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2.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(9-10): 311-316, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035417

RESUMO

Background and purpose: This research focused on the knowledge and attitude toward to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the general population of Hungary. There are only a few studies in the international literature focusing on the public's attitude towards ECT, and no such study has been published from Hungary. Methods: Participants were reached through social media and asked to fill out a semi-structured questionnaire on internet that comprised seventeen questions. Participation in the survey was entirely voluntary and anonymous. Participants of the survey were not working in health care; their answers to the questionnaire were compared to those of health-care workers. Results: The result showed a significant difference between healthcare workers' and lay people's knowledge and attitude towards ECT. Two third of lay participants have never heard about ECT. Those familiar with ECT were relatively well-informed about its certain aspects yet rejection of ECT was significantly higher in the group of lay participants than in health-care workers. Conclusion: Lay people's incomplete knowledge and negative attitude towards ECT was confirmed by this survey. The dissemination of reliable information - which should be the shared responsibility of mental health professionals and the media - would be vitally important to disperse the prejudices and doubts about ECT.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Opinião Pública , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Atitude , Humanos , Hungria , Internet , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 70-74, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present retrospective study is aimed at exploring the impact of gender differences in a sample of inpatients with dual diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out at the Psychiatric Service of the General Hospital/University of Perugia (Italy). Patients were recruited from January 2015 until December 2018. The sample consists of patients with dual diagnosis, divided into two subgroups based on gender; descriptive and bivariate statistics were performed (p<0.05). Male and females were compared according to socio-demographic, clinical and psychopathological features, measured by Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and factor models of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). RESULTS: In our sample (n=157), no significant differences in socio-demographic features were found between male (n=108, 68.8%) and female subjects (n=49, 31.2%). Women displayed a higher frequency of involuntary hospitalizations (53.1% vs 32.4%, p=0.022) and a higher score on the general psychopathology scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (41.86±8.96 vs 36.54±10.38, p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the prevalence of dual diagnosis in the male gender. Female sex appears more frequently connected to some indices of clinical severity. We expect to enlarge our sample to confirm these results and further clarify the knowledge on the subject.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Esquizofrenia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 88-92, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study reports preliminary results from the multicentre project on the approbation of the Russian language version of the "The Communication Checklist-Self Report" (RL-CC-SR) and its first use in schizophrenia (SZ), aiming to evaluate the contribution of language disturbances in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study evaluated patients' clinical state with the Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP), and assessed language and communication disturbances (LCD) with the RL-CC-SR in all participants (213 healthy controls (HC), 83 SZ patients, 31 SZ first-degree relatives). Data from the current sample of SZ (n=50), and HC (n=213) was analysed to calculate the relationships between LCD, social and clinical variables using descriptive statistics methods, T-test and Pearson's correlations (SPSS-26, 2019). RESULTS: The quotient scores (<6) and raw scores on all three CC-SR subscales demonstrated prominent LCD in SZ: (i) language structure (LS) (SZ:11.92±8.01, HC:7.54±5.91; p<0.001), (ii) pragmatic skills (PS) (SZ:11.30±10.07, HC:8.71±7.39; p=0.040), (iii) social engagement (SE) (SZ:31.94±11.76, HC:19.42±10.35; p<0.001). In SZ, Pearson correlations of LS scores were significant for the DIP-items Odd Speech (p=0.033), and Social Engagement - Blunted Affect (p=0.042). PS was related to early disease onset (p=0.027), poor premorbid work adjustment (p=0.003), along with LS (p=0.005), and was also linked to poor premorbid social adjustment (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: SZ patients are aware of their LCD at all levels of language structure, pragmatics, and nonverbal communication, but are unable to compensate. Disturbances of LS and PS in SZ patients relate to their poor social adjustment and functioning, and may prove to be associated with the primary negative symptoms domain of the disorder and its generally poor outcome.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Esquizofrenia , Autorrelato , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Ajustamento Social
6.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 74-77, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193251

