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1.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demografia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
2.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 24-35, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maternal schizophrenia is linked to complications in offspring near the time of birth. Whether there is also a higher future risk of the child having a complex chronic condition (CCC) - a pediatric condition affecting any bodily system expected to last at least 12 months that is severe enough to require specialty care and/or a period of hospitalization - is not known. METHODS: In this population-based health administrative data cohort study (Ontario, Canada, 1995-2018), the risk for CCC was compared in 5066 children of women with schizophrenia (the exposed) vs. 2,939,320 unexposed children. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were generated for occurrence of any CCC, by CCC category, and stratified by child sex, and child prematurity. RESULTS: CCC was more frequent in the exposed (7.7 per 1000 person-years [268 children]) than unexposed (4.2 per 100 person-years [124,452 children]) - an aHR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.10-1.41). aHRs were notably higher in 5 of 9 CCC categories: neuromuscular (1.73, 1.28-2.33), cardiovascular (1.94, 1.64-2.29), respiratory (1.83, 1.32-2.54), hematology/immunodeficiency (2.24, 1.24-4.05) and other congenital or genetic defect (1.59, 1.16-2.17). The aHR for CCC was more pronounced among boys (1.32, 1.13-1.55) than girls (1.16, 0.96-1.40), and of similar magnitude in term (1.22, 1.05-1.42) and preterm infants (1.18, 0.95-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a CCC appears to be higher in children born to women with schizophrenia. This finding introduces opportunities for targeted preconception counselling, optimization of maternal risk factors, and intervention to support a vulnerable parent population who will experience unique challenges caring for a child with CCCs.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Ontário , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Med ; 19(4): e1003960, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe mental illness (SMI; schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (BDs), and other nonorganic psychoses) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related mortality. To date, no systematic review has investigated changes in population level CVD-related mortality over calendar time. It is unclear if this relationship has changed over time in higher-income countries with changing treatments. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this gap, a systematic review was conducted, to assess the association between SMI and CVD including temporal change. Seven databases were searched (last: November 30, 2021) for cohort or case-control studies lasting ≥1 year, comparing frequency of CVD mortality or incidence in high-income countries between people with versus without SMI. No language restrictions were applied. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to compute pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and rate ratios, pooled standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), pooled odds ratios (ORs), and pooled risk ratios (RRs) of CVD in those with versus without SMI. Temporal trends were explored by decade. Subgroup analyses by age, sex, setting, world region, and study quality (Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) score) were conducted. The narrative synthesis included 108 studies, and the quantitative synthesis 59 mortality studies (with (≥1,841,356 cases and 29,321,409 controls) and 28 incidence studies (≥401,909 cases and 14,372,146 controls). The risk of CVD-related mortality for people with SMI was higher than controls across most comparisons, except for total CVD-related mortality for BD and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) for mixed SMI. Estimated risks were larger for schizophrenia than BD. Pooled results ranged from SMR = 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33 to 1.81, p < 0.001), for CVA in people with BD to HR/rate ratio = 2.40 (95% CI: 2.25 to 2.55, p < 0.001) for CVA in schizophrenia. For schizophrenia and BD, SMRs and pooled HRs/rate ratios for CHD and CVD mortality were larger in studies with outcomes occurring during the 1990s and 2000s than earlier decades (1980s: SMR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.30, p = 0.71; 2000s: SMR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.93 to 3.47, p < 0.001 for schizophrenia and CHD) and in studies including people with younger age. The incidence of CVA, CVD events, and heart failure in SMI was higher than controls. Estimated risks for schizophrenia ranged from HR/rate ratio 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.51, p = 0.016) for total CVD events to rate ratio 3.82 (95% CI: 3.1 to 4.71, p < 0.001) for heart failure. Incidence of CHD was higher in BD versus controls. However, for schizophrenia, CHD was elevated in higher-quality studies only. The HR/rate ratios for CVA and CHD were larger in studies with outcomes occurring after the 1990s. Study limitations include the high risk of bias of some studies as they drew a comparison cohort from general population rates and the fact that it was difficult to exclude studies that had overlapping populations, although attempts were made to minimise this. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that SMI was associated with an approximate doubling in the rate ratio of CVD-related mortality, particularly since the 1990s, and in younger groups. SMI was also associated with increased incidence of CVA and CHD relative to control participants since the 1990s. More research is needed to clarify the association between SMI and CHD and ways to mitigate this risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 154, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410453

