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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 8-29, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1150659

RESUMO

O presente artigo resulta de uma pesquisa intervenção de cunho qualitativo, realizada com quinze adolescentes de uma instituição localizada litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para coleta de dados foram realizadas oficinas musicais, nas quais os participantes escolheram letras de músicas para abordar questões a respeito de sua condição de vida, discorrendo sobre o território onde vivem, a percepção que têm de si e do tempo e sobre as suas redes sociais de apoio. Em um corte temático para efeitos deste artigo, as redes sociais de apoio foram eleitas como a temática a ser analisada e discutida por meio da análise temático-categorial. Os resultados apontaram para um espaço escolar com uma função indefinida, pautado na contestação das regras e normas que são impostas, onde ocorrem brincadeiras e intrigas. Quanto à rede de amigos, observou-se que essa relação é baseada nos sentimentos de confiança e de lealdade, se configurando como uma rede essencial nesse ciclo da vida, assim como a família que se apresenta como um fator de proteção, mesmo perpassando situações conflituosas, de violência, mortes e separações.(AU)


The proposal of this paper is a result from a qualitative intervention research conducted with fifteen teenagers from an institution located north coast of Santa Catarina. For data collection, music workshops were made and the participants chose music lyrics that address questions about their life condition, talking about the place where they live, their perception of themselves, their perception of the time and of the social support networks. In a cutting theme for the proposes of this article, the social support networks were chosen as the theme to be analyzed and discussed by thematic-categorical analysis. The results pointed to a school area with an undefined function, based on the contestation of the rules and regulations that are imposed, where the games and intrigues happen. Referring to the friends network, observed that this relation is based on feelings of trust and loyalty, setting up as a essential network in the life cycle, as well as the family that presents itself as a protective factor, even through conflict situations , violence, deaths an separations.(AU)


El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación de intervención con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con quince adolescentes de una institución localizada en litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para la coleta de dados fueron realizados talleres musicales, en los cuales los miembros preferirán letras de canciones que enfoquen cuestiones con respecto a su condición de vida, disertando sobre los lugares donde viven, la percepción que tienen de sí propio, del tiempo y sus redes de apoyo social. En un tema de corte para los efectos de este artículo, se eligieron las redes de apoyo social como el tema para ser analizado y debatido por el análisis de temáticas-categóricas. Los resultados apuntaron para un espacio escolar con una función indefinida, pautado en la contestación de las reglas y normas que son impuestas, donde hay juegos y chismes. Cuanto a la rede de amistades, se ha observado que esta relación se basa en los sentimientos de confianza y de lealtad, se perfila como una red esencial en el ciclo de vida, así como la familia es presentada como un factor de protección, incluso impregna situaciones contradictorias, con violencia, muertes y separaciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Rede Social , Música , Fatores de Proteção , Relações Interpessoais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 125012, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773265

RESUMO

Sugarcane is an important cash crop used for producing sweeteners and also some bioproducts (alcohol and bioenergy). The current study assesses life cycle energy, carbon and water footprint of sugarcane based sugar, ethanol and electricity in India. A farm to factory gate attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to assess the energy and carbon footprints whereas the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) CropWat model is used to estimate the water footprint (green, blue and grey). For the base case, electricity has the highest energy return on investment (EROI), lowest carbon and water footprints among the bioproducts. The choice of allocation method (economic, mass, and energy) impacts the energy and environmental outcomes of the bioproducts. The comparison among four different sugarcane seasons shows that bioproducts available from Adsali sugarcane have the highest EROI, lowest carbon and water footprints. The findings could lead to improved sustainability of sugarcane bioproducts in India.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Saccharum , Animais , Carbono , Eletricidade , Etanol , Índia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Açúcares , Água
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693804

