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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 374-381, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats at the administrative village scale in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Hubei Province, so as to provide scientific bases for precise control of O. hupensis snails in the province. METHODS: Data regarding snail distribution at the village level in Hubei Province in 2017 were collected to create a spatial analysis database of snail distribution in Hubei Province. The spatial aggregations of O. hupensis distribution were analyzed using Moran's I index and Local Moran's I index. In addition, the distances from schistosomiasis-endemic villages to the Yangtze River were captured using the software ArcGIS 13.0, and their correlations with area of snail habitats were examined with the Spearman correlation method. RESULTS: O. hupensis snails were mainly distributed in 5 450 endemic villages from 63 counties of 13 cities in Hubei Province in 2017. The global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed spatial aggregations in the areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats, areas of snail habitats outside the embankment and snail habitats inside the embankment (all Z Scores > 0, all P values < 0.05), and no spatial aggregation was seen in the areas of snail habitats in hilly areas (Z Score > 0, P > 0.05). There were four types of spatial distribution of historically accumulated areas of snail habitats, areas of current snail habitats, areas of snail habitats outside the embankment and snail habitats inside the embankment, including the high-high type (H-H type), high-low type (H-L type), low-high type (L-H type) and random distribution type, and a high percentage of the H-H type was found. There were 340, 125 and 110 endemic villages with the H-H type of areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats and areas of snail habitats outside the embankment, and these villages were mainly concentrated in Wuhan and Jingzhou cities, with almost consistent spatial aggregation locations. There were 319 endemic villages with the H-H type of distribution of snail habitats inside the embankment, which were mainly distributed in Jingzhou, Xiaogan and Huangshi cities. In addition, the areas of historically accumulated snail habitats, current areas of snail habitats and areas of snail habitats outside the embankment negatively correlated with the distance from the endemic villages to the Yangtze River (r = -0.094, P < 0.01; r = -0.225, P < 0.01; r = -0.177, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The clustering areas of snail habitats along the Yangtze River Basin, notably the villages near the Yangtze River are key regions for snail monitoring and control in Hubei Province.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Rios , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Rios/parasitologia , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia , Análise Espacial
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 337-338, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential risk of schistosomiasis transmission so as to provide the evidence for formulating the control strategy. METHODS: Two villages were selected as the investigated sites in Chuxiong City and the risk of schistosomiasis transmission was evaluated by reviewing the data of schistosomiasis epidemic situation and prevention and control work, and carrying out the field survey for Oncomelania hupensis snail status, wild faeces, and schistosome infection of the population from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: There was 1.49 hm2 area of snail habitats, with an average density of 0.54 snails/0.1 m2. The occurrence rate of frames with snails was 5.41%. No schistosome-infected snails were found. The positive rate of schistosomiasis serological tests of the residents was 3.36%, but the stool examination positive cases were not found. A total of 58 wild faeces samples were collected but no schistosome infested cases were found. The risk levels of schistosomiasis transmission in both villages were Grade III. CONCLUSIONS: Although Chuxiong City has been in a low risk state of schistosomiasis transmission, the density of snails is still high, and there is a risk of infection source importation. In the future, the infection source control and snail control should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 251-257, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system in Sichuan Province, so as to provide technical support for facilitating the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in the province. METHODS: The surveillance sites for schistosomiasis transmission risk were assigned in 63 endemic counties (districts) of 11 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province. During the period from 2015 through 2018, wild feces contamination, the sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections (fever patients, livestock and wild animals), water infectivity in key settings, snail distribution in key settings, and snail breeding risk (snail importation and spread, floating debris carrying snails and snail breeding in ecological wetlands) were monitored in the surveillance sites. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, a total of 1 636 wild faces were detected in Sichuan Province, and 3 faces were positive for S. japonicum, with a 0.18% positive rate; among 3 995 livestock and 59 wild mice monitored, no S. japonicum infection was detected. A total of 49 414 fever patients were monitored in 2018, and 493 were seropositive for S. japonicum infection; then, 445 seropositives were subjected to stool examinations, and no egg-positives were found. From 2010 to 2018, a total of 93 sentinel sites were assigned, and 3 994 sentinel mice were placed for monitoring the water infectivity, with one S. japonicum-infected mouse detected. Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 4 156 key settings were investigated covering an area of 1 998.46 hm2, and 668 settings were detected with snails (16.07%), covering an area of 193.26 hm2; 497 suspected settings with a likelihood of snail importation with plant introduction were monitored from 2017 to 2018, and 65 settings with snails were found with 2 673 snails captured; 593 sites were assigned to collect the floating debris from 2017 to 2018, and 9 191.39 kg floating debris were collected with 186 snails captured; 4 wetlands were monitored for the risk of schistosomiasis transmission from 2013 to 2015, and snail breeding was found in 2 wetlands. No S. japonicum infection was identified in snails captured from all surveillance sites. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and effective schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system has been successfully established in Sichuan Province. There is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk in local areas of Sichuan Province. Therefore, the integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections should be further intensified, and snail monitoring and control and monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands should be also intensified.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 258-263, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the current distribution of Oncomelania snails in Sichuan Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy and implementing the precision schistosomiasis control measures in the province. METHODS: According to the National Scheme on Oncomelania hupensis Snails in China and the Scheme on Oncomelania hupensis Snails in Sichuan Province, snail surveys were performed in current snail habitats, historical snail habitats and suspected snail habitats using systematic sampling in Sichuan Province from 2016 to 2017, and the survey results were analyzed. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2017, a total of 88 346 settings were surveyed in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and 19 314 settings were detected with snails, covering an area of 4 829.25 hm2, with no Schistosoma japonicum infection identified in snails. A total of 3 017 915 frames were investigated in Sichuan Province, and 1 041 417 frames were found to have living snails, with totally 1 791 115 living snails captured. The mean density of living snails was 0.59 snails/0.1 m2, and the mean percentage of frames with living snails was 34.51% in Sichuan Province. The current snail habitats were mainly distributed in 1 704 villages, 377 townships, 54 counties (districts) of 9 cities (prefectures) across the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Sichuan Province. Snail habitats were mainly found in ditches (70.22%), and weeds were the predominant vegetation in snail habitats (66.45%). Snails were firstly discovered in Sichuan Province in 1913, and S. japonicum-infected snails were firstly identified in 1956, with the latest identification of S. japonicum-infected snails in 2008. CONCLUSIONS: There are many settings suitable for snail breeding in Sichuan Province, and snail monitoring and control should be intensified in the future.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China , Cidades , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Esquistossomose Japônica , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 269-274, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the spatial-temporal clustering distribution of schistosomiasis transmission risk in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, so as to provide scientific evidence for the future schistosomiasis control and consolidation of the control achievements. METHODS: All data pertaining to endemic situation of human and bovine schistosomiasis and snail survey at a township level in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015 were collected. A descriptive epidemiological method and Joinpoint model were used to describe the changing trends of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, bovine and snails, and the hotspots and clusters of schistosomiasis transmission risk were identified using spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspots analysis and retrospective space-time scan statistic in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared a continuous decline in humans, bovine and snails in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015, and the estimated number of schistosomiasis cases reduced from 43 056 in 2004 to 756 in 2015, with a decline rate of 98.24%. There were no acute cases since 2008 and no infected snails since 2014 in Yunnan Province. There were significant differences in the changing trends of human and bovine S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province between 2012 and 2015 and between 2013 and 2015, respectively using the Joinpoint model (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a spatial autocorrelation in human S. japonicum infections in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2013 (P < 0.01), and the hotspots areas for human S. japonicum infections were mainly distributed in some townships from Dali City, Weishan County and Eryuan County. Retrospective spatial-temporal scanning revealed that S. japonicum human, bovine and snail infections were clustered in 23, 15, 4 townships from Dali City, Weishan County, Eryuan County, Nanjian County and Heqing County, respectively, with relative risks of 6.25 to 28.75 (P < 0.01), which was almost consistent with the cluster areas detected by hotspots analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis significantly reduced in Yunnan Province from 2004 to 2015; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. The monitoring and control of schistosomiasis should be intensified in the future in Yunnan Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 323-325, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544418

