Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.169
Filtrar
1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 384-388, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of various agroforestry systems for snail control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the construction of agroforestry schistosomiasis control projects in plateau hilly regions. METHODS: The pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built in snail-breeding farmlands in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province in 2010, and the economic benefits and snail control effect were investigated in 2018. In addition, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was created to screen the agroforestry system with high comprehensive benefits. RESULTS: A total of 14 types of pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built. Economic benefit analysis showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best economic benefit, with annual economic benefits of 270 000 Yuan/hm2, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern (annual economic benefits of 120 000 Yuan/hm2) and the "walnut + vegetables"pattern (annual economic benefits of 105 000 Yuan/hm2). No snails were detected in 8 types of the agroforestry systems, including the"walnut + chili"pattern, the"walnut + tobacco"pattern and the"walnut + garlic"pattern; however, there were snail found with various densities in other types of systems. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best comprehensive control effect, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern and the"walnut + tobacco" pattern, while the pure grassland pattern showed no effect on snail control. CONCLUSIONS: The agroforestry system is a preferential approach of forestry schistosomiasis control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas, which not only achieves snail control effects, but also promotes economic development and ecological construction in poor hilly areas.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Controle de Pragas , Caramujos , Animais , China , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Humanos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/normas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/fisiologia
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 414-418, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos, so as to propose the corresponding healthy policies and suggestions. METHODS: A SWOT analysis was performed to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat for the schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, and the corresponding policy suggestions were proposed. RESULTS: The national schistosomiasis elimination program of Laos receives governmental emphases and great supports. A strategy based on mass drug administration was proposed and a sentinel site-bases surveillance system has been built for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos; however, there are several challenges for the national schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, including insufficient financial supports, inadequate professional capability, weak schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations and difficulty in vector control. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent governmental leadership, increasing financial supports, strengthening professional team building and improving schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations are required to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Laos.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Esquistossomose , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Humanos , Laos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Controle de Pragas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 419-422, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935521

RESUMO

This paper summarizes the changes in the policy associated with schistosmiasis control in the new era, analyzes the background of Health China Strategy and its association with the current schistosomiasis control program in China, describes several schistosomiasis control models and proposes some suggestions responding to the challenges in current schistosomiasis control program of China, so as to provide insights into the development of the effective control strategy for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Políticas , Esquistossomose , China , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008665, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease acquired through contact with cercaria-infested water. Communities living in endemic regions often rely on parasite-contaminated freshwater bodies for their daily water contact activities, resulting in recurring schistosomiasis infection. In such instances, water treatment can provide safe water on a household or community scale. However, to-date there are no water treatment guidelines that provide information on how to treat water containing schistosome cercariae. Here, we rigorously test the effectiveness of chlorine against Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. METHOD: S. mansoni cercariae were chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite under lab and field condition. The water pH was controlled at 6.5, 7.0 or 7.5, the water temperature at 20°C or 27°C, and the chlorine dose at 1, 2 or 3 mg/l. Experiments were conducted up to contact times of 45 minutes. 100 cercariae were used per experiment, thereby achieving up to 2-log10 inactivations of cercariae. Experiments were replicated under field conditions at Lake Victoria, Tanzania. CONCLUSION: A CT (residual chlorine concentration x chlorine contact time) value of 26±4 mg·min/l is required to achieve a 2-log10 inactivation of S. mansoni cercariae under the most conservative condition tested (pH 7.5, 20°C). Field and lab-cultivated cercariae show similar chlorine sensitivities. A CT value of 30 mg·min/l is therefore recommended to disinfect cercaria-infested water, though safety factors may be required, depending on water quality and operating conditions. This CT value can be achieved with a chlorine residual of 1 mg/l after a contact time of 30 minutes, for example. This recommendation can be used to provide safe water for household and recreational water activities in communities that lack safe alternative water sources.