RESUMO

Diurnal temperature amplitude is known to have a large influence on insect life history. Population density affects intraspecific competition and many other aspects of insect life history. However, there is limited information on the interactive effects of these factors on insects. Here, we tested the interactive effects of three diurnal temperature amplitudes (22 ± 0°C, 22 ± 6°C, and 22 ± 12°C) and three population densities on the development, survival, longevity, and fecundity of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Homoptera: Aphididae). At a constant temperature, increasing population density reduced the growth and survival of early-instar nymphs, increased longevity, and reduced fecundity. At a low population density, increasing temperature amplitude inhibited nymph development. However, even at a high temperature amplitude, nymph survival rate was higher than expected, and reproduction was possible because the recovery of the lower night-temperatures eliminated thermal stress. Increasing the population density reduced, and even reversed, the negative effects of the wide temperature amplitude. This may reflect synergistic interactions between population density and wide temperature amplitude as these stressors each incur energetic costs. These findings emphasize the importance of temperature amplitude and population density for improving prediction accuracy and damage assessment during pest control modeling.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Afídeos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
4.
Water Res ; 196: 116991, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735623

RESUMO

Decentralised wastewater management (DWM) systems are deployed in areas where the topography does not allow for gravity flow to a centralised system, or requires a complex and expensive pumping station network. Also, DWM systems are often the only option in rural areas where there are no sewage transport networks. This paper aims at addressing the question of the degree to which DWM systems can be considered as viable alternatives from an environmental point of view using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. First, the environmental sustainability is investigated to identify environmental hotspots in two (nature-based and engineered) onsite DWM systems. Second, DWM scenarios are compared against centralised wastewater management (CWM) scenarios using a whole-systems approach. Finally the boundary conditions under which a given DWM scenario performs better than a CWM scenario are discussed. Results show CWM scenarios were less sustainable than DWM scenarios on the resources endpoint due to their sewer infrastructures, however CWM scenarios performed better than DWM scenarios on the ecosystems quality endpoint due to their well-managed air emissions and discharges. While on human health no clear conclusion could be drawn. Finally, for relatively few households (subject of the study in rural areas) CWM scenarios did not score superior performances compared to DWM scenarios on all three endpoint indicators. Yet for a greater number of households it was impossible to decide in favour of decentralisation because of a lack of favourable consensus on all three endpoint indicators.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Esgotos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112238, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714044

RESUMO

Increasing amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) has gained widely concern on reduction, utilization and minimizing environmental impacts associated with waste management. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to evaluate total environmental impact of municipal waste management (MSWM) options in strategy-planning and decision-making process. The exiting LCA studies have covered a large range of detailed focus from waste treatment technology to applied modelling methods in LCA of MSWM, yet an important concern for stakeholders, the relationship between practical management strategies and their LCA results, has not been comprehensively summarized. This paper reviews recent LCA studies focusing on MSWM system in 45 cases from both developing and developed regions to promote evolution of the MSWM system through modification of waste management strategies. Selected literatures conducted LCA with system boundary covering the whole MSWM system rather than single treatment process or specific type of waste. This review has explored distribution and evolution of LCA studies in waste management field and summarized critical parameters (system boundary, functional unit, assessment approach and data uncertainty) for conducting LCA of MSWM system. Comparison results from 45 worldwide cases indicated 33%-154% environmental benefit in Global warming potential (GWP) impact with implement of integrated solid waste management system to replace single landfill, incineration, or open dumping treatment. Key issues with upgrading of MSWM system have been highlighted to raise concern, i.e., the importance of targeted management strategy on organic and recyclable waste, the growing contribution of waste collection and transportation to the total environmental impact, as well as promoting multi-impacts assessment for MSWM system to achieve environmentally effective, economically affordable, and socially acceptable. Rather than focus on technical factors, results from this study indicated the key influences from understanding local limitation, environmental concern, management chain and comprehensive impact, providing useful strategies on improving MSWM with generalization results of LCA studies.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Cidades , Incineração , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Resíduos Sólidos
6.
Parasite ; 28: 15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666550

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a chronic zoonosis. The lifecycle of the E. granulosus parasite includes three consecutive stages that require specific gene regulation or protein expression to survive environmental shifts between definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study is to screen and analyze the stage differential antigens to be considered for vaccine development against E. granulosus. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) method, the differentially expressed proteins were selected from the three consecutive developmental stages of E. granulosus: oncosphere, adult tapeworms, and protoscolex. Through a bioinformatics analysis including Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and pathway metabolic annotation, we identified some proteins of interest from each stage. The results showed that a large number of differentially expressed proteins (375: oncosphere vs. adult, 346: oncosphere vs. protoscolex, and 391: adult vs. protoscolex) were identified from the three main lifecycle stages. Analysis of the differential protein pathways showed that these differential proteins are mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, Huntington's diseases, Alzheimer's diseases, and ribosome metabolic pathways. Interestingly, among these differential proteins, expression levels of paramyosin, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, cathepsin L1, cathepsin D, casein kinase, and calmodulin were significantly higher in the oncosphere than in the adult or protoscolex (p < 0.05). We hope our findings will help to identify potential targets for diagnosis or for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Proteômica , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144747, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736364