RESUMO

Schizophrenia affects >3.2 million people in the USA. However, its comorbidity patterns have not been systematically characterized in real-world populations. To address this gap, we conducted an observational study using a cohort of 86 million patients in a nationwide health insurance dataset. We identified participants with schizophrenia and those without schizophrenia matched by age, sex, and the first three digits of zip code. For each phenotype encoded in phecodes, we compared their prevalence in schizophrenia patients and the matched non-schizophrenic participants, and we performed subgroup analyses stratified by age and sex. Results show that anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse commonly occur in adolescents and young adults prior to schizophrenia diagnoses. Patients aged 60 and above are at higher risks of developing delirium, alcoholism, dementia, pelvic fracture, and osteomyelitis than their matched controls. Type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and eating disorders were more prevalent in women prior to schizophrenia diagnosis, whereas acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and developmental delays were found at higher rates in men. Anxiety and obesity are more commonly seen in patients with schizoaffective disorders compared to patients with other types of schizophrenia. Leveraging a large-scale insurance claims dataset, this study identified less-known comorbidity patterns of schizophrenia and confirmed known ones. These comorbidity profiles can guide clinicians and researchers to take heed of early signs of co-occurring diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Comorbidade , Análise de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 742474, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432207

RESUMO

Background: It is well known that schizophrenia is associated with sex differences. However, no study has explored the sex differences in obesity and cognitive function in elderly Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Objective: This study aimed to compare sex differences in obesity and cognitive function in elderly Chinese individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 304 elderly patients with schizophrenia and 130 sex- and age-matched healthy controls from the community were recruited. Demographic, clinical, and lipid parameters were collected for all subjects. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to assess the global cognitive functions of the participants, while the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathological symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Of the patients with schizophrenia, the prevalence of obesity in men and women was 11.7% (19/163) and 21.3% (30/141), respectively. The score (14.51 ± 6.504) of MOCA in elderly male patients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that (11.40 ± 6.822) in female patients. There was a positive correlation between the MOCA scores and body mass index (BMI) (r=0.206, p=0.018) in male elderly patients with schizophrenia. Conversely, the MOCA scores of female elderly patients with schizophrenia did not correlate with BMI (p>0.05). However, we found no sex differences in obesity and cognition among control older adults. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are significant sex differences in obesity and cognitive function in elderly Chinese patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432701

RESUMO

Introduction: substance use disorders are becoming increasingly common among schizophrenic patients and often raise problems in their care. This work aims to assess the rate and level of substance use in schizophrenic patients hospitalized for relapse and to identify factors associated with this comorbidity. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of 115 patients with schizophrenia selected by convenience sampling in the Psychiatric Hospital of Salé. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, evolutionary and prognostic criteria of the disease. Tobacco use was assessed with the fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND), cannabis use was assessed with the cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) and alcohol use was assessed with the alcohol use disorders test (AUDIT). Results: the results showed that tobacco was the most consumed substance, followed by cannabis and alcohol. Certain factors such as gender (P<0.016) and family smoking history (P<0.045) were significantly associated with the scale (FTND). Other factors such as social life (P<0.05) and the educational level (P<0.004) showed a significant association with CAST. Only a history of suicide attempts was significantly associated with the scale (AUDIT). Conclusion: the results confirm that the majority of schizophrenic subjects are psychoactive substance users and that a good number of them are dependent on substances. Early outpatient follow-up in specialized drug treatment centers could improve the health status of these patients.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Marrocos , Recidiva , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 269, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its superiority over other drugs for psychosis, clozapine remains underused and is associated with many clinical challenges, including difficulties in predicting therapeutic serum levels (350-600 ng/mL). We found no large or recent study that investigated the determinants of serum clozapine levels in Middle Eastern patients. Therefore, we investigated the association between clozapine dose and serum level, and the clinical predictors of the clozapine serum level, in Middle Eastern patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 94 patients of Middle Eastern ethnicity who attended the Clozapine Clinic in King Saud University Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used a single measure of the serum clozapine level, which was collected 12 h after the last oral dose of clozapine under steady-state conditions. RESULTS: The average clozapine dose and serum level were 400 mg/daily and 705 ng/mL, respectively. The majority of patients (59.8%) had serum levels higher than 600 ng/mL. Clozapine dose and serum level were positively correlated (rs [94] = 0.32, p = 0.002). We generated a predictive model of the serum clozapine level, which revealed that the daily dose, smoking status, use of fluvoxamine or lamotrigine, and body mass index (BMI) predicted 43.6% of the variance in the serum level (p < 0.001). Using this model, we calculated that patients with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 would require a clozapine dose between 50 to 275 mg/daily if they were non-smokers, and a dose of 200 to 450 mg/daily if they were smokers, in order to reach a serum clozapine level between 350 to 600 ng/mL. Patients with higher BMI and those receiving fluvoxamine would require lower doses. CONCLUSIONS: This was a naturalistic study of the clozapine dose-level relationship and the clinical predictors of the serum clozapine level in a sample of Middle Eastern patients. The ratios of clozapine level to dose in our patients more closely resembled those reported in Asian samples than in European samples. These findings do not reduce the value of individualised therapeutic drug monitoring, but may assist clinicians when prescribing clozapine to Middle Eastern patients. Further psychopharmacological studies are needed on this demographic population.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Fluvoxamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e021444, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261265