RESUMO

El síndrome de Usher (SU) es una enfermedad caracterizada por una alteración importante de la audición y de la visión. Se trata de la causa hereditaria más frecuente de presentación de sordera junto con ceguera, pudiendo afectar también al equilibrio. Se ha observado la asociación con diversas enfermedades mentales, destacando entre ellas la esquizofrenia. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 50 años de edad con SU tipo II, sin antecedentes personales de enfermedad psiquiátrica, que presenta desorganización conductual, alteraciones sensoperceptivas y del contenido y forma del pensamiento. La aparición de psicosis está descrita con frecuencia en estos pacientes, siendo su identificación precoz, esencial para un abordaje integral


Usher syndrome is an illness mainly characterized by a significant impairment of hearing and vision. It is the most common inherited cause of deafness along with blindness, and it may also affect balance. An association with various mental disorders has been observed, particularly with schizophrenia. We are reporting the case of a 50-year-old patient with Usher syndrome type II, without previous history of psychiatric disorder, who presents with behavioural disorganization, sensory-perceptual disturbances and alterations in form and content of thought. Psychosis is often described in patients Usher syndrome, and its early detection is essential to a comprehensive approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Síndromes de Usher/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Palmitato de Paliperidona/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 210-213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796786

RESUMO

The auditory N1 component has been gaining interest as a possible biomarker in schizophrenia (SCZ). N1 to right (RE) and left ear (LE) amplitudes and latencies were assessed using a monoaural auditory oddball paradigm in 12 SCZ subjects and 15 matched healthy controls (M=40.1±8.53 and 39.4±7.73, respectively). T-student test revealed no differences between RE and LE stimulation for N1 amplitude and latency to both groups. However, there were differences in peak-to-peak N1 amplitudes between the two groups for both LE (t=-3.067; ρ=0.003) and RE (t=-2.794; ρ=0.007). These findings strengthen auditory N1 has an electrophysiological biomarker for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Esquizofrenia , Biomarcadores , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
9.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(7): 586-597, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631695

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are currently among the most common psychiatric disorders, known to constitute a serious public health issue in terms of morbidity, mortality and functional handicap. Their pathophysiology is still unclear, but there is now increasing evidence supporting the existence of abnormalities of neurotransmission. As the retina is an extension of the central nervous system, it may be an interesting site of study which might provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have demonstrated retinal abnormalities, with abnormal cone and rod responses on electroretinography (ERG), suggesting a process of functional neuronal loss, structurally supported by a decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), which suggests involvement of the molecular signal pathways of neurotransmission. These tests could be useful tools for diagnosing and monitoring psychiatric disorders. This article is an overview of the literature on retinal abnormalities observed in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, and discusses how they could be pathophysiologic markers.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Eletrorretinografia , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Retina/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
10.
Nervenarzt ; 91(9): 799-807, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is common practice to inform patients about causes and treatment models when starting psychiatric treatment or psychotherapy for schizophrenia. However, previous research indicates that focusing on etiological models increases stigmatizing beliefs. This raises the question of whether contemporary, medical or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based treatment models share this negative side effect. AIM: This experiment tested whether providing information about medical vs. CBT-based vs. combined treatment models affects stigmatizing attitudes towards schizophrenia and the expected efficacy of these treatments. METHODS: Participants received a case vignette of a person with schizophrenia including either: (1) no treatment details, or a description of treatment with (2) medication, (3) CBT, or (4) medication and CBT. Next, stigmatizing attitudes (stereotypes, affective reactions, and desired social distance) were assessed and participants rated the perceived effectiveness of different treatment methods. RESULTS: No treatment model showed an effect on stigmatizing attitudes. Medical and CBT treatment information (alone or in combination) had a positive effect on subjective efficacy ratings for the respective treatment. CONCLUSION: There appear to be no negative side effects of (biogenetic) models when presented in a context emphasizing recovery. Moreover, medication and CBT treatment information showed additive positive effects on the rating of treatment strategies. A combined treatment model integrating various evidence-based methods appears to be most useful in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Motivação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Distância Social , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 344, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amotivation is regarded as a core negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia. There are currently no objective methods for assessing and measuring amotivation in the scientific literature, only a trend towards assessing motivation using effort-orientated, decision-making tasks. However, it remains inconclusive as to whether cognitive effort-avoidance in patients with schizophrenia can reflect their amotivation. Therefore, this study aimed to find out whether cognitive effort-avoidance in patients with schizophrenia can reflect their amotivation. METHODS: In total, 28 patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls were selected as participants. The demand selection task (DST) was adapted according to the feedback-based Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) delayed response paradigm, which was combined with the mean amplitude of contingent negative variation (CNV), considered as the criterion of motivation. RESULTS: Our results showed that: (1) patients with schizophrenia showed a lower CNV amplitude for the target stimuli compared to the probe stimuli, whereas the control group showed the opposite trend (P < 0.05); (2) among patients with schizophrenia, the high cognitive effort-avoidance group showed a smaller CNV amplitude for the target stimuli compared to the probe stimuli, whereas the low cognitive effort avoidance group showed a higher CNV amplitude for the target stimuli compared to the probe stimuli; the opposite trend was observed in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings support the claim that CNV amplitude can be used as a criterion for detecting amotivation in patients with schizophrenia. Within the context of the DST, the high and low cognitive effort-avoidance of patients with schizophrenia can reflect their state of amotivation; patients with high cognitive effort-avoidance showed severe amotivation.


