important role of health education in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly endemic areas, and describes the new health education model based on optimization of the policy environment and creation of the community atmosphere according to the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis and requirements of the schistosomiasis control target, so as to promote the precision and sustainable implementation of health education and health promotion in schistosomiasis control.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Esquistossomose , Animais , China , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 244-250, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the integrated schistosomiasis control model in mountainous and hilly endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: Five hilly and mountainous areas endemic for schistosomiasis were selected as the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015. According to the epidemic characteristics, economic levels and overall development planning of the demonstration areas, the goals, strategies and measures were developed, and the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control was evaluated following implementation of the integrated control. RESULTS: The support system of the integrated schistosomiasis control model was built in the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015, and five ecological, industrialized and sustainable development models of integrated schistosomiasis control were developed, including integration of balancing rural and urban development, systematic ecological improvement, intensified ecological agriculture, scientific management and health education of schistosomiasis control and ecological ethnic circular economy. Since the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis control model, the snail habitats were completely changed. Until 2015, 92.0% of all historical areas with snails were managed, the coverage of safe drinking water was 100.0%, and more than 95.0% of the livestock were fenced. The coverage of sanitary toilets increased by 93.0%, 96.8%, 78.8%, 87.1% and 82.0% from 2011 to 2015, respectively, and the farmers'mean yearly income increased by 32.7% in the demonstration areas. From 2011 to 2015, the seroprevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 3.1% in 2011 to 1.6% in 2015 in the demonstration areas, and no egg-positives were identified. In addition, the number of fenced bovines reduced year by year, and no egg-positives were detected. The areas of snail habitats were 398.7, 108.2 hm2 and 52.9 hm2 in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2013, with no infected snails found, and no snails were detected since 2014. The awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and percentage of correct behavior formation increased year by year among residents in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The five integrated schistosomiasis control models meet the needs of the current schistosomiasis control activities in mountainous and hilly endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and achieve the goals of controlling the sources of S. japonicum infections, economic development, social progress and improving the ecological environment, which provides new insights into schistosomiasis elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esquistossomose , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 251-257, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system in Sichuan Province, so as to provide technical support for facilitating the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in the province. METHODS: The surveillance sites for schistosomiasis transmission risk were assigned in 63 endemic counties (districts) of 11 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province. During the period from 2015 through 2018, wild feces contamination, the sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections (fever patients, livestock and wild animals), water infectivity in key settings, snail distribution in key settings, and snail breeding risk (snail importation and spread, floating debris carrying snails and snail breeding in ecological wetlands) were monitored in the surveillance sites. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, a total of 1 636 wild faces were detected in Sichuan Province, and 3 faces were positive for S. japonicum, with a 0.18% positive rate; among 3 995 livestock and 59 wild mice monitored, no S. japonicum infection was detected. A total of 49 414 fever patients were monitored in 2018, and 493 were seropositive for S. japonicum infection; then, 445 seropositives were subjected to stool examinations, and no egg-positives were found. From 2010 to 2018, a total of 93 sentinel sites were assigned, and 3 994 sentinel mice were placed for monitoring the water infectivity, with one S. japonicum-infected mouse detected. Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 4 156 key settings were investigated covering an area of 1 998.46 hm2, and 668 settings were detected with snails (16.07%), covering an area of 193.26 hm2; 497 suspected settings with a likelihood of snail importation with plant introduction were monitored from 2017 to 2018, and 65 settings with snails were found with 2 673 snails captured; 593 sites were assigned to collect the floating debris from 2017 to 2018, and 9 191.39 kg floating debris were collected with 186 snails captured; 4 wetlands were monitored for the risk of schistosomiasis transmission from 2013 to 2015, and snail breeding was found in 2 wetlands. No S. japonicum infection was identified in snails captured from all surveillance sites. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and effective schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system has been successfully established in Sichuan Province. There is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk in local areas of Sichuan Province. Therefore, the integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections should be further intensified, and snail monitoring and control and monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands should be also intensified.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 258-263, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the current distribution of Oncomelania snails in Sichuan Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy and implementing the precision schistosomiasis control measures in the province. METHODS: According to the National Scheme on Oncomelania hupensis Snails in China and the Scheme on Oncomelania hupensis Snails in Sichuan Province, snail surveys were performed in current snail habitats, historical snail habitats and suspected snail habitats using systematic sampling in Sichuan Province from 2016 to 2017, and the survey results were analyzed. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2017, a total of 88 346 settings were surveyed in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and 19 314 settings were detected with snails, covering an area of 4 829.25 hm2, with no Schistosoma japonicum infection identified in snails. A total of 3 017 915 frames were investigated in Sichuan Province, and 1 041 417 frames were found to have living snails, with totally 1 791 115 living snails captured. The mean density of living snails was 0.59 snails/0.1 m2, and the mean percentage of frames with living snails was 34.51% in Sichuan Province. The current snail habitats were mainly distributed in 1 704 villages, 377 townships, 54 counties (districts) of 9 cities (prefectures) across the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Sichuan Province. Snail habitats were mainly found in ditches (70.22%), and weeds were the predominant vegetation in snail habitats (66.45%). Snails were firstly discovered in Sichuan Province in 1913, and S. japonicum-infected snails were firstly identified in 1956, with the latest identification of S. japonicum-infected snails in 2008. CONCLUSIONS: There are many settings suitable for snail breeding in Sichuan Province, and snail monitoring and control should be intensified in the future.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China , Cidades , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Esquistossomose Japônica , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 269-274, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the spatial-temporal clustering distribution of schistosomiasis transmission risk in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, so as to provide scientific evidence for the future schistosomiasis control and consolidation of the control achievements. METHODS: All data pertaining to endemic situation of human and bovine schistosomiasis and snail survey at a township level in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015 were collected. A descriptive epidemiological method and Joinpoint model were used to describe the changing trends of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, bovine and snails, and the hotspots and clusters of schistosomiasis transmission risk were identified using spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspots analysis and retrospective space-time scan statistic in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared a continuous decline in humans, bovine and snails in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, and the estimated number of schistosomiasis cases reduced from 43 056 in 2004 to 756 in 2015, with a decline rate of 98.24%. There were no acute cases since 2008 and no infected snails since 2014 in Yunnan Province. There were significant differences in the changing trends of human and bovine S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province between 2012 and 2015 and between 2013 and 2015, respectively using the Joinpoint model (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a spatial autocorrelation in human S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2013 (P < 0.01), and the hotspots areas for human S. japonicum infections were mainly distributed in some townships from Dali City, Weishan County and Eryuan County. Retrospective spatial-temporal scanning revealed that S. japonicum human, bovine and snail infections were clustered in 23, 15, 4 townships from Dali City, Weishan County, Eryuan County, Nanjian County and Heqing County, respectively, with relative risks of 6.25 to 28.75 (P < 0.01), which was almost consistent with the cluster areas detected by hotspots analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis significantly reduced in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. The monitoring and control of schistosomiasis should be intensified in the future in Yunnan Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 307-310, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemic factors of schistosomiasis in wetlands in Sichuan Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands. METHODS: The artificial and natural wetlands were selected from Sichuan Province, and the relevant data regarding wetlands were collected. Routine snail survey, investigation on human morbidity due to schistosomiasis, snail diffusion experiments, questionnaire survey, determination of water infectivity and retrospective survey were conducted. RESULTS: In Sichuan Province, the mean densities of living snails were 0.003 snails/0.1 m2 and 2.033 snails/0.1 m2 in the upper and lower reaches of the Meiwan Reservoir wetlands, 0.08 snails/0.1 m2 in the Jinyan Lake of Guanghan City, 0.21 snails/0.1 m2 in Muhe River of Guanghan City, and 0.02 snails/0.1 m2 prior to the construction of Qiong-hai wetland park in Xichang City in 2015. Artificial simulation experiments showed that the largest distance of snail diffusion in water was 2 000 m. There were 8.80% (41/466) of subjects that lived neighboring wetlands, worked in wetlands and visited wet-lands having infested water contact behaviors. A total of 690 sentinel mice were assigned, and no Schistosoma japonicum infection was detected in the 677 mice dissected. Retrospective survey showed that the construction of the Meiwan Reservoir caused the spread of schistosomiasis in Dailing County, and snails were found in the ditches entering the Jinyan Lake and in Jinyan Lake areas 5 years following the construction of the Jinyan Lake in Guanghan City, with S. japonicum -infected snails detected in the ditches entering the Jinyan Lake. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis snails are found in some wetlands in Sichuan Province. Protection of wetlands and snail control with environmental improvements are recommended for the prevention of snail importation in natural wetlands, while in artificial wetlands, thorough snail control is recommended during the construction of the wetlands because of the likelihood of snail importation via water systems. In addition, both natural and artificial wetlands require long-term systematic surveillance of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Áreas Alagadas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Camundongos , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Espécies Sentinelas/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 323-325, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544418

