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2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264322

RESUMO

Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis are characterised by the emergence of attenuated psychotic symptoms and deterioration in functioning. In view of the high non-psychotic comorbidity and low rates of transition to psychosis, the specificity of the UHR status has been called into question. This study aims to (i) investigate if the UHR construct is associated with the genetic liability of schizophrenia or other psychiatric conditions; (ii) examine the ability of polygenic risk scores (PRS) to discriminate healthy controls from UHR, remission and conversion status. PRS was calculated for 210 youths (nUHR = 102, nControl = 108) recruited as part of the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) using nine psychiatric traits derived from twelve large-scale psychiatric genome-wide association studies as discovery datasets. PRS was also examined to discriminate UHR-Healthy control status, and healthy controls from UHR remission and conversion status. Result indicated that schizophrenia PRS appears to best index the genetic liability of UHR, while trend level associations were observed for depression and cross-disorder PRS. Schizophrenia PRS discriminated healthy controls from UHR (R2 = 7.9%, p = 2.59 x 10-3, OR = 1.82), healthy controls from non-remitters (R2 = 8.1%, p = 4.90 x 10-4, OR = 1.90), and converters (R2 = 7.6%, p = 1.61 x 10-3, OR = 1.82), with modest predictive ability. A trend gradient increase in schizophrenia PRS was observed across categories. The association between schizophrenia PRS and UHR status supports the hypothesis that the schizophrenia polygenic liability indexes the risk for developing psychosis.


Assuntos
Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To search for the relationship between the results of functional imaging, immunological parameters and laboratory markers of inflammation in schizophrenia, taking into account cognitive impairment in patients, and to consider the possibility of using a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 25 patients with schizophrenia and 13 healthy volunteers. Psychiatric scales were administered to evaluate the patient's condition. The main indicators of humoral immunity, the level of markers of inflammation, key pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and growth factor VEGF were determined by ELISA. Brain MRI was performed. All calculated tractographic data are included in the connection database to study the effect of immunological markers and the degree of severity of cognitive impairment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Levels of markers of systemic inflammation and growth factor VEGF-A as well as the activation of humoral immunity are increased in patients with schizophrenia compared with controls. For the first time, the relationship of immunological parameters with the coefficient of quantitative anisotropy in the area of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia was revealed. The results indicate the possible value of indicators of the activation of the humoral immune response and systemic inflammation as markers of neurophysiological changes and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify predisposing factors and clinical features at baseline that might help predict diagnosis of bipolar disorder vs schizophrenia in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) cohort. METHODS: In this prospective, naturalistic study, we evaluated a cohort of 335 subjects with FEP recruited from April 2009 to April 2012. Baseline features were compared between subjects with a final DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia at 12-month follow-up. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess predictors of diagnosis of bipolar disorder at follow-up. RESULTS: At 12-month follow-up, 47 of the 335 subjects included in the study received the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 105, of schizophrenia. Subjects with a final diagnosis of bipolar disorder had a higher prevalence of family history of mood disorders (38.2% vs 18.0%, P = .02), better baseline premorbid adjustment (Premorbid Adjustment Scale [PAS]: 38.4 vs 50.6, P < .01) and psychosocial functioning (Functional Assessment Short Test [FAST]: 23.6 vs 33.7, P = .001), better cognitive flexibility (number of perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]: 14.2 vs 19.7, P = .01), more manic symptoms (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS]: 14.1 vs 7.3, P < .01), lesser negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative scale [PANSS-N]: 15.0 vs 22.3, P < .001), and shorter duration of untreated psychosis (144.2 vs 194.7 days, P < .01) than subjects with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Binary logistic regression model revealed that lower FAST scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.956; P = .015), lower PANSS-N scores (OR = 0.93; P = .048), and lower number of perseverative errors on the WCST (OR = 0.946; P = .035) were significantly related to diagnosis of bipolar disorder at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In our FEP cohort, better psychosocial functioning, lesser negative symptoms, and better cognitive flexibility were related to diagnosis of bipolar disorder at 12-month follow-up.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 411, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235185

