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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4637, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934226

RESUMO

An association between schizophrenia and subsequent breast cancer has been suggested; however the risk of schizophrenia following a breast cancer is unknown. Moreover, the driving forces of the link are largely unclear. Here, we report the phenotypic and genetic positive associations of schizophrenia with breast cancer and vice versa, based on a Swedish population-based cohort and GWAS data from international consortia. We observe a genetic correlation of 0.14 (95% CI 0.09-0.19) and identify a shared locus at 19p13 (GATAD2A) associated with risks of breast cancer and schizophrenia. The epidemiological bidirectional association between breast cancer and schizophrenia may partly be explained by the genetic overlap between the two phenotypes and, hence, shared biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fatores de Transcrição GATA/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suécia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21918, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899025

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic disability disorder related to oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a group enzyme that protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress damage. Among GSTs, GSTT1 and GSTM1 have well defined genetic polymorphisms. The purpose of our research was to explore the correlation between GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism and SCZ risk in Chinese Han population.A total of 650 subjects (386 SCZ patients and 264 healthy individuals) were included in this case-control designed study. The GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We explored the relationship between these 2 polymorphisms and the risk of SCZ.We found that the GSTT1 null genotype had a protective effect on the development of SCZ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.601, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.412-0.986, P = .031]. We also found that the combination of null genotypes of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was made at a lower risk of SCZ (OR = 0.452, 95% CI = 0.238-0.845, P = .028). However, we found no correction between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score (PANSS) and GSTM1, GSST1 genotypes in SCZ patients.Our finding revealed that GSTT1 null polymorphisms may be related to the reduced risk of SCZ in Chinese Han population, and this risk was further reduced with the combination of GSTT1 null polymorphisms and GSTM1 null polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco
3.
Science ; 369(6503): 561-565, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732423

RESUMO

Most neuropsychiatric disease risk variants are in noncoding sequences and lack functional interpretation. Because regulatory sequences often reside in open chromatin, we reasoned that neuropsychiatric disease risk variants may affect chromatin accessibility during neurodevelopment. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons that model developing brains, we identified thousands of genetic variants exhibiting allele-specific open chromatin (ASoC). These neuronal ASoCs were partially driven by altered transcription factor binding, overrepresented in brain gene enhancers and expression quantitative trait loci, and frequently associated with distal genes through chromatin contacts. ASoCs were enriched for genetic variants associated with brain disorders, enabling identification of functional schizophrenia risk variants and their cis-target genes. This study highlights ASoC as a functional mechanism of noncoding neuropsychiatric risk variants, providing a powerful framework for identifying disease causal variants and genes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008785, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628676

RESUMO

To efficiently transform genetic associations into drug targets requires evidence that a particular gene, and its encoded protein, contribute causally to a disease. To achieve this, we employ a three-step proteome-by-phenome Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach. In step one, 154 protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) were identified and independently replicated. From these pQTLs, 64 replicated locally-acting variants were used as instrumental variables for proteome-by-phenome MR across 846 traits (step two). When its assumptions are met, proteome-by-phenome MR, is equivalent to simultaneously running many randomized controlled trials. Step 2 yielded 38 proteins that significantly predicted variation in traits and diseases in 509 instances. Step 3 revealed that amongst the 271 instances from GeneAtlas (UK Biobank), 77 showed little evidence of pleiotropy (HEIDI), and 92 evidence of colocalization (eCAVIAR). Results were wide ranging: including, for example, new evidence for a causal role of tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type substrate 1 (SHPS1; SIRPA) in schizophrenia, and a new finding that intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) abundance contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We also demonstrated confirmatory evidence for the causal role of four further proteins (FGF5, IL6R, LPL, LTA) in cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteoma/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Feminino , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Linfotoxina-alfa/genética , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia
5.
Gene ; 757: 144934, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640307