RESUMO

The transformation of ecosystems is known to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. Consequently, supporting tools such as life cycle assessment methods (LCA) include this aspect in the evaluation of a product's environmental performance. Such methods consist of quantifying input and output flows to assess their specific contributions to impact categories. Therefore, land occupation and transformation are considered as inputs to assess biodiversity impacts amongst others. However, the modelling of biodiversity impact in deep seafloor ecosystems is still lacking in LCA. Most of the LCA methods focus on terrestrial biodiversity and none of them can be transposed to benthic deep sea because of knowledge gaps. This manuscript proposes a LCA framework to assess biodiversity impacts in deep seafloor ecosystems. The framework builds upon the existing methods accounting for biodiversity impacts in terrestrial and coastal habitats. A two-step approach is proposed, assessing impacts on regional and on global biodiversity. While the evaluation of regional biodiversity impacts relies only on the benthic communities' response to disturbance, the global perspective considers ecosystem vulnerability and scarcity. Those provide additional perspective for the comparison of impacts occurring in different ecosystems. The framework is operationalised to a case study for deep-sea mining in the Clarion Clipperton Fractures Zone (CCZ). Through the large variety of data sources needed to run the impact evaluation modelling, the framework shows consistency and manages the existing limitations in the understanding of deep seafloor ecosystems, although limitations for its application in the CCZ were observed mainly due to the lack of finer scaled habitat maps and data on connectivity. With growing interest for commercial activities in the deep sea and hence, increased environmental research, this work is a first attempt for the implementation of LCA methods to deep-sea products.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mineração
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681890

RESUMO

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Expressão Gênica , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Psychodidae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
9.
Waste Manag ; 124: 314-324, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647557

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important challenge in developing and emerging countries, where two realities co-exist. On the one hand, their metropolitan cities exhibit an integrated MSW system with a specialized fleet for the collection and landfills for the final disposal, concentrating on environmental initiatives such as municipal recycling programs. On the other hand, their regional cities show an MSW system based on adapted transports for collection and open dumps for final disposal. Besides, they face other environmental problems due to local conditions. This research proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to close the gap between these two realities. In particular, we study the city of Valdivia (Chile), one of the main regional capitals of South America, which shares similarities with other southern regional cities in the Global South. This city disposes 95% of its MSW in open dumps and presents one of the highest environmental pollution rates in Latin America. We analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy performance of six scenarios, seeking a solution for these problems. The results obtained show that a waste-to-energy scenario would generate savings of GHG emission and particulate matter, reaching 11.3% and 21.8%, respectively. Using our LCA approach, we can provide environmental evidence to highlight the importance of improving MSW management in regional cities, closing the gap with MSW management in metropolitan cities, and contributing to national targets such as United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Nationally-Determined Contributions.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Cidades , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , América do Sul
10.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 48-58, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535233

RESUMO

To date, all free-living adult hairworms have been reported from aquatic habitats. However, in Oklahoma, a recently described gordiid, Gordius terrestris, is consistently encountered in terrestrial habitats. We found this gordiid species has a unique egg morphology, unlike that of any other hairworm species, with an outer shell separated by distinct space from a thick inner membrane surrounding the developing larva. Because of this unique egg morphology and the occurrence of free-living hairworms in terrestrial habitats, it was hypothesized that G. terrestris represents the first report of a hairworm species with a terrestrial life cycle. In this study, we observed thousands of free-living adult worms in terrestrial habitats such as wet lawns and underneath wet sod during the winter. We found evidence of worms mating in these terrestrial habitats, followed by female worms burrowing and ovipositing in the soil. In the laboratory, significantly more females burrowed in the soil than males, providing a plausible explanation for the extreme male-biased sex ratio observed for free-living worms found on wet lawns. Finally, we collected terrestrial earthworms infected with the cyst stage of this gordiid species in the field and confirmed those observations by infecting earthworms with G. terrestris larvae in the laboratory. Taken together, these observations strongly support the hypothesis that G. terrestris has a terrestrial life cycle.