Assuntos
Apatia/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Variação Contingente Negativa , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
12.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(6): 387-397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557467

RESUMO

In Germany, psychoses are still diagnosed too late. The average duration of untreated psychosis is (DUP) one year. Early intervention should, therefore, be given higher priority. The shorter the duration of the DUP, the higher the probability of permanent recovery and a better long-term prognosis. Public education work and specialised early detection centres with low-threshold access can improve care and thus the prospects of patients, mostly young, and already in the early phase of the disease. In addition to anti-psychotic therapy, evidence-based psychotherapeutic procedures, family and peer work, as well as accompanying offers are necessary to support patients individually in being or remaining reintegrated into the labour market ("Individual Placement and Support", IPS). While in some countries, such as Denmark and Australia, the possibility of early intervention is already part of standard care, Germany has not yet gone beyond model projects. Changing this must be one of the main objectives for the coming years. With this review, the authors would therefore like to encourage further thinking and action.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos
13.
Metas enferm ; 23(5): 15-21, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194588

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: conocer qué piensan y sienten las personas con esquizofrenia ante la autopercepción del estigma de su enfermedad. MÉTODO: se realizó un estudio cualitativo con enfoque fenomenológico. La población de estudio fueron los usuarios del Centro de Día de la Asociación Morea (Asociación de familiares y enfermos mentales) de Ourense. El muestreo fue intencional, seleccionándose siete personas mayores de edad con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia (DMS-5), con una evolución mínima de dos años. Para la recogida de los datos se utilizó entrevista semiestructurada individual (dos entrevistas consecutivas al mismo sujeto), efecuada por dos entrevistadores, que fueron grabadas y transcritas. Se llevó a cabo análisis temático (identificación y categorización de los principales ejes de significado subyacentes en los datos). RESULTADOS: tras el análisis de las entrevistas se detectaron cinco categorías temáticas: "culpabilidad", "roles sociales", "miedo al rechazo y peligrosidad", "responsabilidad" y "pérdida de capacidades y control". Todos los participantes son conscientes de su enfermedad, de su cronicidad y de que tendrán que tomar tratamiento de por vida. Manifiestan haber perdido relaciones con amigos e incluso familia a raíz de su enfermedad. La mayoría percibe que el resto de la población les tiene miedo. Todos consideran que la enfermedad les ha hecho perder capacidades como la memoria, la atención y la autonomía para algunas facetas de la vida. CONCLUSIONES: las personas con esquizofrenia se sienten estigmatizadas por la sociedad. A colación de los resultados obtenidos parece necesario aumentar la información y educación en la población para disminuir el estigma y los prejuicios hacia las personas que padecen esquizofrenia y poder así facilitar su plena integración en la sociedad