RESUMO

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Although great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly areas, there is a risk of re-emerging schistosomiasis in local areas. Hereby, we described the emergency treatment of two schistosomiasis outbreaks that occurred in transmission-interrupted areas of Yunnan Province in 2011 and 2013, pointed out the risk of schistosomiasis rebounding in mountainous and hilly areas and proposed some suggestions.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Tratamento de Emergência , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 326-328, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544419

RESUMO

To understand the current status of professional staff and capacity building among schistosomiasis control institutions in Yunnan Province, the data pertaining to the current status of professional staff and capacity building were captured from the schistosomiasis control institutions at all levels in Yunnan Province. There were 20 schistosomiasis control institutions at a level of above county in Yunnan Province, with 411 employees, and there were 11 institutions with an independent legal personality, with a mean building area of 69.83 m2 per capita. Among all institutions, the number of posts was 382, and the actual number of employees was 360, with 22 job vacancies. The mean age of professional staff was 41.6 years at a province level, 44.1 years at a city level and 42.4 years at a county level, and there were no professionals at ages of < 30 years in city-level institutions. Of all professionals, there were 45.76% with a college degree or below, and 54.26% with a bachelor degree or higher, and 16.55%, 24.57% and 39.90% had senior, moderate and primary professional titles, with mean ages of 49.10, 44.37 years and 38.36 years, respectively. The results of the cross-sectional study demonstrate that there are problems of job vacancy, population aging and low education levels in schistosomiasis control institutions in Yunnan Province. Therefore, the capability building and professional quality should be further improved in schistosomiasis control institutions to meet the requirements of schistosomiasis control activities in Yunnan Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Recursos Humanos , Adulto , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos/normas , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 333-336, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544421

RESUMO

Earthquake is a serious natural disaster. The earthquake that occurs in schistosomiasis-endemic areas not only causes direct human and economic losses, but also induces secondary disasters that greatly threaten public health safety in affected areas. This paper analyzed the impact of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and 2013 Lushan Earthquake on schistosomiasis transmission in Sichuan Province, and proposed emergency measures and assessment activitiesresponding to schistosomiasis following earthquake disasters. The experiences from schistosomiasis control after two earthquake disasters in Sichuan Province may provide insights into the emergency control in other regions or after other natural disasters.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose , China , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 339-342, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Honghu City during the period from 2008 through 2018. METHODS: The data pertaining to schistosomiasis control measures and the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Honghu City were collected from 2008 to 2018, and the effect of integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented was evaluated. RESULTS: The resources from agriculture, water resources, forestry, land, education and communication sectors were integrated to implement the integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with the focus on the control of source of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Honghu City from 2008 to 2018. The prevalence of S. japonicum infection reduced from 3.03% in 2008 to 0 in 2018 in humans in the city, and no acute infection was detected since 2009. In addition, the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in cattle reduced from 2.85% in 2008 to 0 in 2018, and no snail infection was found since 2012. Transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in the city in 2013, and transmission interruption was achieved in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated schistosomiasis control measures achieve remarkable effects in Honghu City; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Caramujos/parasitologia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 45-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297759

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity in the world; it is second only to malaria as a major infectious disease. Globally, it is estimated that the disease affects over 250 million people in 78 countries of the world and is responsible for some 280,000 deaths each year. The three major schistosomes infecting humans are Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium. This chapter covers a wide range of aspects of schistosomiasis, including basic biology of the parasites, epidemiology, immunopathology, treatment, control, vaccines, and genomics/proteomics. In this chapter, the reader will understand the significant toll this disease takes in terms of mortality and morbidity. A description of the various life stages of schistosomes is presented, which will be informative for both those unfamiliar with the disease and experienced scientists. Clinical and public health aspects are addressed that cover acute and chronic disease, diagnosis, current treatment regimens and alternative drugs, and schistosomiasis control programs. A brief overview of genomics and proteomics is included that details recent advances in the field that will help scientists investigate the molecular biology of schistosomes. The reader will take away an appreciation for general aspects of schistosomiasis and research advances.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
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