Assuntos
Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/farmacologia , Halogenação , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos , Tanzânia , Temperatura , Água/parasitologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008494, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833994

RESUMO

Helminth control at the national level is currently based on mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Perception of the MDA programs for helminth control by the affected populations influences compliance and future designs of the programs. We determined the perception of Zimbabwe's National Helminth Control Program (2012-2017) with a specific focus on schistosomiasis in the school children treated with praziquantel, schoolteachers and village health workers (VHW). The study enrolled 409 children from Grades 6 and 7 who had the full benefit of the 6 years of MDA from 2012 to 2017. Thirty-six schoolteachers and 22 VHW serving the schools were also recruited. A structured questionnaire developed in English, translated into the local language Shona, and validated prior to the study was administered to the children and the adults. The questions focused on the perceived impact on health, school attendance and performance and Knowledge Attitudes and Practice (KAP) among the school children. Data were captured electronically on android platforms using the Open Data Kit. Overall, 84% of the children responded that their awareness of schistosomiasis (transmission, disease, treatment and infection avoidance) had improved because of participating in the MDAs. Of the 151 children self-diagnosed with schistosomiasis, 74% reported that their health had improved following treatment with praziquantel. This included resolution of haematuria, painful urination, sore stomach, tiredness and falling asleep during class lessons. The children and teachers reported improvements in both pupil school attendance and performance at school while the VHW and teachers reported an increase in health-seeking behaviour amongst the school children for schistosomiasis treatment in-between MDAs. The majority of VHW (96%) reported improvement in handwashing behaviour, schistosomiasis awareness (96%) and treatment uptake (91%) within the communities where the school children belonged. However, only 59% of the VHW reported improvement in toilet use while only 50% of the VHW reported improvement in clean water use within their communities. This study indicated that the surveyed children perceived the MDA program had improved their health, school attendance, school performance and awareness of schistosomiasis. The VHW also perceived that the MDA program had improved the community KAP.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 317-321, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501173

RESUMO

Since 2004, no indigenous cases of schistosomiasis have been found in Morocco; only imported cases have been detected. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyse the epidemiological profile of imported schistosomiasis between 2005 and 2017, and, by this, attract attention to the probability of a reintroduction of this disease. During this period, 27 cases were recorded in Morocco, with a male predominance (13:1). All cases reported were found among African immigrants from Mauritania (37%), Mali (18%) and Senegal (15%). Schistosoma heamatobium was the most dominant specie. Most cases were reported in Rabat and Agadir, where there are many snail habitats. To prevent a re-emergence of the disease, the main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain a sustainable surveillance and control system of the importation of bilharzia. The frequency of asymptomatic schistosomiasis justifies a systematic health check-up for all travellers, migrants and immigrants.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 63, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A steady progress on schistosomiasis control in the Peoples' Republic of China (P.R. China) was achieved and broadened into the twelve-year medium and long term national plan (MLNP) which marled the implementation of an integrated control strategy across all endemic areas in P.R. China in 2004. To understand the endemic trends of schistosomiasis to assess the effectiveness of an integrated strategy, we conducted an analysis of schistosomiasis surveillance data spanned from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: The schistosomiasis sentinel surveillance data from sentinel sites were collected and analyzed from 2005 to 2015. In these sentinel sites, residents aged 6 years or above were screened annually by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), while only antibody positives were followed by stool examination either Kato-katz method (KK) and/or hatching technique (HT). Domestic animals raised in sentinel sites were examined by HT for confirming the infection of schistosomes. Snail investigation was conducted each year through systematic sampling method combined with environmental sampling method. The snails collected from field were tested by microscopic dissection method. The infection rates of schistosomes in residents, domestic animals and snails, as well as the indicators reflecting the snails' distribution were calculated and analyzed. ANOVA analysis was used to examine the changes of the number of eggs per gram feces in population and Chi-square test was used to examine any change in proportions among groups. RESULTS: A total of 148 902 residents from sentinel sites attended this study and 631 676 blood samples were examined by IHA test during the 11 covered years. The annual average antibody positive rates presented a significant decrease trends, from 17.48% (95% CI: 17.20-17.75%) in 2005 to 5.93% (95% CI: 5.71-6.15%) (χ2 = 8890.47, P < 0.001) in 2015. During 2005-2015, the average infection rate of schistosomes in residents declined from 2.07% (95% CI: 1.96-2.17%) to 0.13% (95% CI: 0.09-0.16%), accompanied by significant decrease of infection intensity in population. In 2015, the stool positives were only found in farmers, fishermen and boatmen with infection rate of 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%), 0.17% (95% CI: 0-0.50%) respectively. The infection rate of schistosomes in domestic animals dropped from 9.42% (538/5711, 95% CI: 8.66-10.18%) to 0.08% (2/2360, 95% CI: 0-0.20%) from 2005 to 2015. Infections were found in eight species of domestic animals at the beginning of surveillance while only two cattle were infected in 2015. Totally 98 ha of new snail habitats were found, while 94.90% (93/98) distributed in lake and marshland regions. The percentage of frames with snails decreased from 16.96% (56 884/33 5391, 95% CI: 16.83-17.09%) in 2005 to 4.28% (18 121/423 755, 95% CI: 4.22-4.34%) in 2014, with a slightly increase in 2015. Meanwhile, the infection rate of schistosomes in snails was decreased from 0.26% (663/256 531, 95% CI: 0.24-0.28%) to zero during 2005-2015. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of schistosomes declined significantly, providing evidence that the goal of the MLNP was achieved. Elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem defined as WHO was also reached in P.R. China nationwide. Surveillance-response system should be improved and strengthened to realize the final goal of schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Esquistossomose , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Trop Doct ; 50(3): 216-221, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356671