RESUMO

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Although great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly areas, there is a risk of re-emerging schistosomiasis in local areas. Hereby, we described the emergency treatment of two schistosomiasis outbreaks that occurred in transmission-interrupted areas of Yunnan Province in 2011 and 2013, pointed out the risk of schistosomiasis rebounding in mountainous and hilly areas and proposed some suggestions.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Tratamento de Emergência , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 333-336, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544421

RESUMO

Earthquake is a serious natural disaster. The earthquake that occurs in schistosomiasis-endemic areas not only causes direct human and economic losses, but also induces secondary disasters that greatly threaten public health safety in affected areas. This paper analyzed the impact of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and 2013 Lushan Earthquake on schistosomiasis transmission in Sichuan Province, and proposed emergency measures and assessment activitiesresponding to schistosomiasis following earthquake disasters. The experiences from schistosomiasis control after two earthquake disasters in Sichuan Province may provide insights into the emergency control in other regions or after other natural disasters.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose , China , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 734, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most chronic infections worldwide. Based on their demonstrable impact on human health, the WHO recently recommended the implementation of robust strategies aimed at controlling or eliminating schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths by 2020. The implementation of this strategy, however, warrants a clear understanding of the community's knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to these infections. This study sought to identify sociocultural gaps that should be addressed to ensure the success of cost-effective community-based schistosomiasis-soil-transmitted helminths control and elimination programs. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional mixed methodology study. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 442 caregivers of preschool aged children. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among caregivers, preschool teachers, traditional authorities and community caregivers. All interviews were captured using an audio recorder to maximize accuracy. Quantitative data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate techniques while qualitative data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Findings reflected inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths while awareness of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths was high (87.1 and 79.2% respectively). Correct knowledge on transmission, prevention, signs and symptoms and life cycle was low (below 50%) for both infections among those who had heard of the disease. From multivariate analysis, being aged at least 35 years increased the odds of reporting good practices on schistosomiasis by 65% (COR 1.652, 95% CI: 1.073-2.543) while receiving health information through community meetings (COR 0.072, 95% CI: 0.010-0.548) significantly reduced the odds of having good knowledge on schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are valuable in designing behavioural change approaches towards enhancing health outcomes through community-based interventions to ensure effective control and elimination of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. There is a critical need for channelling efforts towards making health education the core of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths programs aimed at achieving intensified control or elimination of these infections by 2020.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/normas , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/terapia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Professores Escolares/normas , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007358, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048882

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a chronic but preventable disease that affects 260 million people worldwide. In the Philippines, 860,000 people are afflicted with Schistosoma japonicum annually, and another 6.7 million live in endemic areas. The disease's complex epidemiology as well as the influence of poverty in endemic areas demand an integrated, multi-sectoral approach to disease control. Results from behavioral or sociocultural studies on schistosomiasis could improve the content and impact of schistosomiasis control in rural villages in the Philippines. We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to schistosomiasis transmission and control in an endemic village in Leyte Province, Philippines. We administered a questionnaire to 219 participants covering 1) knowledge and attitudes related to schistosomiasis, its symptoms, and its transmission; 2) attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis prevention; 3) willingness to comply with public health control programs; and 4) whether the respondent had previously contracted schistosomiasis. Responses revealed fairly high measures of schistosomiasis knowledge (mean 17.0 out of 23 questions, range 6-23), but also inconsistent disease prevention behavior. A high proportion of participants (72.6%, n = 159) reported previous disease. Participant belief in the preventability of schistosomiasis was revealed to be a key attitude, as carabao owners who believed in prevention were over five times more likely to be willing to vaccinate their carabaos (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.20-27.68, P = 0.04). Additionally, participants who did not believe in prevention were about twice as likely to report previous disease (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.02-5.63, P = 0.05). Our results suggest that future public health interventions should address barriers to disease-preventing behavior, as well as maintaining community belief in disease prevention. Comprehensive disease control programs should be supplemented by sociocultural and behavioral context in order to improve their impact in endemic communities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose/psicologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016920