RESUMO

Overexpression of DNA Methyltransferase I (DNMT1) is considered as one of the etiological factors for schizophrenia (SZ). However, information on genes subjected to dysregulation because of DNMT1 overexpression is limited. To test whether a larger group of SZ-associated genes are affected, we selected 15 genes reported to be dysregulated in patients (Gad1, Reln, Ank3, Cacna1c, Dkk3, As3mt, Ppp1r11, Smad5, Syn1, Wnt1, Pdgfra, Gsk3b, Cxcl12, Tcf4 and Fez1). Transcript levels of these genes were compared between neurons derived from Dnmt1tet/tet (Tet/Tet) mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that overexpress DNMT1 with R1 (wild-type) neurons. Transcript levels of thirteen genes were significantly altered in Tet/Tet neurons of which, the dysregulation patterns of 11 were similar to patients. Transcript levels of eight out of these eleven were also significantly altered in Tet/Tet ESCs, but the dysregulation patterns of only five were similar to neurons. Comparative analyses among ESCs, embryoid bodies and neurons divided the 15 genes into four distinct groups with a majority showing developmental stage-specific patterns of dysregulation. Reduced Representational Bisulfite Sequencing data from neurons did not show any altered promoter DNA methylation for the dysregulated genes. Doxycycline treatment of Tet/Tet ESCs that eliminated DNMT1, reversed the direction of dysregulation of only four genes (Gad1, Dkk3, As3mt and Syn1). These results suggest that 1. Increased DNMT1 affected the levels of a majority of the transcripts studied, 2. Dysregulation appears to be independent of promoter methylation, 3. Effects of increased DNMT1 levels were reversible for only a subset of the genes studied, and 4. Increased DNMT1 levels may affect transcript levels of multiple schizophrenia-associated genes.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Neurônios/citologia
6.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1629-1632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-534630

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the current analysis, we searched for SARS-CoV-2 sequences within the human genome. To compare the SARS-CoV-2 genome to the human genome, we used the blast-like alignment tool (BLAT) of the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser. BLAT can align a user sequence of 25 bases or more to the genome. BLAT search results revealed a 117-base pair SARS-CoV-2 sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b (open reading frames) gene. The SARS-CoV-2 human sequence lies within non-structural proteins 14 and 15 (NSP14 and NSP15), and is quite close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904-base pair sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and internalization of the complex by the host cell. It is probably no accident that a sequence from the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b gene is found in the human NTNG1 gene, implicated in schizophrenia, and that haloperidol, used to treat schizophrenia, may also be a treatment for COVID-19. We suggest, therefore, that it is important to investigate other haloperidol analogs. Among them are benperidol, bromperidol, bromperidol decanoate, droperidol, seperidol hydrochloride, and trifluperidol. These analogs might be valuable in the treatment of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Genes Virais , Netrina-1/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Complementar/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Haloperidol/análogos & derivados , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15028-15035, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522875

RESUMO

To correct for a large number of hypothesis tests, most researchers rely on simple multiple testing corrections. Yet, new methodologies of selective inference could potentially improve power while retaining statistical guarantees, especially those that enable exploration of test statistics using auxiliary information (covariates) to weight hypothesis tests for association. We explore one such method, adaptive P-value thresholding (AdaPT), in the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression/coexpression studies, with particular emphasis on schizophrenia (SCZ). Selected SCZ GWAS association P values play the role of the primary data for AdaPT; single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are selected because they are gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). This natural pairing of SNPs and genes allow us to map the following covariate values to these pairs: GWAS statistics from genetically correlated bipolar disorder, the effect size of SNP genotypes on gene expression, and gene-gene coexpression, captured by subnetwork (module) membership. In all, 24 covariates per SNP/gene pair were included in the AdaPT analysis using flexible gradient boosted trees. We demonstrate a substantial increase in power to detect SCZ associations using gene expression information from the developing human prefrontal cortex. We interpret these results in light of recent theories about the polygenic nature of SCZ. Importantly, our entire process for identifying enrichment and creating features with independent complementary data sources can be implemented in many different high-throughput settings to ultimately improve power.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Algoritmos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2889, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514083

RESUMO

Inhibitory interneurons orchestrate information flow across the cortex and are implicated in psychiatric illness. Although interneuron classes have unique functional properties and spatial distributions, the influence of interneuron subtypes on brain function, cortical specialization, and illness risk remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate stereotyped negative correlation of somatostatin and parvalbumin transcripts within human and non-human primates. Cortical distributions of somatostatin and parvalbumin cell gene markers are strongly coupled to regional differences in functional MRI variability. In the general population (n = 9,713), parvalbumin-linked genes account for an enriched proportion of heritable variance in in-vivo functional MRI signal amplitude. Single-marker and polygenic cell deconvolution establish that this relationship is spatially dependent, following the topography of parvalbumin expression in post-mortem brain tissue. Finally, schizophrenia genetic risk is enriched among interneuron-linked genes and predicts cortical signal amplitude in parvalbumin-biased regions. These data indicate that the molecular-genetic basis of brain function is shaped by interneuron-related transcripts and may capture individual differences in schizophrenia risk.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Parvalbuminas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Somatostatina/genética , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Interneurônios/citologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497066