RESUMO

Background To compare estimated 10-year and 30-year cardiovascular risk in primary care patients with and without serious mental illness (SMI; bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder). Methods and Results All patients aged 18 to 75 years with a primary care visit in January 2016 to September 2018 were included and were grouped into those with and without SMI using diagnosis codes. Ten-year cardiovascular risk was estimated using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease scores for patients aged 40 to 75 years without cardiovascular disease; 30-year cardiovascular risk was estimated using Framingham risk scores for patients aged 18 to 59 years without cardiovascular disease. Demographic, vital sign, medication, diagnosis, and health insurance data were collected from the electronic health record by a clinical decision support system. Descriptive statistics examined unadjusted differences, while general linear models examined differences for continuous variables and logistic regression models for categorical variables. Models were then adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and insurance type. A total of 11 333 patients with SMI and 579 924 patients without SMI were included. After covariate adjustment, 10-year cardiovascular risk was significantly higher in patients with SMI (mean, 9.44%; 95% CI, 9.29%-9.60%) compared with patients without SMI (mean, 7.99%; 95% CI, 7.97-8.02). Similarly, 30-year cardiovascular risk was significantly higher in those with SMI (25% of patients with SMI in the highest-risk group compared with 11% of patients without SMI; P<0.001). The individual cardiovascular risk factors contributing most to increased risk for those with SMI were elevated body mass index and smoking. Among SMI subtypes, patients with bipolar disorder had the highest 10-year cardiovascular risk, while patients with schizoaffective disorder had the highest 30-year cardiovascular risk. Conclusions The significantly increased cardiovascular risk associated with SMI is evident even in young adults. This suggests the importance of addressing uncontrolled major cardiovascular risk factors in those with SMI at as early an age as possible. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02451670.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 140(4): 373-381, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266979

RESUMO

Importance: Children with strabismus have poorer functional vision and decreased quality of life than those without strabismus. Objective: To evaluate the association between strabismus and mental illness among children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed claims data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a longitudinal deidentified commercial insurance claims database, from 12 005 189 patients enrolled in the health plan between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017. Eligibility criteria included age younger than 19 years at the time of strabismus diagnosis, enrollment in the health plan between 2007 and 2018, and having at least 1 strabismus claim based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Controls were children in the same database with no eye disease codes other than refractive error reported. Demographic characteristics and mental illness claims were compared. Statistical analysis was conducted from December 1, 2018, to July 31, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presence of mental illness claims. Results: Among the 12 005 189 patients (6 095 523 boys [50.8%]; mean [SD] age, 8.0 [5.9] years) in the study, adjusted odds ratios for the association of mental illnesses with strabismus were 2.01 (95% CI, 1.99-2.04) for anxiety disorder, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.76-1.90) for schizophrenia, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.59-1.70) for bipolar disorder, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.59-1.63) for depressive disorder, and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97-1.02) for substance use disorder. There was a moderate association between each strabismus type (esotropia, exotropia, and hypertropia) and anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; odds ratios ranged from 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.29) for the association between esotropia and bipolar disorder to 2.70 (95% CI, 2.66-2.74) for the association between exotropia and anxiety disorder. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study suggests that there was a moderate association between strabismus and anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder but not substance use disorder. Recognizing that these associations exist should encourage mental illness screening and treatment for patients with strabismus.