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been classified as a pandemic, and mental hospitals located in epidemic centers have been affected. Social isolation is an important and irreplaceable measure to control the spread of the epidemic. In this study, schizophrenic patients who were subjected to social isolation after close contact with COVID-19 patients were used as participants to explore the impact of social isolation on common inflammatory indicators and psychological characteristics. A total of 30 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from Wuhan Mental Health Center. In addition, 30 ordinary schizophrenic patients were matched with the isolation group and were recruited from another branch of Wuhan Mental Health Center as controls. We compared the differences in common inflammatory indicators and psychological characteristics between the isolated group and the control group, and longitudinal comparison of the differences in the above indicators before and after isolation among the isolation group. The Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) score, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) score and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score of the isolation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p = 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, respectively). The C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CPSS score, HAMA score and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score of the isolation group were significantly higher after isolation (p = 0.01, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, respectively). Inpatients of schizophrenia suffered from social isolation due to COVID-19 have a severe psychological burden. Social isolation caused patients to develop a weak inflammatory state and led to worse anxiety and sleep quality.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Clin Neurosci ; 79: 154-159, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070887

RESUMO

Schizophrenic patients often experience visual hallucinations (VHs) and auditory hallucinations (AHs); however, brain aberrations associated with combined VH and AH in schizophrenic patients remains poorly documented. Changes to the brain and cognition during the first episode of untreated schizophrenic patients (FUSCH) with both VHs and AHs (FUSCHVA) were evaluated. One-hundred and fifty-seven patients were enrolled that had FUSCH (1) with VHs but not AHs (FUSCHV), and (2) with AHs but not VHs (FUSCHA), plus FUSCHVA and healthy controls (n = 30). Gray matter volume (GMV) and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was measured to reflect impairments to the brain and cognition, respectively. FUSCHVA patients had the severest cognitive impairment for all components of the MCCB, followed by FUSCHV and FUSCHA patients. Compared to healthy patients, FUSCHVA patients had reduced GMV in the occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal cortex, and increased GMV in the hippocampus and striatum. Compared to FUSCHV patients, FUSCHVA patients had reduced GMV in the occipital cortex and postcentral gyrus, and increased GMV in the posterio-parietal lobe. Compared to patients with FUSCHA, the GMV in patients with FUSCHVV was reduced in the occipital cortex and posterio parietal lobe. In conclusion, visual and auditory hallucinations appear to deteriorate reciprocally in FUSCHVA patients, accompanied with sever cognitive impairments. Compared to AHs, VHs might be accompanied with severe GMV impairment in the brain, especially in the primary visual cortex and higher perception integration cortex (posterio parietal lobe) in patients with FUSCH.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Alucinações/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Feminino , Alucinações/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 88-92, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study reports preliminary results from the multicentre project on the approbation of the Russian language version of the "The Communication Checklist-Self Report" (RL-CC-SR) and its first use in schizophrenia (SZ), aiming to evaluate the contribution of language disturbances in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study evaluated patients' clinical state with the Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP), and assessed language and communication disturbances (LCD) with the RL-CC-SR in all participants (213 healthy controls (HC), 83 SZ patients, 31 SZ first-degree relatives). Data from the current sample of SZ (n=50), and HC (n=213) was analysed to calculate the relationships between LCD, social and clinical variables using descriptive statistics methods, T-test and Pearson's correlations (SPSS-26, 2019). RESULTS: The quotient scores (<6) and raw scores on all three CC-SR subscales demonstrated prominent LCD in SZ: (i) language structure (LS) (SZ:11.92±8.01, HC:7.54±5.91; p<0.001), (ii) pragmatic skills (PS) (SZ:11.30±10.07, HC:8.71±7.39; p=0.040), (iii) social engagement (SE) (SZ:31.94±11.76, HC:19.42±10.35; p<0.001). In SZ, Pearson correlations of LS scores were significant for the DIP-items Odd Speech (p=0.033), and Social Engagement - Blunted Affect (p=0.042). PS was related to early disease onset (p=0.027), poor premorbid work adjustment (p=0.003), along with LS (p=0.005), and was also linked to poor premorbid social adjustment (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: SZ patients are aware of their LCD at all levels of language structure, pragmatics, and nonverbal communication, but are unable to compensate. Disturbances of LS and PS in SZ patients relate to their poor social adjustment and functioning, and may prove to be associated with the primary negative symptoms domain of the disorder and its generally poor outcome.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Esquizofrenia , Autorrelato , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Ajustamento Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938011