RESUMO

With the acceleration of the process of global integration, China's international exchanges and cooperation with other countries have been further increased. The personnel exchange has led to the frequent occurrence of imported schistosomiasis from abroad, which seriously endangers people's health. This paper reviews the prevalence and transmission risks of oversea imported schistosomiasis, providing the reference for the entry and exit health quarantine and prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Humanos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
12.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(2): 701-712, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861662

RESUMO

Based on years of experience in schistosomiasis prevention and treatment, one of the typical features of schistosomiasis is multiple infection of a human host by parasites, which may dramatically a ect the host's infectivity. In this paper we establish a schistosomiasis model that takes into consideration multiple infection by separating humans with single and multiple infectious. The disease free equilibrium is shown to be globally asymptotically stable under certain condition. The model analysis suggests that a backward bifurcation may occur if the transmission rate from multiple infected humans to snails is high. This conclusion has not been seen in previous models of schistosomiasis. Such backward bifurcation is not possible without considering multiple infections. This conclusion may provide a new threshold theory for the prevention and treatment of schistosomiasis. Furthermore, numerical simulations suggest that e ective treatment of humans with multiple infection is important to control schistosomiasis. Especially, prevention of multiple infection may be critical.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia , Algoritmos , Animais , China , Simulação por Computador , Saúde Global , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Filipinas , Saúde Pública , Risco , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Água/parasitologia , Poluentes da Água
13.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(2): 1005-1020, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861676

RESUMO

According to monitoring data of Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei, Jiangsu Provinces, in this paper the transmission of schistosomiasis is studied based on Barbour's mathematical model. The values of the basic reproduction number and key parameters are obtained with two methods. The first method is to calculate directly by using parameter values in references. The second one is to estimate parameter values by the methods of noise measurement and data smoothing and then to obtain new values of basic reproduction number. Comparing these two methods, we found the second method is good to fit the data. This parameter values can be used as reference values in other provinces. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out to discuss the development trend of prevalence of humans and snails in each province. It is found that schistosomiasis in four provinces is expected to be eliminated with the improvement or maintenance of the standards of prevention and control. Furthermore, the time needed is different in the different four provinces.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , China/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Infectologia , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 69, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most prevalent neglected tropical diseases are treated through blanket drug distribution that is reliant on lay community medicine distributors (CMDs). Yet, treatment rates achieved by CMDs vary widely and it is not known which CMDs treat the most people. METHODS: In Mayuge District, Uganda, we tracked 6779 individuals (aged 1+ years) in 1238 households across 31 villages. Routine, community-based mass drug administration (MDA) was implemented for schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminths. For each CMD, the percentage of eligible individuals treated (offered and ingested medicines) with at least one drug of praziquantel, albendazole, or ivermectin was examined. CMD attributes (more than 25) were measured, ranging from altruistic tendencies to socioeconomic characteristics to MDA-specific variables. The predictors of treatment rates achieved by CMDs were selected with least absolute shrinkage and selection operators and then analyzed in ordinary least squares regression with standard errors clustered by village. The influences of participant compliance and the ordering of drugs offered also were examined for the treatment rates achieved by CMDs. RESULTS: Overall, only 44.89% (3043/6779) of eligible individuals were treated with at least one drug. Treatment rates varied amongst CMDs from 0% to 84.25%. Treatment rate increases were associated (p value< 0.05) with CMDs who displayed altruistic biases towards their friends (13.88%), had friends who helped with MDA (8.43%), were male (11.96%), worked as fishermen/fishmongers (14.93%), and used protected drinking water sources (13.43%). Only 0.24% (16/6779) of all eligible individuals were noncompliant by refusing to ingest all offered drugs. Distributing praziquantel first was strongly, positively correlated (p value < 0.0001) with treatment rates for albendazole and ivermectin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings profile CMDs who treat the most people during routine MDA. Criteria currently used to select CMDs-community-wide meetings, educational attainment, age, years as a CMD, etc.-were uninformative. Participant noncompliance and the provision of praziquantel before albendazole and ivermectin did not negatively impact treatment rates achieved by CMDs. Engaging CMD friend groups with MDA, selecting CMDs who practise good preventative health behaviours, and including CMDs with high-risk occupations for endemic infections may improve MDA treatment rates. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to improve the monitoring, selection, and replacement of CMDs during MDA.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Medicina Comunitária/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medicina Comunitária/normas , Medicina Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/normas , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Uganda/epidemiologia , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 165, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of schistosomiasis is high among children under five years in Uganda. Schistosomiasis control efforts over time have included periodic mass treatments in endemic areas for adults and school going children aged 5 years and above. This study explores behaviour practices of children age 2-4 years that increase the risk of schistosomiasis infection in this age group. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using in-depth interviews with 30 caregivers of children aged 2-4 years who tested positive for schistosomiasis in a national prevalence survey in 2017. Observations were done at water bodies where young children go with caretakers or other older children. The study was conducted in three Ugandan sub-regions of West Nile and East-central, and South-western with high, and low prevalence of schistosomiasis, respectively. Data were thematically analysed. Anonymised supporting photos from observations are also presented. RESULTS: Knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission was poor among caregivers, who concurrently had mixed right and wrong information. Reported avenues for contracting schistosomiasis included both correct: contact activities with infested water, and incorrect modes: contact with dirty water, sharing bathrooms, witchcraft, polluted air and contaminated food. The children in this study could have contracted schistosomiasis through the contact with infested water during activities such as bathing and playing, while their caregivers washed clothes, collected snail shells for poultry feeds, fetched water at the water bodies. These activities were reported by caregivers and observed in all study areas. Evidence of open defecation and urination in and near water bodies by adults and children was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-school children age 2-4 years are at a high risk of exposure to schistosomiasis while caretakers conduct activities in infested water bodies. There is need for prevention interventions to target children in their early stages of life to control schistosomiasis in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cuidadores/normas , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/normas , Esquistossomose/etiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Uganda/epidemiologia , Água/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 365-367, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526763

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is frequently detected in persons entering Europe. In 2017, we detected a Schistosoma mansoni-Schistosoma haematobium hybrid parasite infection in a migrant boy from Côte d'Ivoire entering France. Because such parasites might be established in Europe, as illustrated by an outbreak on Corsica Island, vectors of these parasites should be investigated.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Risco , Schistosoma haematobium/classificação , Schistosoma mansoni/classificação , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Fatores Sexuais , Migrantes
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(5): e0006514, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic trematode disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide. The Schistosoma lifecycle is complex, involving transmission via specific intermediate-host freshwater snails. Predictive mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission have often chosen to simplify or ignore the details of environmental human-snail interaction in their analyses. Schistosome transmission models now aim to provide better precision for policy planning of elimination of transmission. This heightens the importance of including the environmental complexity of vector-pathogen interaction in order to make more accurate projections. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose a nonlinear snail force of infection (FOI) that takes into account an intermediate larval stage (miracidium) and snail biology. We focused, in particular, on the effects of snail force of infection (FOI) on the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) in human communities. The proposed (modified) model was compared to a conventional model in terms of their predictions. A longitudinal dataset generated in Kenya field studies was used for model calibration and validation. For each sample community, we calibrated modified and conventional model systems, then used them to model outcomes for a range of MDA regimens. In most cases, the modified model predicted more vigorous post-MDA rebound, with faster relapse to baseline levels of infection. The effect was pronounced in higher risk communities. When compared to observed data, only the modified system was able to successfully predict persistent rebound of Schistosoma infection. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The observed impact of varying location-specific snail inputs sheds light on the diverse MDA response patterns noted in operational research on schistosomiasis control, such as the recent SCORE project. Efficiency of human-to-snail transmission is likely to be much higher than predicted by standard models, which, in practice, will make local elimination by implementation of MDA alone highly unlikely, even over a multi-decade period.