Assuntos
Esotropia , Exotropia , Esquizofrenia , Estrabismo , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264466, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275907

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the internalized stigma of mental illness in patients with schizophrenia visiting psychiatry outpatient in a tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to explore the associated sociodemographic and clinical factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, where participants were selected by purposive sampling from the outpatient department of psychiatry in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. One hundred and fourteen patients were selected and given the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale to complete to assess the level of stigma. A semi-structured sociodemographic form was used to get information on sociodemographic and clinical factors. Simple descriptive analysis was done followed by multivariate analysis to explore the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of stigma in these patients. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were included in the study. Moderate to high levels of internalized stigma was reported in almost 90% of patients with schizophrenia. The subscale with the highest mean score was stereotype endorsement and that with the lowest mean score was stigma resistance. Duration of illness was the only clinical variable associated with stigma while occupation was the only sociodemographic variable related to stigma. CONCLUSION: Moderate to high levels of internalized stigma were reported across all subscales of stigma in patients with schizophrenia and the prevalence was high. Further, duration of illness was associated with stigma. Stigma reduction should therefore be a component of the overall management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 194, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early detection of patients at risk of developing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and more broadly mood spectrum disorder, is a public health concern. The phenotypical overlap between the prodromes in these disorders calls for a simultaneous investigation into both illness trajectories. METHOD: This is an epidemiological, retrospective, multicentre, descriptive study conducted in the Grand-Est region of France in order to describe and compare early symptoms in 205 patients: 123 of which were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 82 with bipolar disorder or mood spectrum disorder. Data corresponding to the pre-morbid and prodromal phases, including a timeline of their onset, were studied in child and adolescent psychiatric records via a data grid based on the literature review conducted from birth to 17 years of age. RESULTS: Two distinct trajectories were highlighted. Patients with schizophrenia tended to present more difficulties at each developmental stage, with the emergence of negative and positive behavioural symptoms during adolescence. Patients with mood spectrum disorder, however, were more likely to exhibit anxiety and then mood-related symptoms. Overall, our results corroborate current literature findings and are consistent with the neurodevelopmental process. We succeeded in extracting a decision tree with good predictability based on variables relating to one diagnosis: 77.6% of patients received a well-indexed diagnosis. An atypical profile was observed in future mood spectrum disorder patients as some exhibited numerous positive symptoms alongside more conventional mood-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: The combination of all these data could help promote the early identification of high-risk patients thereby facilitating early prevention and appropriate intervention in order to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Criança , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220202, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254433

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Adults with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder, collectively termed serious mental illness (SMI), have shortened life spans compared with people without SMI. The leading cause of death is cardiovascular (CV) disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a clinical decision support (CDS) system aimed at primary care clinicians improves CV health for adult primary care patients with SMI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cluster randomized clinical trial conducted from March 2, 2016, to September 19, 2018, restricted randomization assigned 76 primary care clinics in 3 Midwestern health care systems to receive or not receive a CDS system aimed at improving CV health among patients with SMI. Eligible clinics had at least 20 patients with SMI; clinicians and their adult patients with SMI with at least 1 modifiable CV risk factor not at the goal set by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines were included. Statistical analysis was conducted on an intention-to-treat basis from January 10, 2019, to December 29, 2021. INTERVENTION: The CDS system assessed modifiable CV risk factors and provided personalized treatment recommendations to clinicians and patients. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Patient-level change in total modifiable CV risk over 12 months, summed from individual modifiable risk factors (smoking, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c level). RESULTS: A total of 80 clinics were randomized; 4 clinics were excluded for having fewer than 20 eligible patients, leaving 42 intervention clinics and 34 control clinics. A total of 8937 patients with SMI (4922 women [55.1%]; mean [SD] age, 48.4 [13.5] years) were enrolled. There was a 4% lower rate of increase in total modifiable CV risk among intervention patients relative to control patients (relative rate ratio [RR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98). The intervention favored patients who were 18 to 29 years of age (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.98) or 50 to 59 years of age (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96), Black (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.98), or White (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98). Men (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) and women (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), as well as patients with any SMI subtype (bipolar disorder: RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; schizoaffective disorder: RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.98; schizophrenia: RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99) also benefited from the intervention. Despite treatment effects favoring the intervention, there were no significant differences in individual modifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This CDS intervention resulted in a rate of change in total modifiable CV risk that was 4% lower among intervention patients compared with control patients. Results were driven by the cumulative effects of incremental and mostly nonsignificant changes in individual modifiable risk factors. These findings emphasize the value of using CDS to prompt early primary care intervention for adults with SMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02451670.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328011