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 100 community-dwelling people with schizophrenia registered in mental health facilities in Seoul, Korea. This study was conducted between 12 September and 15 November 2019. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. The data included were general and disease-related characteristics, diagnostic tests for metabolic syndrome, lifestyles, depression, and social support. The analysis of collected data was done by using the SPSS 24.0 program. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 42.0%. Higher body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.16-2.18, p = 0.004), and depression (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06-1.42, p = 0.008) were associated with higher risks of metabolic syndrome, while physical activity and weight control (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.54-0.94, p = 0.018), dietary habits (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54-0.93, p = 0.011), and medication and health management (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31-0.86, p = 0.012) were associated with lower risks. Mental health care nurses need to recognize the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia in the community and provide differentiated, customized lifestyle improvement programs based on the body mass index and depression status of each person with schizophrenia. Furthermore, comprehensive lifestyle improvement programs and health examination services that people with schizophrenia can easily adhere to should be developed.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Seul
9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e169, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996442

RESUMO

AIMS: Many people who are homeless with severe mental illnesses are high users of healthcare services and social services, without reducing widen health inequalities in this vulnerable population. This study aimed to determine whether independent housing with mental health support teams with a recovery-oriented approach (Housing First (HF) program) for people who are homeless with severe mental disorders improves hospital and emergency department use. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial in four French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Participants were eligible if they were 18 years or older, being absolutely homeless or precariously housed, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) and were required to have a high level of needs (moderate-to-severe disability and past hospitalisations over the last 5 years or comorbid alcohol or substance use disorder). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to immediate access to independent housing and support from the Assertive Community Treatment team (social worker, nurse, doctor, psychiatrist and peer worker) (HF group) or treatment as usual (TAU group) namely pre-existing dedicated homeless-targeted programs and services. Participants and interviewers were unmasked to assignment. The primary outcomes were the number of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalisation admissions and inpatient days at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were recovery (Recovery Assessment Scale), quality of life (SQOL and SF36), mental health symptoms, addiction issues, stably housed days and cost savings from a societal perspective. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to the HF group (n = 353) or TAU group (n = 350). No differences were found in the number of hospital admissions (relative risk (95% CI), 0.96 (0.76-1.21)) or ED visits (0.89 (0.66-1.21)). Significantly less inpatient days were found for HF v. TAU (0.62 (0.48-0.80)). The HF group exhibited higher housing stability (difference in slope, 116 (103-128)) and higher scores for sub-dimensions of S-QOL scale (psychological well-being and autonomy). No differences were found for physical composite score SF36, mental health symptoms and rates of alcohol or substance dependence. Mean difference in costs was €-217 per patient over 24 months in favour of the HF group. HF was associated with cost savings in healthcare costs (RR 0.62(0.48-0.78)) and residential costs (0.07 (0.05-0.11)). CONCLUSION: An immediate access to independent housing and support from a mental health team resulted in decreased inpatient days, higher housing stability and cost savings in homeless persons with SCZ or BP disorders.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15963, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994460

RESUMO

Although previous findings identified an association between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and impaired cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), little is currently known about the relationship between inflammation, cognition, and sex in SZ. The current study aimed to explore the association between peripheral inflammation and cognitive impairment in SZ as a function of sex. The sample included 132 clinically stable patients with SZ, of whom 82 were males (62.1%) and 50 females (37.9%). Sociodemographic data were collected, an accurate assessment was performed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), and Calgary Depression (CDS) scales, and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and CRP levels were tested. A Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses, including potential confounding factors, were performed. We found an inverse association between CRP levels and performance on visual learning (r = - 0.386, p = 0.006) domain in female patients only, whereas no correlations were found in males. The regression model for women retained age (ß = - 0.319, p = 0.017), the CAINS-MAP score (ß = - 0.247, p = 0.070), and the CRP (ß = - 0.321, p = 0.013) as predictors of visual learning. Our results suggest the possible existence of sex-specific modulation of the association between systemic inflammation and the cognitive features of the illness.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Aprendizagem , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 74-77, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193251