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder affecting just under 1% of the population. While the symptoms of this disorder do not appear until late adolescence, pathological alterations likely occur earlier, during development in utero. While there is an increasing literature examining transcriptome alterations in patients, it is not possible to examine the changes in gene expression that occur during development in humans that will develop schizophrenia. Here we utilize three distinct rodent developmental disruption models of schizophrenia to examine potential overlapping alterations in the transcriptome, with a specific focus on markers of interneuron development. Specifically, we administered either methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), or chronic protein malnutrition, on GD 17 and examined mRNA expression in the developing hippocampus of the offspring 18 hours later. Here, we report alterations in gene expression that may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, including significant alterations in interneuron development and ribosome function.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Esquizofrenia/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Desnutrição/complicações , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/farmacologia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
10.
Gene ; 756: 144913, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574757

RESUMO

Schizophreniais a severe brain disease seen all over the world. There are studies showing that activator of transcription and developmental regulator AUTS2 (AUTS2) gene is involved in the predisposition to schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to analyze the correlation between rs6943555 variant of AUTS2 gene and schizophrenia in a Turkish population. This study include 100 schizophrenia patients and 152 unrelated healthy controls. The AUTS2 genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tests. Chi-square and Anova tests were used for statistical analyses. According to results, although the A allele frequency was higher in schizophrenia patients, we didn't detect statistically significant correlation between schizophrenia and the AUTS2 gene rs6943555 variant (p = 0.057). However after adjusting for gender, significant effects of genotype and allele were detected among males (p = 0.039 and p = 0.049, respectively). Also we observed a statistically significant correlation between HDL cholesterol values of patients and genotypes of rs6943555 variant (p = 0.016). As a result, rs6943555 variant of AUTS2 gene might affect the predisposition to schizophrenia especially in male patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Turquia
11.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1629-1632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503821

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the current analysis, we searched for SARS-CoV-2 sequences within the human genome. To compare the SARS-CoV-2 genome to the human genome, we used the blast-like alignment tool (BLAT) of the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser. BLAT can align a user sequence of 25 bases or more to the genome. BLAT search results revealed a 117-base pair SARS-CoV-2 sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b (open reading frames) gene. The SARS-CoV-2 human sequence lies within non-structural proteins 14 and 15 (NSP14 and NSP15), and is quite close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904-base pair sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and internalization of the complex by the host cell. It is probably no accident that a sequence from the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b gene is found in the human NTNG1 gene, implicated in schizophrenia, and that haloperidol, used to treat schizophrenia, may also be a treatment for COVID-19. We suggest, therefore, that it is important to investigate other haloperidol analogs. Among them are benperidol, bromperidol, bromperidol decanoate, droperidol, seperidol hydrochloride, and trifluperidol. These analogs might be valuable in the treatment of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Genes Virais , Netrina-1/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Complementar/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Haloperidol/análogos & derivados , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 885-892, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413284

RESUMO

Leveraging high-dimensional molecular datasets can help us develop mechanistic insight into associations between genetic variants and complex traits. In this study, we integrated human proteome data derived from brain tissue to evaluate whether targeted proteins putatively mediate the effects of genetic variants on seven neurological phenotypes (Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, depression, insomnia, intelligence, neuroticism, and schizophrenia). Applying the principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) systematically across the genome highlighted 43 effects between genetically predicted proteins derived from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and these outcomes. Furthermore, genetic colocalization provided evidence that the same causal variant at 12 of these loci was responsible for variation in both protein and neurological phenotype. This included genes such as DCC, which encodes the netrin-1 receptor and has an important role in the development of the nervous system (p = 4.29 × 10-11 with neuroticism), as well as SARM1, which has been previously implicated in axonal degeneration (p = 1.76 × 10-08 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). We additionally conducted a phenome-wide MR study for each of these 12 genes to assess potential pleiotropic effects on 700 complex traits and diseases. Our findings suggest that genes such as SNX32, which was initially associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease, may potentially influence other complex traits in the opposite direction. In contrast, genes such as CTSH (which was also associated with Alzheimer disease) and SARM1 may make worthwhile therapeutic targets because they did not have genetically predicted effects on any of the other phenotypes after correcting for multiple testing.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Variação Genética/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenômica , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Catepsina H/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Depressão/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuroticismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Nexinas de Classificação/genética
13.
Hum Genet ; 139(10): 1285-1297, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385526