RESUMO

Repeated praziquantel treatment for schistosomiasis is an effective method to reduce disease burden. Ultrasonographic methods were used to assess the severity of schistosoma mansoni-related liver disease and demonstrate improvement following treatment. We compared data from 733 children in 2010 and 972 children in 2018 to determine the effect of repeated praziquantel treatment on prevalence of liver disease. Three age groups were compared across three liver disease classifications (normal, mild, severe). From 2010 to 2018, there was a significant reduction in prevalence of severe liver disease in all age groups (P = 0.03 for 5-10 years, P < 0.001 for 11-15 years and 16-20 years). In both male and female students, the proportion having a normal liver significantly increased (P < 0.001) from 2010 to 2018, in the 11-15-year-olds and 16-20-year-olds, demonstrating that liver disease significantly reduced in these age groups. This study demonstrates a reduction in schistosomiasis-related morbidity with repeated praziquantel treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Masculino , Prevalência , População Rural , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 225-229, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468782

RESUMO

This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 230-235, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: The integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented by the health, agriculture, water resources, forestry, land and resources sectors were retrospectively collected in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, and the completion of each measure, cost of control measures, Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and bovines, and snail status were analyzed each year. An index system for assessing the integrated schistosomiasis control effect was constructed using the Delphi method to calculate the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index. In addition, a cost-effect analysis was performed in terms of the decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines, areas with snails in inner embankments, and areas with infected snails. RESULTS: A total of 7 110 926 500 Yuan were invested into the integrated schistosomiasis control program of Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019. During the 16-year period, a total of 277 437.12 hm2 snail habitats received molluscicidal treatments, 6 927 230 person-times given expanded chemotherapy, 2 116 247 bovine-times given expanded chemotherapy, 954 850 harmless toilets built, 290 359 bovines fenced, 136 666 bovines eliminated, 141 905 machines used to replace bovines, 39 048.63 hm2 water lands improved as dry lands, 724.12 km irrigation regions improved, 3 994 300 populations covered with safe water, 191 102.89 hm2 forests planted and 38 535.27 hm2 lands leveled. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 4.29% in humans and 4.48% in bovines in Hunan Province in 2004, with 2 449.37 hm2 snail habitats in inner embankments and 3 423.74 hm2 infected snail areas. In 2019, the prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced to 0 in both humans and bovines, and areas of snail habitats reduced to 540.92 hm2 (77.92% reductions), while the areas with infected snails reduced to 0. The overall integrated schistosomiasis control effect index appeared a tendency towards a rise over years since 2004, and the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index was 97.35 in 2019; the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in 100 populations and 100 bovines were 70.11 Yuan and 4 204.78 Yuan, and the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas were 2 010.20 Yuan and 1 298.09 Yuan, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated control measures achieve remarkable effectiveness for schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province, with a remarkable decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines and great shrinking of snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas. Adequate fund investment is required to improve the integrated schistosomiasis control measures and consolidate the control achievements.