RESUMO

El síndrome de Usher (SU) es una enfermedad caracterizada por una alteración importante de la audición y de la visión. Se trata de la causa hereditaria más frecuente de presentación de sordera junto con ceguera, pudiendo afectar también al equilibrio. Se ha observado la asociación con diversas enfermedades mentales, destacando entre ellas la esquizofrenia. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 50 años de edad con SU tipo II, sin antecedentes personales de enfermedad psiquiátrica, que presenta desorganización conductual, alteraciones sensoperceptivas y del contenido y forma del pensamiento. La aparición de psicosis está descrita con frecuencia en estos pacientes, siendo su identificación precoz, esencial para un abordaje integral


Usher syndrome is an illness mainly characterized by a significant impairment of hearing and vision. It is the most common inherited cause of deafness along with blindness, and it may also affect balance. An association with various mental disorders has been observed, particularly with schizophrenia. We are reporting the case of a 50-year-old patient with Usher syndrome type II, without previous history of psychiatric disorder, who presents with behavioural disorganization, sensory-perceptual disturbances and alterations in form and content of thought. Psychosis is often described in patients Usher syndrome, and its early detection is essential to a comprehensive approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Síndromes de Usher/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Palmitato de Paliperidona/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem
13.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 726-730, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734737

RESUMO

Language disorganization, an objective component of formal thought process abnormality, has been regarded as a core symptom of schizophrenia from an evolutionary psychopathology perspective. However, to the best of our knowledge, the network structure of language disorganization has rarely been examined in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, our preliminary study aimed to evaluate the network structure using the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG) in 167 inpatients with schizophrenia. All 17 of the CLANG items were considered to be ordered categorical variables ranging from 0 to 3. Our results indicated that disclosure failure, excess syntactic constraints, abnormal prosody, and aprosodic speech rank among the top five central domains within the network structure. We deemed that disclosure failure and prosody problems are the most important symptoms of language disorder in schizophrenia. Thus, reduced top-down processing of linguistic information may be a core neurobiological underpinning of language disorganization in schizophrenia. Further studies controlling for the potential effects of confounding factors (i.e., duration of illness) on network analyses of language disorder and formal thought disorder are warranted in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(8): 520-526, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641633

RESUMO

A 46 year-old man with schizophrenia had taken several anti-psychotic drugs since 25 years of age. From ~35 years of age, he noticed occasional neck torsion to the left, and later an ataxic gait; both symptoms gradually worsened. On admission, the patient was taking olanzapine (5 mg/day) and biperiden hydrochloride (1 mg/day) because his schizophrenia was well controlled. His parents were not consanguineous, and there was no family history of neuropsychiatric diseases. On neurological examination, he showed mild cognitive impairment, saccadic eye pursuit with horizontal gaze nystagmus, mild dysarthria, dystonic posture and movement of the neck, incoordination of both hands, and an ataxic gait. Deep tendon reflexes were normal except for the patellar tendon reflex, which was exaggerated bilaterally. Pathological reflexes were negative and there was no sign of rigidity, sensory disturbance or autonomic dysfunction. Ophthalmological examinations detected thinning of the outer macula lutea in both eyes, indicative of macular dystrophy. After admission, all anti-psychotic drugs were ceased, but his dystonia was unchanged. Levodopa and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride were not effective. General blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid examinations showed no abnormalities. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy and bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions without brainstem atrophy or abnormal signals in the basal ganglia. I123-IMP SPECT also revealed a decreased blood flow in the cerebellum. Genetic screening, including whole exome sequencing conducted by the Initiative on Rare and Undiagnosed Disease identified no possible disease-causing variants. The patient's dystonia worsened and choreic movements manifested on his right hand and foot. We suspected dystonia with marked cerebellar atrophy (DYTCA), but could not exclude drug-induced dystonia. Macular dystrophy and bilateral thalamic lesions on brain MRI have not been previously described in DYTCA. Whether these features might be primarily associated with dystonia or cerebellar ataxia now remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Ataxia Cerebelar/etiologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Distonia Muscular Deformante/etiologia , Distonia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/etiologia , Biperideno/efeitos adversos , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Distonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Distonia Muscular Deformante/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço , Olanzapina/efeitos adversos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify inequalities in cancer survival rates for patients with a history of severe psychiatric illness (SPI) compared to those with no history of mental illness and explore differences in the provision of recommended cancer treatment as a potential explanation. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study using linked cancer registry and administrative data at ICES. SETTING: The universal healthcare system in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients diagnosed between April 1st, 2007 and December 31st, 2012. SPI history (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, other psychotic disorders, bipolar disorders or major depressive disorders) was determined using hospitalization, emergency department, and psychiatrist visit data and categorized as 'no history of mental illness, 'outpatient SPI history', and 'inpatient SPI history'. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer-specific survival, non-receipt of surgical resection, and non-receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation. RESULTS: 24,507 CRC patients were included; 482 (2.0%) had an outpatient SPI history and 258 (1.0%) had an inpatient SPI history. Individuals with an SPI history had significantly lower survival rates and were significantly less likely to receive guideline recommended treatment than CRC patients with no history of mental illness. The adjusted HR for cancer-specific death was 1.69 times higher for individuals with an inpatient SPI (95% CI 1.36-2.09) and 1.24 times higher for individuals with an outpatient SPI history (95% CI 1.04-1.48). Stage II and III CRC patients with an inpatient SPI history were 2.15 times less likely (95% CI 1.07-4.33) to receive potentially curative surgical resection and 2.07 times less likely (95% CI 1.72-2.50) to receive adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy. These findings were consistent across multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with an SPI history experience inequalities in colorectal cancer care and survival within a universal healthcare system. Increasing advocacy and the availability of resources to support individuals with an SPI within the cancer system are warranted to reduce the potential for unnecessary harm.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia
18.
Psychopathology ; 53(2): 111-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645704