RESUMO

During the past decade, genetic studies of schizophrenia have become one of the most exciting and fast-moving areas. Hundreds of genes implicated in schizophrenia have been identified by genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression studies. However, how to systematically and efficiently use these published data to pinpoint the causal genes becomes a major challenge in schizophrenia research. Here, we release an updated version of a comprehensive database for schizophrenia research, SZDB2.0 ( www.szdb.org ), which accompanies significant data expansion and feature improvements, as well as functionality optimization. Compared with the first version (SZDB), the current database has the following updates: (1) We added the newly published genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia from CLOZUK + PGC, which is the largest GWAS for schizophrenia; (2) We included a polygenic risk score calculator; (3) In the refined "Gene" module of SZDB2.0, we collated genetic, gene expression, methylation, and integrative results of all available schizophrenia studies; (4) In the "CNV (copy number variation)" module, we collated the results of all 77 CNV publications about schizophrenia; (5) We also updated other data, including gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), transcript QTL, methylation QTL, and protein-protein interaction data, based on the information from the latest literatures. We optimized the query interface of SZDB2.0 for a better visualization and data retrieval. The updated SZDB2.0 will advance the research of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Esquizofrenia/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Ontologia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008185, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392212

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and associated with a wide variety of social adversity and physical health problems. Using genetic liability (rather than phenotypic measures of disease) as a proxy for psychiatric disease risk can be a useful alternative for research questions that would traditionally require large cohort studies with long-term follow up. Here we conducted a hypothesis-free phenome-wide association study in about 330,000 participants from the UK Biobank to examine associations of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for five psychiatric disorders (major depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) with 23,004 outcomes in UK Biobank, using the open-source PHESANT software package. There was evidence after multiple testing (p<2.55x10-06) for associations of PRSs with 294 outcomes, most of them attributed to associations of PRSMDD (n = 167) and PRSSCZ (n = 157) with mental health factors. Among others, we found strong evidence of association of higher PRSADHD with 1.1 months younger age at first sexual intercourse [95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.25,-0.92] and a history of physical maltreatment; PRSASD with 0.01% lower erythrocyte distribution width [95%CI: -0.013,-0.007]; PRSSCZ with 0.95 lower odds of playing computer games [95%CI:0.95,0.96]; PRSMDD with a 0.12 points higher neuroticism score [95%CI:0.111,0.135] and PRSBP with 1.03 higher odds of having a university degree [95%CI:1.02,1.03]. We were able to show that genetic liabilities for five major psychiatric disorders associate with long-term aspects of adult life, including socio-demographic factors, mental and physical health. This is evident even in individuals from the general population who do not necessarily present with a psychiatric disorder diagnosis.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 172, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, a large number of common variants underlying complex diseases have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary data of the GWASs are freely and publicly available. The summary data is usually obtained through single marker analysis. Gene-based analysis offers a useful alternative and complement to single marker analysis. Results from gene level association tests can be more readily integrated with downstream functional and pathogenic investigations. Most existing gene-based methods fall into two categories: burden tests and quadratic tests. Burden tests are usually powerful when the directions of effects of causal variants are the same. However, they may suffer loss of statistical power when different directions of effects exist at the causal variants. The power of quadratic tests is not affected by the directions of effects but could be less powerful due to issues such as the large number of degree of freedoms. These drawbacks of existing gene based methods motivated us to develop a new powerful method to identify disease associated genes using existing GWAS summary data. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a new truncated statistic method (TS) by utilizing a truncated method to find the genes that have a true contribution to the genetic association. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that our proposed test outperforms other comparable tests. We applied TS and other comparable methods to the schizophrenia GWAS data and type 2 diabetes (T2D) GWAS meta-analysis summary data. TS identified more disease associated genes than comparable methods. Many of the significant genes identified by TS may have important mechanisms relevant to the associated traits. TS is implemented in C program TS, which is freely and publicly available online. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed truncated statistic outperforms existing methods. It can be employed to detect novel traits associated genes using GWAS summary data.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008727, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339168