Assuntos
Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Esquistossomose , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Moluscocidas/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 301-303, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, so as to provide scientific evidence for schistosomiasis control and prevention in Anhui Province. METHODS: According to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Programme (2014 version), a total of 51 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Anhui Province in 2015, and Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail distribution were monitored from 2015 to 2018. RESULTS: A total of 89 638 local residents and 42 609 mobile populations received serological screening of schistosomiasis in 51 national surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, and the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 1.41% to 3.69% in local residents and 0.84% to 2.13% in mobile populations, respectively. There were 5 egg-positive local residents and 1 egg-positive mobile populations detected in 2015, with occupations of farmers and fishermen. There were 6 405 livestock detected for S. japonicum infections, and no egg-positives were identified. Among an area of 12 661 hm2 surveyed in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, the areas of snail habitats were 2 461.27 to 2 628.96 hm2, andthemeandensityoflivingsnailswas 0.3757 to 0.4330 snails/0.1 m2, with no S. japonicum infections identified in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis is at a low level in Anhui Province; however, the risk of schistosomiasis transmission remains in local regions of the province. The construction of the surveillance-responsesystemshouldbereinforcedtoconsolidatetheachievementsofschistosomiasis control in Anhui Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 320-322, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468801

RESUMO

As an ancient parasitic disease, schistosomiasis has been endemic in Dongting Lake areas for more than 2 100 years. In the early 20th century, the first human case of schistosomiasis in China was reported in Dongting Lake areas, which was paid extensive attention. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, large-scale schistosomiasis control activities were launched promptly in Dongting Lake areas, and great successes have been achieved following the three stages of control efforts, including the snail control-based stage, synchronous chemotherapy for humans and livestock-based control stage and infectious source control-based control stage. In 2015, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in Hunan Province. This paper comprehensively describes the discovery and control of schistosomiasis, analyzes the challenges for the current schistosomiasis control programs and proposes the emphasis for future control activities in Dongting Lake areas, so as to provide insights into the schistosomiasis control program in this area.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lagos , Gado/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 208-212, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458615

RESUMO

Oncomelania snail is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and controlling snail breeding and spread is an important intervention for schistosomiasis control. This review summarizes factors affecting snail spread, characteristics of snail spread in various endemic areas, high-risk environments of snail spread and monitoring methods of snail spread, so as to provide insights into the prevention of snail spread.


Assuntos
Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China , Humanos , Crescimento Demográfico , Reprodução , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 222-224, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468781

RESUMO

The culture of schistosomiasis control is specific in the history of Chinese culture. Broadly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is a summary of specific social mood, social consciousness and material culture created by Chinese populations during the progress of schistosomiasis control since the founding of the People's Republic of China. Narrowly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is the spiritual culture that is jointly created and nurtured by schistosomiasis control workers since the founding of the People's Republic of China. The spiritual features of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture are characterized by the patriotism and care about the people, the matter-to-fact attitude, the pioneering and enterprising spirit, and the spirit of sacrifice and dedication. The ultimate goal of the research on the culture of schistosomiasis control is to facilitate the achievement of the strategic goal of Healthy China 2030 as scheduled, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis, and to promote the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in China.