RESUMO

Background: Patients with schizophrenia have an increased risk of depressive disorders compared to the general population. The comorbidity between schizophrenia and depression suggests a potential coincidence of the pathophysiology and/or genetic predictors of these mental disorders. The aim of this study was to review the potential genetic predictors of schizophrenia and depression comorbidity. Materials and Methods: We carried out research and analysis of publications in the databases PubMed, Springer, Wiley Online Library, Taylor & Francis Online, Science Direct, and eLIBRARY.RU using keywords and their combinations. The search depth was the last 10 years (2010-2020). Full-text original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical observations were analyzed. A total of 459 articles were found, of which 45 articles corresponding to the purpose of this study were analyzed in this topic review. Results: Overlap in the symptoms and genetic predictors between these disorders suggests that a common etiological mechanism may underlie the presentation of comorbid depression in schizophrenia. The molecular mechanisms linking schizophrenia and depression are polygenic. The most studied candidate genes are GRIN1, GPM6A, SEPTIN4, TPH1, TPH2, CACNA1C, CACNB2, and BCL9. Conclusion: Planning and conducting genome-wide and associative genetic studies of the comorbid conditions under consideration in psychiatry is important for the development of biological and clinical predictors and a personalized therapy strategy for schizophrenia. However, it should be recognized that the problems of predictive and personalized psychiatry in the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid disorders are far from being resolved.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(5): 353-362, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the most efficacious treatment for schizophrenia and is associated with lower overall mortality than are other antipsychotic drugs, despite the risk of agranulocytosis. Preliminary reports over the past 10 years suggest a possible risk of haematological malignancies, but the issue has remained unsettled. We aimed to study the risk of haematological malignancies associated with use of clozapine and other antipsychotics. METHODS: We did a nationwide case-control (and cohort) study of people with schizophrenia, using prospectively gathered data from Finnish national registers. A nested case-control study was constructed by individually matching cases of lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue malignancy with up to ten controls without cancer by age, sex, and time since first schizophrenia diagnosis. For the case-control study, we restricted inclusion criteria to malignancies diagnosed on a histological basis, and excluded individuals outside of the age range 18-85 years, and any patients that had a previous malignancy. Analyses were done using conditional logistic regression adjusting for comorbid conditions. FINDINGS: For the case-control study 516 patients with a first-time diagnosis of lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue malignancy during years 2000-17 and diagnosed after their first diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. 102 patients were excluded due to diagnosis that was without a histological basis, five patients were excluded because of their age, and 34 were excluded for a previous malignancy, resulting in 375 patients being matched to controls. We selected up to ten controls without cancer (3734 in total) for each case from the base cohort of people with schizophrenia. For the cohort study, data for 55 949 people were included for analysis. Cumulative incidence of haematological malignancies during the mean follow-up of 12·3 years (SD 6·5) was 102 (0·7%) cases among 13 712 patients who had used clozapine (corresponding to event rate of 61 cases per 100 000 person-years), and during mean follow-up of 12·9 years (SD 7·2) was 235 (0·5%) malignancies among 44 171 patients having used other antipsychotic medication than clozapine (corresponding to 41 cases per 100 000 person-years). Of the 375 individuals with haematological malignancies (305 lymphomas, 42 leukaemia, 22 myelomas, 6 unspecified) observed from 2000-17, 208 (55%) were males and 167 (45%) were female. Ethnicity data were not available. Compared with non-use of clozapine (most had used other antipsychotics and a few had used no antipsychotics), clozapine use was associated with increased odds of haematological malignancies in a dose-response manner (adjusted odds ratio 3·35, [95% CI 2·22-5·05] for ≥5000 defined daily dose cumulative exposure, p<0·0001). Exposure to other antipsychotic drugs was not associated with increased odds. A complementary analysis showed that the clozapine-related risk increase was specific for haematological malignancies, because no such finding was observed for other malignancies. Over 17 years of follow-up of the base cohort, 37 deaths occurred due to haematological malignancy among patients exposed to clozapine (26 with ongoing use at time of haematological malignancy diagnosis, and 11 in patients who did not use clozapine at the exact time of their cancer diagnosis), whereas only three deaths occurred due to agranulocytosis. INTERPRETATION: Unlike other antipsychotics, long-term clozapine use is associated with increased odds of haematological malignancies. Long-term clozapine use has a higher effect on mortality due to lymphoma and leukaemia than due to agranulocytosis. However, acknowledging that the absolute risk is small compared with the previously observed absolute risk reduction in all-cause mortality is important. Our results suggest that patients and caregivers should be informed about warning signs of haematological malignancies, and mental health clinicians should be vigilant for signs and symptoms of haematological malignancy in patients treated with clozapine. FUNDING: The Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and Academy of Finland.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose , Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Leucemia , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agranulocitose/induzido quimicamente , Agranulocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(9): 1192-1201, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder with increasing global prevalence. The risk of IBD in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. We aim to investigate the risk of new-onset IBD in patients with schizophrenia compared with matched controls. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study utilising patient data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database collected between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2011. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia by board-certified psychiatrists without prior diagnosis of IBD were enrolled and matched to controls in 1:4 fashion by age, sex, residence, income level and medical comorbidities. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for new-onset IBD and sub-analyses were determined using Cox regression analysis with adjustments. RESULTS: Among 116 164 patients with schizophrenia and 464 656 matched controls, overall incidence of IBD among patients was significantly higher (1.14% vs. 0.25%). Average age of IBD diagnosis was 46.82 among patients with schizophrenia, versus 55.30 among controls. The HR of developing IBD among patients was 3.28, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.49-4.33. IBD risk was higher among patients with psychiatric admissions more than once per year (HR 7.99, 95% CI 5.25-12.15) compared to those hospitalised less frequently (HR 2.72, 95% CI 2.03-3.66). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based cohort study demonstrates a significant association between schizophrenia and subsequent IBD development. Patients with schizophrenia develop IBD at a younger age, and the risk increases with inadequately controlled schizophrenia. Physician vigilance and awareness of this correlation will improve IBD diagnosis and management among this vulnerable patient population.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Esquizofrenia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 310: 114481, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235885