Assuntos
Helmintos/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Oligoquetos/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Oklahoma , Chuva , Estações do Ano
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124783, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535151

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the potential environmental benefits of implementing low-cost digesters to valorize agro-industrial waste in the non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) sector. Two scenarios were considered: i) the current scenario in which organic waste and wastewater were burned outdoor and discharged into a water body, respectively; ii) the anaerobic digestion (AD) scenario, in which low-cost biodigesters were used for organic waste and wastewater treatment on-site. Results showed that low-cost digesters were a sustainable alternative to mitigate environmental impacts, especially those associated with water source pollution. Indeed, in the AD scenario, the environmental impact categories of Freshwater Eutrophication and Marine Eutrophication showed a decrease of 87.6% and 99.4%, respectively, compared to the current scenario. Thus, by treating organic waste and wastewater on-site while producing bioproducts (i.e. biofuel and biofertilizer), low-cost digesters could contribute to boosting the circular bioeconomy in the NCS production sector.


Assuntos
Bengala , Açúcares , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(3): 501-514, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600357

RESUMO

In its 30 years of existence, there are still many improvement possibilities in studies performing the life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Hence, this paper aims to start a guideline development for LCA of urban WWTPs based on the information available in the scientific literature on the topic. The authors used the ProKnow-C systematic review methodology for paper selection and 111 studies were analyzed. The most significant points that can be improved are caused by missing essential information (e.g. functional unity and input data). Other important methodological aspects are covered: allocation process, functional unit choice, sensitivity analysis, and important fluxes to be considered. Many opportunities within the LCA of WWTPs were identified, such as optimization of WWTP operational aspects and resource recovery. Furthermore, LCA should be combined with other methodologies such as big data, data envelopment analysis, life cycle cost assessment, and social life cycle assessment. To achieve this potential, it is clear that the scientific and technical community needs to converge on a new protocol to ensure that LCA application becomes more reliable and transparent.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Purificação da Água , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e025020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605389

RESUMO

Gurltia paralysans is the causal agent of gurltiosis in domestic cats in South America. Although the life cycle of G. paralysans is unknown, it is thought that gastropods could act as intermediate hosts (IHs), as is the case for several nematodes in the Angiostrongylidae family. The aim of this study was to search for G. paralysans larvae in terrestrial gastropods and determine their role in the life cycle of this nematode species. Terrestrial gastropod samples (n=835) were collected in Punucapa, Valdivia, southern Chile, where cases of gurltiosis had been reported before. The samples included species from the families Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae and Milacidae. All gastropods were subjected to enzymatic digestion to isolate G. paralysans larvae. Ten percent of the gastropod samples were analyzed using seminested PCR targeting the 28S rRNA gene, while 2.6% were analyzed by histopathological examination. The results indicated the absence of G. paralysans when using any of the three methods. In conclusion, further studies are needed to evaluate specific species of aquatic or native gastropods acting as possible IHs (in this geographic location).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Gastrópodes , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Chile , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
14.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 60, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574331

RESUMO

Caligus rogercresseyi, commonly known as sea louse, is an ectoparasite copepod that impacts the salmon aquaculture in Chile, causing losses of hundreds of million dollars per year. In this study, we report a chromosome-scale assembly of the sea louse (C. rogercresseyi) genome based on single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) and proximity ligation (Hi-C) analysis. Coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs, and specifically long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified through whole transcriptome sequencing from different life stages. A total of 23,686 protein-coding genes and 12,558 non-coding RNAs were annotated. In addition, 6,308 lncRNAs and 5,774 miRNAs were found to be transcriptionally active from larvae to adult stages. Taken together, this genomic resource for C. rogercresseyi represents a valuable tool to develop sustainable control strategies in the salmon aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Copépodes/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cromossomos , Copépodes/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Salmão/parasitologia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112058, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548752