RESUMO

The presence of hoarding behavior among patients with schizophrenia has been known for more than a century. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined the hoarding phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia, and no studies have examined the potential motivation. Hoarding disorder became a separate diagnosis in DSM-5. Studies about hoarding disorder use primarily quantitative approaches (e.g., scales, self-administered questionnaires, and structured interviews) when assessing the patients. The main objectives of this study were to examine the meaning of hoarding for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to explore associated psychopathology which may motivate the hoarding. We have examined 13 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders showing hoarding behavior. The patients underwent semistructured, narrative interviews about the following domains: the time of onset of hoarding, the meaning of hoarding and associated psychopathology, the presence of insight into hoarding, and problematic issues about discarding. The study shows that hoarding begins very early in life for these patients and can be motivated by various psychopathologies. Diminished sense of basic self and transitivistic experiences were mentioned by several patients as motivations for collecting objects. Furthermore, the difficulty with discarding reflected a huge ambivalence and ruminations. Our findings suggest that thorough and comprehensive assessments of people with hoarding symptoms are necessary to assure the correct diagnosis and to understand the patient. An increased knowledge of the patients' motivations for hoarding behavior may also be useful for the treating personnel and may prevent social adversities. We think it is questionable that in the DSM-5 hoarding is not mentioned in the description of schizophrenia but has been elevated to a separate disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(7): 586-597, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631695

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are currently among the most common psychiatric disorders, known to constitute a serious public health issue in terms of morbidity, mortality and functional handicap. Their pathophysiology is still unclear, but there is now increasing evidence supporting the existence of abnormalities of neurotransmission. As the retina is an extension of the central nervous system, it may be an interesting site of study which might provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have demonstrated retinal abnormalities, with abnormal cone and rod responses on electroretinography (ERG), suggesting a process of functional neuronal loss, structurally supported by a decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), which suggests involvement of the molecular signal pathways of neurotransmission. These tests could be useful tools for diagnosing and monitoring psychiatric disorders. This article is an overview of the literature on retinal abnormalities observed in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, and discusses how they could be pathophysiologic markers.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Eletrorretinografia , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Retina/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(6)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599774

RESUMO

COVID-19 became a global pandemic in early 2020. While well known for its pulmonary manifestations, the virus also has a number of cardiac manifestations as well. Takotsubo syndrome has scarcely been reported in patients with COVID-19, but it is possible that the cytokine storm associated with the infection can trigger Takotsubo syndrome in patients with underlying risk factors for Takotsubo (emotional distress, physical distress, history of psychiatric disorders).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/sangue , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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