Assuntos
Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 29, 2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snail intermediate hosts play active roles in the transmission of snail-borne trematode infections in Africa. A good knowledge of snail-borne diseases epidemiology particularly snail intermediate host populations would provide the necessary impetus to complementing existing control strategy. MAIN BODY: This review highlights the importance of molecular approaches in differentiating snail hosts population structure and the need to provide adequate information on snail host populations by updating snail hosts genome database for Africa, in order to equip different stakeholders with adequate information on the ecology of snail intermediate hosts and their roles in the transmission of different diseases. Also, we identify the gaps and areas where there is need for urgent intervention to facilitate effective integrated control of schistosomiasis and other snail-borne trematode infections. CONCLUSIONS: Prioritizing snail studies, especially snail differentiation using molecular tools will boost disease surveillance and also enhance efficient schistosomaisis control programme in Africa.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Genoma , Caramujos/classificação , Caramujos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos , África , Animais , Vetores de Doenças/classificação , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(4): e0006364, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most disabling neglected tropical diseases, ranking second in terms of years lived with disability. While treatment with the drug praziquantel can have immediate beneficial effects, reinfection can occur rapidly if people are in contact with cercaria-infested water. Water treatment for schistosomiasis control seeks to eliminate viable cercariae from water, thereby providing safe alternative water supplies for recreational and domestic activities including laundry and bathing. This provision may reduce contact with infested water, which is crucial for reducing reinfection following chemotherapy and cutting schistosome transmission. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative systematic review was carried out to summarize the existing knowledge on the effectiveness of water treatment in removing or inactivating human schistosome cercariae. Four online databases were searched. Studies were screened and categorized into five water treatment processes: storage, heating, chlorination, filtration, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. CONCLUSIONS: All five water treatment methods can remove or inactivate cercariae in water, and hence produce cercaria-free water. However, reliable design guidelines for treating water do not exist as there are insufficient data. Overall, the review found that cercariae are inactivated when storing water for 10-72 hours (depending on temperature), or with chlorination values of 3-30 mg-min/l. UV fluences between 3-60 mJ/cm2 may significantly damage or kill cercariae, and sand filters with 0.18-0.35 mm grain size have been shown to remove cercariae. This systematic review identified 67 studies about water treatment and schistosomiasis published in the past 106 years. It highlights the many factors that influence the results of water treatment experiments, which include different water quality conditions and methods for measuring key parameters. Variation in these factors limit comparability, and therefore currently available information is insufficient for providing complete water treatment design recommendations.


Assuntos
Cercárias/fisiologia , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/farmacologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Humanos , Schistosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Abastecimento de Água/normas
20.
Parasitol Res ; 117(5): 1549-1558, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568977

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Successful reproductive development is critical for the production of eggs, which are responsible for host pathology and disease dissemination. Endogenous small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as protection against foreign pathogens, cell differentiation, and chromosomal stability by regulating target gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we performed in silico analysis of endogenous small non-coding RNAs in different stages, and sex of S. japonicum focusing on endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) generated from transposable elements (TEs) and natural antisense transcripts (NATs). Both total and unique siRNA populations show 18-30 nt in length, but the predominant size was 20 nt and the leading first base was adenosine. Sense TE-derived endo-siRNAs reads were higher than antisense reads at different relative positions of TEs, whereas no such difference was observed for NAT-derived endo-siRNAs. TE- and NAT-derived endo-siRNAs were more enriched in the male compared to female worms, with the higher relative expression in early phase of pairing. Putative targets of endo-siRNAs indicated more of them in males (106 and 66) than in females (6 and 23) for TE- and NAT-derived endo-siRNAs, respectively. Our preliminary study revealed vital role of endo-siRNAs during the reproductive development of S. japonicum and provide clues for putative novel targets to suppress worm reproduction and direction for effective anti-schistosomal drug development.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão
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