OBJECTIVE: to understand the feelings and thoughts of people with schizophrenia faced with their own perception of the stigma associated with their disease. METHODS: a qualitative study with phenomenological approach. The study population was the users of the Morea Association Day Centre (Association of mental patients and relatives) in Ourense. The sample was intentional, and seven persons of age with diagnosis of schizophrenia were selected (DMS-5), with a minimum two-year evolution. Individual semi-structured interview was used for data collection (two consecutive interviews with the same subject), conducted by two interviewers, which were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted (identification and classification of the main axes of meaning underlying in data). RESULTS: after the analysis of the interviews, five thematic categories were detected: "guilt", "social roles", "fear of rejection and danger", "responsibility" and "loss of abilities and control". All participants were aware of their disease, its chronicity and that they would have to take life-long treatment. They stated that they had lost contact with friends and even relatives due to their disease. Most of them perceived that the rest of the population was afraid of them. All of them considered that their disease had led them to lose abilities such as memory, attention, and independence for some aspects in life. CONCLUSIONS: people with schizophrenia feel stigmatized by society. Based on the results obtained, it seems necessary to increase information and education among the population in order to reduce the stigma and prejudices towards people who suffer schizophrenia, and thus facilitate their complete integration into the society


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Emoções , Estereotipagem , Esquizofrenia/enfermagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Deficiência Intelectual/enfermagem , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Rejeição em Psicologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2889, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514083

RESUMO

Inhibitory interneurons orchestrate information flow across the cortex and are implicated in psychiatric illness. Although interneuron classes have unique functional properties and spatial distributions, the influence of interneuron subtypes on brain function, cortical specialization, and illness risk remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate stereotyped negative correlation of somatostatin and parvalbumin transcripts within human and non-human primates. Cortical distributions of somatostatin and parvalbumin cell gene markers are strongly coupled to regional differences in functional MRI variability. In the general population (n = 9,713), parvalbumin-linked genes account for an enriched proportion of heritable variance in in-vivo functional MRI signal amplitude. Single-marker and polygenic cell deconvolution establish that this relationship is spatially dependent, following the topography of parvalbumin expression in post-mortem brain tissue. Finally, schizophrenia genetic risk is enriched among interneuron-linked genes and predicts cortical signal amplitude in parvalbumin-biased regions. These data indicate that the molecular-genetic basis of brain function is shaped by interneuron-related transcripts and may capture individual differences in schizophrenia risk.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Parvalbuminas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Somatostatina/genética , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Interneurônios/citologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 58(7): 387-394, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The great discrepancy between clinical guidelines and the routine psychiatric practice in the treatment of schizophrenia is a subject of intensive research, with the aim to promote the rational prescribing of antipsychotics. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of drug prescribing in the treatment of inpatients with the first episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and the impact of the implementation of the Serbian National Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinic for Mental Disorders "Dr Laza Lazarevic" in Belgrade and included a consecutive sample of 675 previously drug-naïve patients with the first episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The data were obtained from the patients' medical records. The analysis of therapy prescribed at discharge included antipsychotics and non-antipsychotic adjuvant therapy. Descriptive statistical methods and methods for testing statistical hypotheses were used to analyze the primary data. RESULTS: The prescribing of second-generation antipsychotics has increased both within antipsychotic monotherapy and within antipsychotic polypharmacy during the period of the study. The use of adjuvant non-antipsychotic pharmacotherapy was very common, but use of benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, and anticholinergic drugs significantly decreased. Long-acting forms of antipsychotics have been rarely used (9.3%). Clozapine was in general underprescribed (10.4%). CONCLUSION: The National Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Schizophrenia most likely contributed to some positive changes in prescribing patterns during the treatment of the first psychotic episode in daily clinical practice in Serbia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy and irrational use of adjuvant therapy was still prevalent.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sérvia
17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e132, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460950