RESUMO

To diversify and decarbonize its energy system, Colombia plans a sizeable increase in wind power by installing onshore wind farms in the Guajira region. While presumably superior to other alternatives in terms of environmental performance, this assumption cannot be tested due to the lack of studies in this region. To assess the potential environmental performance of wind power in Colombia, we conduct a hybrid life cycle assessment of a wind farm of 19.5 MW of installed capacity for various impacts. We include both direct (required on-site) and indirect (required in the supply-chain) services associated with the life cycle of the wind farm for completeness, an unprecedented feature in the LCA literature. The results show that the wind farm is associated with low global warming impacts (12.93 gr CO2 eq/kWh) compared with similar studies, mainly due to high wind speeds. Moreover, the inclusion of both direct and indirect services increases the environmental impacts across indicators (with respect to the results without services) from 0% (carcinogenic effects) to 21% (terrestrial eutrophication). Further, sensitivity analysis suggests that the results are highly dependant on the capacity factor, lifespan, and percentage of losses. We conclude that the inclusion of both direct and indirect services is not negligible in the life cycle assessment of wind farms and similar projects, particularly given the substantial services required, such as surveying, legal compliance, etc. Given the difficulty to obtain data on services, we conclude with some recommendations aimed at relevant stakeholders, such as tax benefits and public procurement guidelines.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Colômbia , Eutrofização , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108080, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548219

RESUMO

Schistosome parasites are complex trematode blood flukes responsible for the disease schistosomiasis; a global health concern prevalent in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. While established transcriptomic databases are accessed ad hoc to facilitate studies characterising specific genes or gene families, a more comprehensive systematic updating of gene annotation and survey of the literature to aid in annotation and context is rarely addressed. We have reanalysed an online transcriptomic dataset originally published in 2009, where seven life cycle stages of Schistosoma japonicum were examined. Using the online pathway analysis tool Reactome, we have revisited key data from the original study. A key focus of this study was to improve the interpretation of the gene expression profile of the developmental lung-stage schistosomula, since it is one of the principle targets for worm elimination. Highly enriched transcripts, associated with lung schistosomula, were related to a number of important biological pathways including host immune evasion, energy metabolism and parasitic development. Revisiting large transcriptomic databases should be considered in the context of substantial new literature. This approach could aid in the improved understanding of the molecular basis of parasite biology. This may lead to the identification of new targets for diagnosis and therapies for schistosomes, and other helminths.


Assuntos
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Schistosoma japonicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Degranulação Celular/fisiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/fisiologia , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/imunologia
17.
Waste Manag ; 124: 293-302, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640669

RESUMO

This study quantifies and compares the cost of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems under different scenarios using life cycle cost (LCC) analysis approach. LCC analysis was performed for six integrated MSW management scenarios for Mumbai city, India which generates over 9000 metric tonnes of MSW daily and disposes most of it in open dumps. The scenarios are the combinations of recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration with electricity generation, and landfill with biogas recovery. To perform LCC analysis of scenarios, present worth method was used. The present worth of operations and maintenance (O&M) cost and revenue generated was estimated using a discount rate of 11.25% for a 20-year life span. Results show that the incineration based scenario is the most cost-intensive option with a net LCC of US$38 per tonne of MSW due to the high capital cost involved in case of incineration. While the scenario with a combination of recycling and sanitary landfill was the most economically viable option with a net LCC of US$19 per tonne of MSW due to comparative lower operating cost. The sensitivity analysis shows that the O&M cost was the most sensitive parameter and a change of ±10% and ±20% in O&M cost, the net LCC of scenarios changes in the range of 14-33% and 29-65%, respectively. This study provides an economic comparison of MSW treatment scenarios from a life cycle perspective, which facilitates the decision-making process for improvement in cost estimation and planning of waste management strategies in India.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Cidades , Custos e Análise de Custo , Índia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
18.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 40(1): 29-42, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639071

RESUMO

In early December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) commenced in Wuhan, China, and WHO declared the outbreak a pandemic and Public Health Emergency of International Concern. An ample number of clinical trials with multiple drugs is underway to overcome the current perilous condition. Still, the situation is alarming with no therapeutic measure in our hand at present. Keeping the present scenario in mind, this review comprises the research, clinical knowledge, and repurposed herbals with regard to COVID-19. Preventive measures such as yoga, nasal breathing, and herbal administration could also provide protection and beneficial effects against coronavirus. Innumerable clinical trials are ongoing to manage COVID-19 and the drugs were selected on the basis of life cycle of coronavirus. The selection of herbals was done on the basis of the previous reported pharmacological activities and docking study. The results concluded that garlic, liquorice, and Ashwagandha have a potential against SARS-CoV-2, which was further proved via a docking study and their reported biological functions. The very well-known fact "prevention is always better than cure" is applied to overcome with coronavirus infection. It is expected that following the preventive measures could impede or lessen the adverse effect of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia , /tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Ioga
19.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112171, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609975