RESUMO

The human 22q11.2 chromosomal deletion is one of the strongest identified genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Although the deletion spans a number of known genes, the contribution of each of these to the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) is not known. To investigate the effect of individual genes within this interval on the pathophysiology associated with the deletion, we analyzed their role in sleep, a behavior affected in virtually all psychiatric disorders, including the 22q11.2 DS. We identified the gene LZTR1 (night owl, nowl) as a regulator of night-time sleep in Drosophila. In humans, LZTR1 has been associated with Ras-dependent neurological diseases also caused by Neurofibromin-1 (Nf1) deficiency. We show that Nf1 loss leads to a night-time sleep phenotype nearly identical to that of nowl loss and that nowl negatively regulates Ras and interacts with Nf1 in sleep regulation. Furthermore, nowl is required for metabolic homeostasis, suggesting that LZTR1 may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to obesity associated with the 22q11.2 DS. Knockdown of nowl or Nf1 in GABA-responsive sleep-promoting neurons elicits the sleep phenotype, and this defect can be rescued by increased GABAA receptor signaling, indicating that Nowl regulates sleep through modulation of GABA signaling. Our results suggest that nowl/LZTR1 may be a conserved regulator of GABA signaling important for normal sleep that contributes to the 22q11.2 DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Sono/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurofibromina 1/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(1): 34-39, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193259

RESUMO

La esquizofrenia es considerada como un trastorno mental heterogéneo que abarca amplios rangos de expresión perceptiva, cognoscitiva, emocional, funcional, estructural y del comportamiento, que además se vincula a una importante susceptibilidad genética. Es por ello que investigar sobre esta enfermedad implique seleccionar cuidadosamente a la población de estudio para un adecuado análisis y generalización de los resultados. Este trabajo se propone exponer y discutir diversos sesgos de muestreo basados en evidencias empíricas que resultan, esencialmente, de la inclusión indiscriminada y generalizada de individuos en riesgo y de pacientes con esquizofrenia y/o trastornos relacionados, intentando proponer criterios de selección muestral más estrictos que garanticen una generalización confiable de los resultados. Consecuentemente, reflexionamos en particular sobre la relación entre pacientes con esquizofrenia y sus familiares de primer grado, debido a su similitud genética y las ventajas que esta ofrece para evaluar diversos factores ambientales vinculados a la aparición de la enfermedad


Schizophrenia is considered a heterogeneous mental disorder that encompasses wide ranges of perceptual, cognitive, emotional, functional, structural, and behavioural expressions, which is also associated with significant genetic susceptibility. For this reason, research on this disease involves carefully selecting the study population to perform an adequate analysis and generalisation of the results. This paper proposes to present and discuss various sampling biases based on empirical evidence that mainly result from the indiscriminate and widespread inclusion of at-risk individuals and patients with schizophrenia and/or related disorders, and at the same time trying to propose more stringent sample selection criteria that guarantee reliable results. Consequently, particularly focus is made on the relationship between patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives, due to their genetic similarity and the advantages it offers to evaluate various environmental factors linked to the onset of the disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Viés
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 84-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic remission is an achievable goal in the treatment of schizophrenia. The type of antipsychotic medication and particular genetic variants of the dopaminergic system might be associated with remission. Potential pharmacogenetic markers of the treatment response to antipsychotic medication are missing. This study assessed the possible association between dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2 rs1800497) and dopamine transporter (DAT1 rs28363170) gene variants with symptomatic remission in schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Olanzapine (5-20 mg/d) monotherapy was administered for 6 months to 150 male Caucasian subjects with schizophrenia. Remission was evaluated according to "Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group" criteria. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Symptomatic remission was found in 31% of patients. DRD2 rs1800497 and DAT1 rs28363170 gene variants were not significantly associated with symptomatic remission. The limitations are a relatively small sample size of patients with schizophrenia (N=150), especially of group with symptomatic remission (N=45). However, the study had moderate but adequate sample sizes for most of the comparisons. Only two dopaminergic polymorphisms were analyzed, and plasma concentration of olanzapine was not determined. CONCLUSION: These results revealed a lack of association between DRD2 rs1800497 and DAT1 rs28363170 genetic variants and symptomatic remission in male patients treated with olanzapine, suggesting that these genetic variants could not be used to predict symptomatic remission to olanzapine monotherapy. Negative results should be further confirmed or rejected in the larger samples, including haplotype analyses, to detect clinically useful and easy obtainable pharmacogenetic markers that might predict therapeutic response or remission in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Mutação , Olanzapina/administração & dosagem , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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