RESUMO

SETD1A has been identified as a substantial risk gene for schizophrenia. To further investigate the role of SETD1A in the genetic etiology of schizophrenia in the Japanese population, we performed resequencing and association analyses. First, we resequenced the SETD1A coding regions of 974 patients with schizophrenia. Then, we genotyped variants, prioritized via resequencing, in 2,027 patients with schizophrenia and 2,664 controls. Next, we examined the association between SETD1A and schizophrenia in 3,001 patients with schizophrenia and 2,664 controls. Finally, we performed a retrospective chart review of patients with prioritized SETD1A variants. We identified two novel missense variants (p.Ser575Pro and p.Glu857Gln) via resequencing. We did not detect these variants in 4,691 individuals via genotyping. These variants were not significantly associated with schizophrenia in the association analysis. Additionally, we found that a schizophrenia patient with the p.Glu857Gln variant had developmental delays. In conclusion, novel SETD1A missense variants were exclusively identified in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. However, our study does not provide evidence for the contribution of these variants to the genetic etiology of schizophrenia in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Esquizofrenia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Japão , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
17.
Nervenarzt ; 93(4): 331-340, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrated care according to the Hamburg model combines therapeutic assertive community treatment (TACT) with initiatives for early detection and early treatment of schizophrenia and affective psychoses. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics of adolescents in comparison to adult patients and to derive knowledge for transition-specific treatment approaches. METHODOLOGY: Sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as treatment performance and clinical outcome were investigated over a period of 12 months in 167 patients with psychoses (16-25 years, n = 88; and >25 years, n = 79). RESULTS: Patients with psychosis in adolescence had significantly more outpatient treatment contacts (3.5/week vs. 1.6/week; p < 0.001), while adults were hospitalized for twice as long (10 days vs. 21 days; p = 0.003). The duration of untreated psychoses was significantly shorter in the adolescent group than in adults (122 weeks vs. 208 weeks; p = 0.002). The proportion of comorbid mental disorders was significantly higher in the adolescent group (87% vs. 63%; p < 0.001). In addition, the adolescence patients already showed greater impairment of daily functions and a higher severity of illness at the start of treatment. DISCUSSION: The treatment of psychoses in adolescence was characterized by a particularly high need for flexibility across all sectors and support systems, taking comorbid problem areas into account. Care models for adolescents and young adults with psychoses should therefore combine treatment approaches for severely ill patients with transition psychiatric interventions to avoid breaks in care and to meet the complex requirements of young patients with severe mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Compr Psychiatry ; 115: 152308, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies analyzing the risk of prostate cancer in schizophrenia patients have generated mixed results. We performed a meta-analysis and a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the relationship and causality between schizophrenia and the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive and systematic search of cohort studies was conducted, and a random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to calculate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for prostate cancer incidence among schizophrenia patients versus the general population. To investigate the correlation between genetically-predicted schizophrenia and prostate cancer risk, we used summary statistics from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium (61,106 controls and 79,148 cases), and 75 schizophrenia-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from European descent as the instrumental variable. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies with 218,076 men involved, a decreased risk of prostate cancer was observed among schizophrenia patients [SIR 0.610; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.500-0.740; p < 0.001] with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 83.3%; p < 0.001). However, MR analysis did not sustain the link between genetically-predicted schizophrenia and prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) 1.033; 95% CI 0.998-1.069; p = 0.065]. The result was robust against extensive sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated a decreased risk of prostate cancer in schizophrenia patients through meta-analysis, while MR analysis did not support the connection between schizophrenia and prostate cancer. Due to the interaction of genetic variants between binary exposures, we need to be cautious in interpreting and presenting causal associations. Moreover, further research is needed to investigate underlying factors that might link schizophrenia to the risk of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Esquizofrenia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
19.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 4933011, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340410