Assuntos
Cultura , Esquistossomose , China , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 311-313, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the construction and operation of the schistosomiasis diagnostic network platform in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the improvements of the schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratory system in the province. METHODS: According to the criteria and requirements for the construction of the county-level schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratory in China, the establishment and operation of the laboratory were assessed using self-assessment and field review in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Hunan Province. RESULTS: A total of 41 county-level schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratories were built in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Hunan Province, and 36 met the requirements for the construction of the national schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratory in China, which were approved for inclusion in the province-level schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratory. During the six inter-laboratory comparisons performed by the national schistosomiasis diagnostic reference center of China, full consistency was achieved by 3 county-level schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratories in Hunan Province, and the coincidence rates for re-review of serological and pathogenic detection samples were 98.40% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The county-level schistosomiasis diagnostic network laboratory system has been preliminarily built and under effective operation in Hunan Province; however, the building capability remains to be improved.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Laboratórios , Esquistossomose , China , Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008098, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, belongs to the neglected tropical diseases. Left untreated, schistosomiasis can lead to severe health problems and even death. An estimated 800 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis and 250 million people are infected. The global strategy to control and eliminate schistosomiasis emphasizes large-scale preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel targeting school-age children. Other tools are available, such as information, education, and communication (IEC), improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and snail control. Despite available evidence of the effectiveness of these control measures, analyses estimating the most cost-effective control or elimination strategies are scarce, inaccurate, and lack standardization. We systematically reviewed the literature on costs related to public health interventions against schistosomiasis to strengthen the current evidence-base. METHODOLOGY: In adherence to the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched three readily available electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, WHOLIS, and ISI Web of Science) from inception to April 2019 with no language restrictions. Relevant documents were screened, duplicates eliminated, specific rules on studies to consider were defined, and the eligible studies fully reviewed. Costs of schistosomiasis interventions were classified in three groups: (i) preventive chemotherapy; (ii) preventive chemotherapy plus an individual diagnostic test to identify at-risk population; and (iii) test-and-treat interventions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen articles met our inclusion criteria. In general, it was hard to compare the reported costs from the different studies due to different approaches used to estimate and classify the costs of the intervention assessed. Costs varied considerably from one study to another, ranging from US$ 0.06 to US$ 4.46 per person treated. The difference between financial and opportunity costs only played a minimal role in the explanation of the costs' variation, even if delivery costs were two times higher in the analyses including economic costs. Most of the studies identified in our systematic review focused on sub-Saharan African countries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The degree of transparency of most of the costing studies of schistosomiasis interventions found in the current review was limited. Hence, there is a pressing need for strategies to improve the quality of cost analyses, and higher reporting standards and transparency that should be fostered by peer-review journal policies. Cost information on these interventions is crucial to inform resource allocation decisions and those regarding the affordability of scaling-up interventions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Quimioprevenção/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Praziquantel/economia , Esquistossomose/economia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20190298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294695