RESUMO

Microalgae biomass (MB) is a promising source of renewable energy, especially when the cultivation is associated with wastewater treatment. However, microalgae wastewater technologies still have much to improve. Additionally, microalgae biomass valorization routes need to be optimized to be a sustainable and feasible source of green bioenergy. Thus, this paper aimed to evaluate the environmental impacts of the production of briquettes from MB, cultivated during domestic wastewater treatment. Also, it was evaluated how much the drying of the MB affected the life cycle and the environment. Improvements in the life cycle to mitigate the environmental impacts of this energy route were proposed. Cradle-to-gate modeling was applied to obtain a life cycle assessment (LCA) from cultivation to the valorization of MB, through its transformation into a solid biofuel. With LCA, it was possible to identify which technical aspect of the process needs to be optimized so that environmental sustainability can be achieved. Two scenarios were compared, one with the microalgae growth in a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) (scenario 1) and the other in a hybrid reactor, formed by a HRAP and a biofilm reactor (BR) (scenario 2). LCA highlighted the electric power mix, representing, on average, 60% of the total environmental impacts in both scenarios. The valorization of MB in briquettes needs to consume less energy to offset its yield. The environment suffered pressure in freshwater eutrophication, due to the release of 3.1E-05 and 3.9E-05 kg of phosphorus equivalent; in fossil resources scarcity, with the extraction of 1.4E-02 and 4.5E-02 kg of oil equivalent; and in climate change, by the emission of 1.0E-01 and 1.9E-01 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent, in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Scenario 1 was highly damaging to terrestrial ecotoxicity, with the release of 3.5E-01 kg of 1,4 Dichlorobenzene, coming from the CO2 used in MB growth. This category was the one that most negatively pressured the environment, differing from scenario 2, in which this input was not required. This was the only impact category in which scenario 2 had a better environmental performance when compared to scenario 1. Cotton, required in scenario 2, represented up to 87% of emissions in some of the evaluated categories. Despite the impacts that occurred in the two modeled scenarios, the environmental gains due to the use of wastewater for microalgae growth, replacing the synthetic cultivation medium, stood out. In the sensitivity analysis, two alternative scenarios were proposed: (i) electricity consumption for drying has been reduced, due to the natural decrease of MB humidity, and (ii) MB briquettes were considered a substitute for coal briquettes. Results indicated that pressures on climate change and fossil resource scarcity were eliminated in both scenarios and this also occurred for freshwater eutrophication in scenario 2. This paper contributes to the improvement and development of converting MB routes into more sustainable products, causing less pressure on the environment. Also, the study contributes to filling a gap in the literature, discussing methods and technologies to be improved, and consequently making microalgae biotechnology environmentally feasible and a potential renewable energy alternative.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Águas Residuárias
20.
J Biomed Sci ; 28(1): 9, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaining further insights into SARS-CoV-2 routes of infection and the underlying pathobiology of COVID-19 will support the design of rational treatments targeting the life cycle of the virus and/or the adverse effects (e.g., multi-organ collapse) that are triggered by COVID-19-mediated adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or other pathologies. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 is a two-phase disease being marked by (phase 1) increased virus transmission and infection rates due to the wide expression of the main infection-related ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L human genes in tissues of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, as well as by (phase 2) host- and probably sex- and/or age-specific uncontrolled inflammatory immune responses which drive hyper-cytokinemia, aggressive inflammation and (due to broad organotropism of SARS-CoV-2) collateral tissue damage and systemic failure likely because of imbalanced ACE/ANGII/AT1R and ACE2/ANG(1-7)/MASR axes signaling. CONCLUSION: Here we discuss SARS-CoV-2 life cycle and a number of approaches aiming to suppress viral infection rates or propagation; increase virus antigen presentation in order to activate a robust and durable adaptive immune response from the host, and/or mitigate the ARDS-related "cytokine storm" and collateral tissue damage that triggers the severe life-threatening complications of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , /fisiologia , /complicações , /virologia , Humanos , /isolamento & purificação
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