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. HSPB1 (HSP27) is known for its neuroprotective functions under stress conditions and appears to play an important role during the development of the central nervous system, which is in agreement with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of SCZ. The aim of the present case-control study was to investigate whether HSPB1 variants contribute to the risk and clinical features (age of onset, symptoms, and suicidal behavior) of SCZ in a Polish population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that investigated the association between the HSPB1 polymorphisms and SCZ. Three SNPs of HSPB1 (rs2868370, rs2868371, and rs7459185) were genotyped in a total of 1082 (403 patients and 679 controls) unrelated subjects using TaqMan assays. The results showed that the genotypes, alleles, and haplotypes of the three SNPs were not significantly different between the schizophrenic patients and healthy controls either in the overall analysis or in the gender-stratified analysis (all p > 0.05). However, we did find a significant effect of the rs2868371 genotype on the age of onset, negative symptoms, and disorganized symptoms in the five-factor model of PANSS (all p < 0.01). Post hoc comparisons showed that carriers of the rs2868371 G/G genotype had significantly higher negative and disorganized factor scores than those with the C/G and C/C genotypes, respectively. Further investigations with other larger independent samples are required to confirm our findings and to better explore the effect of the HSPB1 polymorphisms on the risk and symptomatology of SCZ.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Polônia/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
20.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1767989, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299866

RESUMO

Objective: Oxidative stress factors and proinflammatory cytokines had been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). This study assumes that blood biochemical markers would have a link with TD in schizophrenia patients. To explore the correlation between blood biochemical markers and tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia (SCH). Methods: From January 2010 to August 2021, the inpatients who met the diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia in the Chinese Classification and Diagnosis Criteria of Mental Disorders (DSM-4) and the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-4) were followed up in the psychiatric outpatient department of Jinxia Street Community Health Service Center, Longhu District, Shantou City. The diagnostic criteria of Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) used in the TD study of Schooler and Kane were used to screen the patients. Patients were divided into the schizophrenia (SCH group) and the schizophrenia with TD groups (TD group). Oxidative stress factors including Superoxide Dismutase1 (SOD1), Glutathione Peroxidase1 (GPX1), Malondialdehyde1 (MDA1), Catalase Activity1 (CAT1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor 1 (BDNF1) and some inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), prolactin, estrogen, and cortisol were measured in 121 schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia and 118 schizophrenic patients. The correlation analysis was conducted on the data. Results: Age and female were immutable risk factors for the development of TD, and there were significant differences in blood biochemical indices GPX1, MDA1, CAT1, and TNF-α in schizophrenic patients with and without TD. Conclusion: This study supports that oxidative stress and immune disorders are associated with TD patients. Blood biochemical markers GPX1, MDA1, CAT1, and TNF-α may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia combined with TD patients, and they may be useful in the diagnosis of schizophrenia with tardive dyskinesia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Discinesia Tardia/epidemiologia , Discinesia Tardia/imunologia , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Discinesia Tardia/sangue
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