RESUMO

The Euphobia milii var. hislopii latex has been tested in the control of schistosomiasis but its action in the locomotor activity of Biomphalaria glabrata is unknown. The objective of this work was to study the locomotor and reproductive behaviors of B. glabrata exposed to E. milii var. hislopii latex. For this, 96 snails were individually exposed to the latex (LC50 - 0.53 mg / L) for 24 hours. The specimens were submitted to biomonitoring for image analysis to record the locomotor parameters at different times: before exposure (control), one day post exposure (group 1 d-p-e) and 30 days post exposure (group 30 d-p-e). The reproductive parameters were recorded weekly for 10 weeks. All locomotor activities of group 1 d-p-e decreased significantly. The egg/egg mass ratio decreased the week after exposure while there was an increase in the hatching rate. After 30 days, these reproductive parameters were similar to those observed in these same snails before exposure. However, the number of hatched snails declined after exposure until the end of the experiment. The influence of the latex in the parameters of B. glabrata added further evidence that this natural water-soluble product can be an important tool for the control of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Biomphalaria/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Locomoção , Reprodução
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0007973, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on the baseline prevalence and associated risk factor findings of a pilot, longitudinal study exploring community-wide treatment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, using albendazole plus praziquantel in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. METHOD: From three communities, at least, 658 individuals were enrolled into the study via random household selection. Prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis and STH infection were determined from stool and urine samples with a questionnaire being administered in order to explore other morbidities and risk factors. Factor analysis of household demographic variables was undertaken to generate a socioeconomic score; this was then further categorised into tertiles. Proportional-odds cumulative logit generalised estimating equation (GEE) models were used to investigate categorical ordinal intensity of infection associations with morbidity. Separately, logistic GEE models were used to investigate risk factor associations with infection prevalence. RESULTS: Both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni were prevalent in the three communities, with the prevalence of S. haematobium ranging from 3.3% (24/679; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7) to 19% (114/632; 95% CI = 15.8-22.2) and S. mansoni ranging from 30% (202/679; 95% CI = 26.5-33.5) to 78.3% (409/536; 95% CI = 74.7-81.9). The total prevalence of STH across all three sites was negligible at 1.3% (24/1847; 95% CI = 0.8-1.9) comprising mainly hookworm (10/1847). Multivariable statistical models indicated males to be 2.3 (95% CI = 1.7-3.3) times more likely to have a high intensity S. mansoni infection and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.1-2) times more likely to have a high intensity of S. haematobium infection compared to females. There was no significant difference in the likelihood of infection with S. mansoni between adults and school age children (SAC), however S. haematobium infections were found to be 2.5 (95% CI = 1.8-3.5) times more likely to occur in school age children than in adults. Multivariable statistical models (adjusted for age and sex) indicated an association between schistosomiasis and a number of self-reported morbidity indicators (notably diarrhoea and blood in stool and urine). Low socio-economic status was also associated with SCH infection (OR: 2; 95% CI = 1.3-3.2). CONCLUSION: The communities targeted by this study showed a range of Schistosoma prevalence's of infection, from hypo-endemic through to meso-endemic and hyper-endemic. The prevalence of SCH across the different age groups in the study locations highlights the large number of individuals currently being left out of the standard morbidity control method of annual treatment of the SAC.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Demografia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Fezes/parasitologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Urina/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185920

RESUMO

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great successes have been achieved in the national schistosomiasis control programme in China. Currently, the national schistosomiasis control programme in China is facing the challenges to solve the problems during the"final mile"stage towards schistosomiasis elimination, and contribute Chinese experiences, Chinese strategy and Chinese wisdom to the global schistosomiasis control programmes, so as to facilitate the transformation of the joint efforts in the Belt and Road Initiative to a high-quality development, thereby well supporting the activities on global health security. This paper analyzes the current global status of schistosomiasis and the challenges of the global schistosomiasis control programmes, describes the basis for the cooperation on schistosomiasis control among the countries along the Belt and Road Initiative, illustrates the challenges for translation of Chinese experiences and techniques in schistosomiasis control to other diseaseendemic countries, and proposes the patterns and prospects of the South-South cooperation on schistosomiasis control under the Belt and Road Initiative.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose , China , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028713

RESUMO

China has initiated a tree planting program in epidemic regions of schistosomiasis as a part of efforts to eliminate schistosomiasis. More than 518,900 ha of tree plantations have been planted through the program between 2006 and 2015. However, whether the planting program has fulfilled its mission or not is an open question. In this study, we intended to get the answer from the main stakeholders of the planting program through a large-scale survey. Based on interviews with 80 administrators of the planting program and 1440 farmers in 24 counties and districts in four provinces, we found that most stakeholders viewed the planting program positively. Nearly 92% of farmers and all administrators believed that the planting program had reduced snail densities, while 94.3% of farmers and all administrators believed that the program had lowered the incidences of schistosomiasis. In addition, they reported that the impacts on farmers' living and local environments by the tree planting program were mainly positive. Based on the stakeholders' responses, we conclude that the tree planting program has been perceived by the main stakeholders as an effective environmental control measure of schistosomiasis. However, certain places and people that may be impacted negatively by the program should be given more attention when implementing the program.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Programas Governamentais , Esquistossomose , Árvores , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Programas Governamentais/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA