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1.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 24-35, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maternal schizophrenia is linked to complications in offspring near the time of birth. Whether there is also a higher future risk of the child having a complex chronic condition (CCC) - a pediatric condition affecting any bodily system expected to last at least 12 months that is severe enough to require specialty care and/or a period of hospitalization - is not known. METHODS: In this population-based health administrative data cohort study (Ontario, Canada, 1995-2018), the risk for CCC was compared in 5066 children of women with schizophrenia (the exposed) vs. 2,939,320 unexposed children. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were generated for occurrence of any CCC, by CCC category, and stratified by child sex, and child prematurity. RESULTS: CCC was more frequent in the exposed (7.7 per 1000 person-years [268 children]) than unexposed (4.2 per 100 person-years [124,452 children]) - an aHR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.10-1.41). aHRs were notably higher in 5 of 9 CCC categories: neuromuscular (1.73, 1.28-2.33), cardiovascular (1.94, 1.64-2.29), respiratory (1.83, 1.32-2.54), hematology/immunodeficiency (2.24, 1.24-4.05) and other congenital or genetic defect (1.59, 1.16-2.17). The aHR for CCC was more pronounced among boys (1.32, 1.13-1.55) than girls (1.16, 0.96-1.40), and of similar magnitude in term (1.22, 1.05-1.42) and preterm infants (1.18, 0.95-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a CCC appears to be higher in children born to women with schizophrenia. This finding introduces opportunities for targeted preconception counselling, optimization of maternal risk factors, and intervention to support a vulnerable parent population who will experience unique challenges caring for a child with CCCs.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Ontário , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
2.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demografia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
3.
Schizophr Res ; 242: 147-149, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067455
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 363, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064829

RESUMO

Brodmann Area 46 (BA46) has long been regarded as a hotspot of disease pathology in individuals with schizophrenia (SCH) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Pyramidal neurons in layer III of the Brodmann Area 46 (BA46) project to other cortical regions and play a fundamental role in corticocortical and thalamocortical circuits. The AutoCUTS-LM pipeline was used to study the 3-dimensional structural morphology and spatial organization of pyramidal cells. Using quantitative light microscopy, we used stereology to calculate the entire volume of layer III in BA46 and the total number and density of pyramidal cells. Volume tensors estimated by the planar rotator quantified the volume, shape, and nucleus displacement of pyramidal cells. All of these assessments were carried out in four groups of subjects: controls (C, n = 10), SCH (n = 10), MDD (n = 8), and suicide subjects with a history of depression (SU, n = 11). SCH subjects had a significantly lower somal volume, total number, and density of pyramidal neurons when compared to C and tended to show a volume reduction in layer III of BA46. When comparing MDD subjects with C, the measured parameters were inclined to follow SCH, although there was only a significant reduction in pyramidal total cell number. While no morphometric differences were observed between SU and MDD, SU had a significantly higher total number of pyramidal cells and nucleus displacement than SCH. Finally, no differences in the spatial organization of pyramidal cells were found among groups. These results suggest that despite significant morphological alterations in layer III of BA46, which may impair prefrontal connections in people with SCH and MDD, the spatial organization of pyramidal cells remains the same across the four groups and suggests no defects in neuronal migration. The increased understanding of pyramidal cell biology may provide the cellular basis for symptoms and neuroimaging observations in SCH and MDD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Suicídio , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Células Piramidais/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 365, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068195

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence indicates that natural disasters are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. With few longitudinal studies on earthquakes, this retrospective cohort study examined exposure to the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia. Population counts and visits to all nine psychiatric hospitals in Tangshan city were collected. We created three cohort groups by earthquake exposure: infant (August 1972 to July 1976 births), fetal (August 1976 to May 1977 births), and unexposed (June 1977 to May 1981 births). The cumulative incidence of schizophrenia in each cohort was calculated by dividing the number of schizophrenia patients by total births in the corresponding period. Altogether, 6424 schizophrenia patients were identified, with 2786 in the infant group, 663 in the fetal group, and 2975 in the unexposed group. The crude cumulative incidence of schizophrenia in the infant, fetal and unexposed groups were 7.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.36-7.92), 9.07 (95% CI = 8.38-9.76), and 7.40 (95% CI = 7.13-7.66) per thousand population respectively. Adjusted for mortality, the corresponding figures were 7.73 (95% CI = 7.44-8.01), 9.30 (95% CI = 8.60-10.01) and 7.44 (95% CI = 7.18-7.71) per thousand population respectively. The mortality-adjusted risk ratio (aRR) was 1.25 (95% CI = 1.15-1.36) between fetal and unexposed groups (χ2 = 27.31, P < 0.001). Males exposed as infants did not differ from the unexposed in cumulative schizophrenia incidence. People with fetal exposure to the 1976 earthquake had 25% higher risk of developing schizophrenia compared to unexposed counterparts.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Esquizofrenia , Coorte de Nascimento , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 213, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068639

RESUMO

AIMS: Although community psychiatric rehabilitation plays an important role in returning persons with schizophrenia to the society, many patients in China stay in rehabilitation centers for longer periods of time and subsequently fail to integrate. This study is aimed to explore the underlying causes of this trend and identify possible solutions. METHODS: This study used a qualitative descriptive design to examine the persons with schizophrenia who stay in rehabilitation centers for longer periods of time. The researchers conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with the patients recruited through purposeful sampling. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed in transcripts in Chinese. Thematic analysis was performed using Colaizzi's 7-step method. RESULTS: Most patients believe that they have gained knowledge, improved skills, friendship and social circles through community mental rehabilitation, with the sense of belonging and enriched life strongly attracting them to the rehabilitation centers. They felt that the difficulty of further integration into society is mainly because of social prejudice and rejection. In addition, the activities of community mental rehabilitation meet the needs of social communication, which also hinder patients from further entering the society. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with schizophrenia with long-term stay in community mental rehabilitation centers meet their friendship, sense of belonging and social needs by participating in rehabilitation activities. Providing special social opportunity for these patients can get them out of the rehabilitation center. Overall, it is possible for patients to gradually return to society in a collective form.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia , China , Comunicação , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 7006133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072632

RESUMO

This paper investigates the clinical application value of quantitative CT (QCT) technique in evaluating liver fat content in patients with schizophrenia. 457 patients with schizophrenia underwent abdominal CT and QCT scans. QCT postprocessing software (QCT Pro version 6.1) measures the percentage of liver fat content in all patients and calculates the average value. Then, the CT workstation displays the corresponding liver/spleen CT value ratio. SPSS 25.0 software is used for statistical analysis of data, and the correlation coefficient between the mean liver fat content. The ratio of liver/spleen CT values is calculated and the consistency between the results is compared. The ROC curve is used to define the cutoff value of the target and evaluate its diagnostic efficiency. There is a high negative correlation between the mean liver fat content and the ratio of liver/spleen CT value in all schizophrenia patients (r = -0.935, P < 0.05). The identification rate of patients with mild fatty liver by QCT technology is 4 times higher than that of the liver and spleen CT value ratio (50.98% Vs 12.47%). Taking the ratio of the liver to the spleen as the standard, the ROC curve of the liver fat content in QCT is drawn, the cutoff values of the mean liver fat content of the normal liver and mild fatty liver and mild and moderate fatty liver were 9.35% and 19.4%, respectively. Comparing this result with the results obtained by the existing QCT for the fatty liver diagnosis and grading standard value (American standard) shows that there is a difference of about 5% between the two. Compared with the semiquantitative liver/spleen ratio, QCT technology can quantify the liver fat content. Given the particularity of patients with schizophrenia, QCT can be used as an important test for identifying early fatty liver and assessing the severity of fatty liver.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Esquizofrenia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
11.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(5)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053732

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Empirical evidence is needed on the psychometric properties of the Allen Cognitive Level Screen-Sixth Edition (ACLS-6), an instrument that assesses cognitive functions and is commonly used for people living with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To examine the convergent validity, discriminative validity, and test-retest reliability of two tasks, stitching and copying, in the ACLS-6 for community-dwelling people living with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Psychiatric center. PARTICIPANTS: 110 people living with schizophrenia. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: To examine convergent validity, we calculated correlations (Pearson's r) between the two tasks and between these two tasks and three cognitive measures. We checked for floor and ceiling effects and conducted independent t tests to evaluate discriminative validity. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate test-retest reliability. RESULTS: We found a strong correlation (r = .88) between the two tasks and moderate correlations (rs = .32-.52) between the two tasks and the three cognitive measures. No floor or ceiling effects were observed for the two tasks, and t tests showed significant differences between two participant groups with marginal and mild clinical symptoms (p < .001). The ICC values for the two tasks were .71-.74. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The stitching and copying tasks of the ACLS-6 have good convergent validity, discriminative validity, and test-retest reliability for community-dwelling people living with schizophrenia. The copying task showed a strong correlation with the stitching task and a similar score range, so practitioners can consider using the copying task as a substitute for the stitching task. What This Article Adds: The stitching and copying tasks of the ACLS-6 have sound psychometric properties for measuring cognitive functions in community-dwelling people living with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(9): 1620-1637, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055211

RESUMO

Genetically informed drug development and repurposing is an attractive prospect for improving patient outcomes in psychiatry; however, the effectiveness of these endeavors is confounded by heterogeneity. We propose an approach that links interventions implicated by disorder-associated genetic risk, at the population level, to a framework that can target these compounds to individuals. Specifically, results from genome-wide association studies are integrated with expression data to prioritize individual "directional anchor" genes for which the predicted risk-increasing direction of expression could be counteracted by an existing drug. While these compounds represent plausible therapeutic candidates, they are not likely to be equally efficacious for all individuals. To account for this heterogeneity, we constructed polygenic scores restricted to variants annotated to the network of genes that interact with each directional anchor gene. These metrics, which we call a pharmagenic enrichment score (PES), identify individuals with a higher burden of genetic risk, localized in biological processes related to the candidate drug target, to inform precision drug repurposing. We used this approach to investigate schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and reveal several compounds targeting specific directional anchor genes that could be plausibly repurposed. These genetic risk scores, mapped to the networks associated with target genes, revealed biological insights that cannot be observed in undifferentiated genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS). For example, an enrichment of these partitioned scores in schizophrenia cases with otherwise low PRS. In summary, genetic risk could be used more specifically to direct drug repurposing candidates that target particular genes implicated in psychiatric and other complex disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética
13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 136(17): 1257-1280, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062418

RESUMO

Individuals with severe psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders and schizophrenia, are at increased risk of developing other medical conditions, especially cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. These medical conditions are underdiagnosed and undertreated in these patients contributing to their increased morbidity and mortality. The basis for this increased comorbidity is not well understood, possibly reflecting shared risks factors (e.g. lifestyle risk factors), shared biological mechanisms and/or reciprocal interactions. Among overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms, inflammation and related factors, such as dysbiosis and insulin resistance, stand out. Besides underlying the association between psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diseases, these mechanisms provide several potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Esquizofrenia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
14.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 1-7, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064231

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients with schizophrenia often suffer from sleep disturbance. Music therapy, as a non-invasive intervention, may have benefit on sleep problem in such population. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of music therapy on sleep disturbance among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study recruited participants with schizophrenia along with sleep disturbances in the chronic wards. Patients in the control group received standard care, and those in the intervention group received additional music therapy before sleeping at night for four weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure the severity of sleep disturbance. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to analyze measure the difference of change in PSQI scores between both groups at the baseline and four weeks later. It was also applied to find the predictors of treatment efficacy within intervention group. FINDINGS: A total of 66 (31 in control group and 35 in intervention group) participants were recruited. After adjusting with the demographic variables, the change of PSQI among intervention group was significantly more than the change among control group (Group × time; Estimate = -7.05, p < 0.001), indicating the efficacy of music therapy. In addition, irreligious patients and those with chronic medical disease predicted better efficacy. Whereas, elderly patients had compromising efficacy of music therapy. CONCLUSION: Music therapy demonstrated its merit on sleep disturbance among patients with schizophrenia. Whereas, healthcare workers should consider the variability of severity in schizophrenia during clinical practice.