RESUMO

AIMS: Decades of research show that people with schizophrenia have an increased risk of death from cancer; however, the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer incidence remains less clear. This population-based study investigates the incidence of seven common types of cancer among people with a hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia and accounting for the effects of age, sex and calendar time. METHODS: This population-based study used 1990-2013 data from three nationwide Swedish registries to calculate the incidence (in total, by age group and by sex) of any cancer and of lung, oesophageal, pancreatic, stomach, colon, (in men) prostate and (in women) breast cancer in 111 306 people with a hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia. The incidence in people with diagnosed schizophrenia was compared with the incidence in the general population. Risk estimates accounted for the effects of calendar time. RESULTS: In 1 424 829 person-years of follow-up, schizophrenia did not confer an overall higher cancer risk (IRR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.13) but was associated with a higher risk for female breast (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.12-1.26), lung (IRR 1.42, 95% CI 1.28-1.58), oesophageal (IRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46) and pancreatic (IRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.21) and a lower risk of prostate (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.55-0.79) cancer. Some age- and sex-specific differences in risk were observed. CONCLUSIONS: People with schizophrenia do not have a higher overall incidence of cancer than people in the general population. However, there are significant differences in the risk of specific cancer types overall and by sex calling for efforts to develop disease-specific prevention programmes. In people with schizophrenia, higher risk generally occurs in those <75 years.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Distribuição por Sexo , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(5): e157-e166, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381369

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are currently among the most common psychiatric disorders, known to constitute a serious public health issue in terms of morbidity, mortality and functional handicap. Their pathophysiology is still unclear, but there is now increasing evidence supporting the existence of abnormalities of neurotransmission. As the retina is an extension of the central nervous system, it may be an interesting site of study which might provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have demonstrated retinal abnormalities, with abnormal cone and rod responses on electroretinography (ERG), suggesting a process of functional neuronal loss, structurally supported by a decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), which suggests involvement of the molecular signal pathways of neurotransmission. These tests could be useful tools for diagnosing and monitoring psychiatric disorders. This article is an overview of the literature on retinal abnormalities observed in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, and discusses how they could be pathophysiologic markers.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Eletrorretinografia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
19.
Hum Genet ; 139(10): 1285-1297, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385526

RESUMO

During the past decade, genetic studies of schizophrenia have become one of the most exciting and fast-moving areas. Hundreds of genes implicated in schizophrenia have been identified by genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression studies. However, how to systematically and efficiently use these published data to pinpoint the causal genes becomes a major challenge in schizophrenia research. Here, we release an updated version of a comprehensive database for schizophrenia research, SZDB2.0 ( www.szdb.org ), which accompanies significant data expansion and feature improvements, as well as functionality optimization. Compared with the first version (SZDB), the current database has the following updates: (1) We added the newly published genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia from CLOZUK + PGC, which is the largest GWAS for schizophrenia; (2) We included a polygenic risk score calculator; (3) In the refined "Gene" module of SZDB2.0, we collated genetic, gene expression, methylation, and integrative results of all available schizophrenia studies; (4) In the "CNV (copy number variation)" module, we collated the results of all 77 CNV publications about schizophrenia; (5) We also updated other data, including gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), transcript QTL, methylation QTL, and protein-protein interaction data, based on the information from the latest literatures. We optimized the query interface of SZDB2.0 for a better visualization and data retrieval. The updated SZDB2.0 will advance the research of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Esquizofrenia/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Ontologia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112989, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315882

RESUMO

The finding that the drug KarXT, a formulation of xanomeline and tropsium which targets muscarinic receptors, has given a positive result in reducing the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a phase II trial suggests targeting muscarinic receptors is a new approach to treating the disorder. This review will detail the synergistic interplay between studies to understand the role of muscarinic receptors in the aetiology of schizophrenia and drug development and how this has supported the hypothesis that activating the muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors is critical to the efficacy of KarXT, in schizophrenia. The discovery of an intermediate phenotype within schizophrenia which is characterised by the presence of a marked loss of cortical muscarinic M1 receptors will be reviewed. Highlighted will be progress in understanding the biochemistry of that intermediate phenotype and evidence to suggest that those with the intermediate phenotype may resist treatment with agonist to the orthosteric site on the muscarinic M1 and M4 receptor. Finally, the possibility of using drugs targeting the allosteric binding sites on muscarinic receptors to treat schizophrenia will be discussed. This timely review will therefore highlight how research can influence hypothesis driven drug discovery that should produce new treatments for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Agonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Receptor Muscarínico M1/agonistas , Receptor Muscarínico M4/agonistas , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
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