Assuntos
Musicoterapia , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
15.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 132-136, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program designed to reduce nursing students' social distancing from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: This experimental study was designed using a pretest, a posttest, and a control group. All participants were nursing students, of which 25 were included in the intervention group and 23 were placed in the control group. A 13-week program was offered to the intervention group. The measuring instruments consisted of a personal information form and the Social Distance Scale. Data were analyzed using the two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. FINDINGS: A significant difference was found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The Education Program on Stigmatization in Schizophrenia is an effective intervention that reduces the social distance of nursing students from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Esquizofrenia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Estereotipagem
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(9): e36986, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a disease associated with high burden, and improvement in care is necessary. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used to diagnose several medical conditions as well as psychiatric disorders. However, this technology requires large amounts of data to be efficient. Social media data could be used to improve diagnostic capabilities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to analyze the current capabilities of AI to use social media data as a diagnostic tool for psychotic disorders. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using several databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, PsycInfo, and IEEE Xplore) using relevant keywords to search for articles published as of November 12, 2021. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria to identify, select, and critically assess the quality of the relevant studies while minimizing bias. We critically analyzed the methodology of the studies to detect any bias and presented the results. RESULTS: Among the 93 studies identified, 7 studies were included for analyses. The included studies presented encouraging results. Social media data could be used in several ways to care for patients with schizophrenia, including the monitoring of patients after the first episode of psychosis. We identified several limitations in the included studies, mainly lack of access to clinical diagnostic data, small sample size, and heterogeneity in study quality. We recommend using state-of-the-art natural language processing neural networks, called language models, to model social media activity. Combined with the synthetic minority oversampling technique, language models can tackle the imbalanced data set limitation, which is a necessary constraint to train unbiased classifiers. Furthermore, language models can be easily adapted to the classification task with a procedure called "fine-tuning." CONCLUSIONS: The use of social media data for the diagnosis of psychotic disorders is promising. However, most of the included studies had significant biases; we therefore could not draw conclusions about accuracy in clinical situations. Future studies need to use more accurate methodologies to obtain unbiased results.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Mídias Sociais , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Comportamento Social
19.
Compr Psychiatry ; 118: 152343, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of aberrant salience is related to the onset of psychosis. Its study is important for early identification and possible intervention in processes activating later positive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: This study validated the Spanish Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI) for adult and clinical populations. METHODS: The sample consisted of 6178 participants, of whom 4523 were adolescents, 1292 were general population adults and 363 were patients with a psychopathology. RESULTS: The evidence provided validates the instrument's structure. Invariance of measurement suggests that both men and women, patients and nonclinical population (adults and adolescents) interpreted the items on the ASI similarly. The distribution of scores by age also suggests stabilization of the trend at about 19 years of age, showing a developmental change in motivational response. The hypothesis that patients, and in particular, those diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders would have the highest average scores in aberrant salience was met. CONCLUSIONS: This is a valuable instrument for evaluating a complex process related to abnormal motivation in the development of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076984

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) and IGF binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) have been related to schizophrenia (SZ) due to their implication in neurodevelopment. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the alterations in IGF-2 and IGFBP-7 in SZ patients are intrinsically related to the psychiatric disorder itself or are a secondary phenomenon due to antipsychotic treatment. In order to test this hypothesis, we measured plasma IGF-2 and IGFBP-7 in drug-naïve first episode (FE) and multiple episodes or chronic (ME) SZ Caucasian patients who have been following treatment for years. A total of 55 SZ patients (FE = 15, ME = 40) and 45 healthy controls were recruited. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Self-Assessment Anhedonia Scale (SAAS) were employed to check schizophrenic symptomatology and anhedonia, respectively. Plasma IGF-2 and IGFBP-7 levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The FE SZ patients had much lower IGF-2, but not IGFBP-7, than controls. Moreover, both IGF-2 and IGFBP-7 significantly increased after atypical antipsychotic treatment (aripiprazole, olanzapine, or risperidone) in these patients. On the other hand, chronic patients showed higher levels of both proteins when compared to controls. Our study suggests that circulatory IGF-2 and IGFBP-7 increase after antipsychotic treatment, regardless of long-term conditions and being lower in drug-naïve FE patients.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo
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